Stephan Pauleit

Stephan Pauleit
Technische Universität München | TUM · Strategie und Management der Landschaftsentwicklung

About

255
Publications
171,605
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
11,778
Citations

Publications

Publications (255)
Article
Full-text available
Urban spaces are often dominated by paved surfaces and ongoing processes of densification; consequently, intensifying the urban heat island effect. In order to strengthen the liveability of urban spaces, an adequate amount of green spaces is needed. Trees in planters are an alternative greening solution; however, the lack of root space due to under...
Article
Full-text available
Impact assessment is a key step in mainstreaming urban nature-based solutions (NBS). Yet, it remains unclear if and how assessment frameworks influence urban planning, design and management. We contend that the potential of current NBS assessment frameworks is not fully exploited due to: (1) limited contextualisation of monitoring and assessment to...
Article
Full-text available
Crown shapes of common European urban tree species differ from tree species to tree species and are modified by the age of a tree and its local environment. A tree’s crown shape has a great influence on the crown volume and thus on the ecosystem service provision of a tree such as the shade area or the shade density. We used the data of 3852 tree i...
Article
Full-text available
Green infrastructure (GI) has emerged as a feasible strategy for promoting adaptive capacities of cities to climate change by alleviating urban heat island (UHI) and thus heat stress for humans. However, GI can also intensify the winter cold stress. To understand the extent of UHI within a city as well as the link between outdoor thermal stress bot...
Article
Full-text available
Planners and engineers increasingly discovered nature as a source of inspiration to mitigate hydro-meteorological risks resulting from extreme weather events. Actors are realizing advantages of such solutions known as Nature-Based Solutions (NBS) to rapidly adapt to changing climate patterns and related impacts such as flooding, landslides, mudflow...
Poster
Full-text available
Strategien zur Klimawandelanpassung im urbanen Raum erfordern die vermehrte Verwendung von Vegetation zur Verminderung von Hitzebelastungen und für den Regenwasserrückhalt nach Starkregenereignissen. In den bayerischen Ballungsräumen steht das Grün aber aufgrund des Bevölkerungswachstums durch bauliche Nachverdichtung bzw. hochverdichtete Bauweisen...
Article
Full-text available
Urban river restorations focus on restoring aquatic and riparian habitats, increasing flood protection, and enhancing recreational potential. The increased recreational value such newly created urban green spaces is a key benefit of these measures as urban riparian areas are highly valued for recreation. However, high recreational pressure may cont...
Article
Full-text available
Mountain areas are highly exposed to flood risks. The latter are increasing in the context of climate change, urbanization, and land use changes. Non-structural approaches such as nature-based solutions can provide opportunities to reduce the risks of such natural hazards and provide further ecological, social, and economic benefits. However, few n...
Article
Urban trees are supposed to have an important regulating function for the urban microclimate, carbon sequestration and a number of other ecosystem services. Vice versa, urban trees suffer from droughts that are typically enhanced within the urban heat island. In the present study, we examined how ecosystem services cooling and carbon sequestration...
Chapter
Cities are characterised by a high concentration of human population, dense development and a wide range of human activities. Urban development finds its spatial expression in area growth, densification, but also in the phenomenon of “shrinking”. These spatial processes are not mutually exclusive, but can take place simultaneously and are also inte...
Chapter
Sensitivity to external disturbances such as floods, heat waves, summer droughts, tsunamis or hurricanes is very high in sensitive urban ecosystems. Urban ecosystems are generally vulnerable due to their open material cycles. In particular, the chapter provides insights which effects the foreseeable climate change will have on cities and how they c...
Chapter
Urbanisation is one of the defining phenomena of the twenty-first century, which has affected all regions of the world. With a world population growing to more than nine billion people, there is also no serious alternative to the city as a human habitat. From an ecological perspective it is also the most effective and efficient form of organization...
Chapter
The spatial form and the ecological features of the city are closely related. Not only biodiversity, urban soils, climate, and hydrology, but also the energy and material flows of the city are influenced in different ways by the spatial composition of different land uses, built-up area, the degree of surface sealing, the proportion and type of gree...
Article
Full-text available
AVAILABLE AS OPEN ACCESS ARTICLE Concepts such as green infrastructure, nature-based solutions, and ecosystem services gained popularity in recent discourses on urban planning. Despite their recognition as innovative concepts, all of them share a degree of ambiguity. Fuzziness can be a weakness but also an opportunity to shape novel concepts togeth...
Article
Green spaces fulfill an important role in regulating the urban microclimate, however they are under high pressure in growing cities. As much as densification is a threat towards existing green spaces, it also offers the possibility to redesign residential areas in a climate-responsive way. To do so, urban green infrastructure needs to be incorporat...
Article
Full-text available
A variety of counting methods exist to analyze visitor numbers of outdoor settings such as national parks, recreation areas and urban green spaces, with sensor-based approaches being the most frequently applied. In this paper, we describe the application and practicality of camera traps originally designed for wildlife monitoring for visitor manage...
Article
Urban trees are important, green features of cities. However, knowledge of the size development of frequently planted tree species, which is the basis for modeling environmental benefits of urban trees, is mostly limited. Within this study, allometric relationships for tree structures like tree height, crown parameters, and leaf area were developed...
Article
Urban greenspaces showed the potential to lessen the urban heat island effect. However, a detailed understanding on the mechanisms of different components of greenspaces such as grass surfaces, trees or a combination of grey and green infrastructure on reducing heat loads at local and city scale and different weather conditions is still limited. We...
Technical Report
Full-text available
This deliverable report, D3.5 Lessons learned with the Living Labs experience, evaluates the first phase of stakeholder participation and the first Living Labs user experiences in the EU-H2020 projeect PHUSICOS. First, the the deliverable report describes the starting point of stakeholder engagement processes and especially their initial knowledge...
Chapter
Urban green infrastructure (UGI) aims to strategically develop green and blue space networks that contribute to human health and wellbeing, urban sustainability and climate resilience. However, evidence on UGI research and application in the cities of the Global South is limited. An overview of the development of UGI in the three regions of Latin A...
Article
Full-text available
Key message A model for sustainable planning of urban tree stocks is proposed, incorporating growth, mortality, replacement rates and ecosystem service provision, providing a basis for planning of urban tree stocks. Abstract Many recent studies have improved the knowledge about urban trees, their structures, functions, and ecosystem services. We i...
Article
Full-text available
The demand for living space is rising in growing cities. To restrict urban expansion in the outskirts, a common strategy is to densify existing neighbourhoods. Densification implies the increase of water impervious area which increases the vulnerability to flooding during extreme precipitation events. Sustainable urban drainage systems are consider...
Article
Full-text available
Extremely high temperatures, which negatively affect the human health and plant performances, are becoming more frequent in cities. Urban green infrastructure, particularly trees, can mitigate this issue through cooling due to transpiration, and shading. Temperature regulation by trees depends on feedbacks among the climate, water supply, and plant...
Article
Full-text available
Urban green spaces reduce elevated urban temperature through evaporative cooling and shading and are thus promoted as nature-based solutions to enhance urban climates. However, in growing cities, the supply of urban green space often conflicts with increasing housing demand. This study investigates the interplay of densification and the availabilit...
Book
This textbook answers important questions about the ecological structure, functions and socio-ecological development of cities worldwide. It explains ecological challenges for cities of the 21st century such as resource efficiency, climate change, moderation of quality of life and resilience. The book combines theories of urban development and ecol...
Article
Full-text available
Living Labs are recognized as a progressive form to foster innovation and the strengthening of collaborative planning. The concept has received strong attention by the European Union (EU) research and innovation agendas recently. This contribution investigates how a Living Lab approach could be used for the design and implementation of Nature-Based...
Chapter
A concept that has had considerable influence on the potential of greenspace to help meet urban challenges is that of green infrastructure, which emerged in the USA in the 1990s as a way to help combat uncontrolled urban sprawl. The concept of green-space-as-infrastructure only strengthened as it began being promoted by the US Environmental Protect...
Chapter
Climate change in combination with increasing urbanization is a major challenge for our cities. Ecosystem services from the urban green play a significant role in mitigating the negative effects. Urban tree growth models are appropriate tools for the quantification of ecosystem services in some cases in dependence of the plant growth dynamics and o...
Article
Full-text available
Nature-based solutions (NBS) are inspired and supported by nature but designed by humans. Historically, governmental stakeholders have aimed to control nature using a top-down approach; more recently, environmental governance has shifted to collaborative planning. Polycentric governance and co-creation procedures, which include a large spectrum of...
Chapter
Full-text available
Le green infrastructure urbane (Ugi) rappresentano un nuovo approccio allo sviluppo di reti di spazi verdi e blu che offrono molteplici vantaggi alla società. Le Ugi offrono il potenziale per affrontare con successo le principali sfide dell’urbanizzazione, per migliorare la qualità della vita e promuovere la trasformazione verso la sostenibilità e...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Die Liegenschaften des Freistaates Bayerns stehen mit ihrer Umgebung in einem ökologischen Zusammenhang. Diesen Kontext gilt es bei der Planung von Maßnahmen zur Förderung der Artenvielfalt zu erkennen und zu berücksichtigen. Er bestimmt, mit welchen Arten zu rechnen ist und welche potenziell gefördert werden können. Damit wirken die Maßnahmen in d...
Chapter
This study focused on understanding the perception of Nature-based Solutions (NbS) by local stakeholders in two Latin American cities: Bogotá and Lima. We highlight the type of NbS being developed in each city, its requirements, constraints, and potential negative effects. Social data based on the perceptions of local stakeholders were collected th...
Article
Full-text available
This article provides a perspective on nature-based solutions. First, the argument is developed that nature-based solutions integrate social and ecological systems. Then, theoretical considerations relating to relational values, multifunctionality, transdisciplinarity, and polycentric governance are briefly outlined. Finally, a conceptual model of...
Article
In the context of rapid urbanization, it remains unclear how urban landscape patterns shift under different urban dynamics, in particular taking different influencing factors of urban dynamics into consideration. In the present study, three key influencing factors were considered, namely, housing demand, spatial structure, and growth form. On this...
Article
The potential of urban greenspaces in regulating temperature is widely known; however, in the heterogeneous urban landscape the process and the magnitude of human thermal comfort as well as the cumulative effects of natural and built surfaces are not yet well understood. We selected two ecologically contrasting species Tilia cordata Mill. and Robin...
Article
Klimawandel und Bevölkerungszunahme stellen Städte vor besondere Herausforderungen. Wie kann trotz der zunehmenden baulichen Verdichtung eine leistungsfähige grüne Infrastruktur in die Stadtentwicklung integriert werden und welche Rolle spielen dabei Akteure der Verwaltung, Wirtschaft und Zivilgesellschaft, um Klimaschutz und vor allem Klimawandela...
Article
A more detailed understanding of the micro-climatic thermal benefits of different urban tree species and the retrospective species characteristics is necessary to guide management decisions. In this review, we focused specifically on empirical data collected at ground level for below-canopy surface temperature (ST) and tran-spiration cooling (AT),...
Article
Full-text available
The 21st century has been called the urban century, as most of the human population is now living in urban areas. Current and future urbanization is mostly taking place at great speed in the Global South. The challenges are enormous and request diff erent models of urbanization as developed in the Global North. High levels of informality and povert...
Article
Full-text available
: Under changing climatic conditions, drought may become a critical constraint for trees in urban areas, particularly at roadsides and highly paved squares. As healthy urban trees have proven to be an important mitigation and adaptation tool for climate change as well as a significant provider of ecosystem services, there is a need for planting spe...
Chapter
Grünflächen können die Lebensqualität in Städten verbessern und ihre Klimaresilienz erhöhen. Als „grüne Infrastruktur“ geplant, kommt ihnen daher eine Schlüsselrolle für die Entwicklung zukunfts fähiger Städte zu. Gleichzeitig steht das Grün in Städten durch die bauliche Verdichtung der Innenstädte unter Druck. Wieviel Grün ist erforderlich und wie...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this study is to provide an integrated indicator framework for the Assessment of Multifunctional Green Infrastructure (AMGI) to advance the evolution of the Green Infrastructure (GI) concept, and simultaneously deliver an approach do conduct a GI assessment using remote sensing datasets at multiple spatial and spectral scales. Based on t...
Article
Full-text available
Urban trees are getting increasing attention as a tool to mitigate urban heat island effects. A more functional and quantitative view of transpirational and shading effect, particularly the magnitude of both surface and air cooling potential can further strengthen motivations for urban tree planting. We investigated the transpirational and the surf...
Article
Full-text available
The both polycentric governance and Living Labs concepts are based on decentralized participatory planning, co-design, and decisionmaking. While the concept of Living Lab is still emerging, the Isar-Plan (2000 ~ 2011) pioneered the approach for selecting, co-designing, and implementing nature-based solutions along the Isar River in Munich, Germany....
Conference Paper
Landscape Planning and Management Though increasingly acknowledged and propagated as a framework to deal with processes in an integrative, transdisciplinary and multiscale way, landscape approaches do not seem to be widely adopted within the European context. The Green Infrastructure (GI) concept, on the other hand, has received much attention in E...
Article
Full-text available
Urbanization processes spur the need for urban green infrastructure (GI) to support the well-being of urban dwellers and underpin a sustainable planning strategy. It is a challenge for urban planning to make cities equitable in a socio-spatial way for which strategic planning are demanded based on measured gradients of spatial equity for GI. Strate...
Chapter
Grüne Infrastruktur ist ein neuartiger Ansatz für die Landschaftsplanung. Seine Innovationspotenziale bestehen in der umfassenden Sicht auf Natur und Landschaft, die ökologische, sozio-kulturelle, ästhetische und ökonomische Aspekte beinhaltet und vielfältige gesellschaftspolitische Ziele wie den Klimawandel oder sozialen Zusammenhalt aufgreift. Da...
Article
Green spaces play an important role in improving the livability of cities but are under high pressure from development in rapidly urbanizing countries. Understanding the use of urban green spaces and how this relates to their management is essential to effectively provide different functions and hence increase their value and better protection. Res...
Poster
Full-text available
Extremely high temperatures are getting more frequent in cities and their potential impacts on human health and plant performance are increasingly worrying. Implementing urban green infrastructure, particularly trees, can mitigate this development due to cooling from evapotranspiration and shading. However, the effect is not linearly scaling with t...
Conference Paper
MAIN TEXT (max. 250 words) Peri-urban areas are subject to strong pressures from urban development. This often leads to fragmented landscapes characterised by urban sprawl with low ecological, recreational and social quality. At the same time, the important role of ordinary peri-urban landscapes as the everyday living spaces of people and as an eco...
Article
Global processes of urban growth lead to severe environmental impacts such as temperature increase with an intensification of the urban heat island effect, and hydrological changes with far reaching consequences for plant growth and human health and well-being. Urban trees can help to mitigate the negative effects of climate change by providing eco...
Article
Full-text available
Many rivers in the southern coastal region of the Western Cape Province, South Africa, are known to be in a poor state. Since the 1990s, the river water quality of this coastal region has been affected by increasing populations and by intensifying land use activities. Simplified risk assessment approaches are critical to identify in a timely manner...
Article
Urban trees are getting increasing attention as a tool to mitigate urban heat island effects. A more functional and quantitative view of transpirational and shading effect, particularly the magnitude of both surface and air cooling potential can further strengthen motivations for urban tree planting. We investigated the transpirational and the surf...
Article
During the last years Urban Green Infrastructure (UGI) has evolved as a research focus across Europe. UGI can be understood as a multifunctional network of different urban green spaces and elements contributing to urban benefits. Urban agriculture has gained increasing research interest in this context. While a strong focus has been made on functio...
Article
Full-text available
Intensive land use activities worldwide have caused considerable loss to many ecosystem services. The dynamics of these threats must be quickly investigated to ensure timely update of management strategies and policies. Compared with complex models, mapping approaches that use scoring matrices to link land use/land cover and landscape properties wi...
Article
Urban tree plantings for climate-adapted and resilient cities need to consider growth, vitality and ecosystem services of the planted tree species particularly during drought. However, information on growth and ecosystem services of urban trees under changed climate conditions are rare for most species. This study investigated the intra-annual grow...
Article
As rapid urbanization and population growth have become global issues, urban growth modeling has become an essential tool for decision-makers to understand how urban growth works in overall dense environments and to assess the sustainability of current urban forms. However, in urban growth models (particularly when incorporating quantitative approa...
Article
With ongoing urbanization and climate change our cities are continuously becoming warmer and susceptible to flash flooding. A wide array of green infrastructure including urban trees is getting attention to mitigate those problems; however, magnitude, patterns and processes of hydrological functional capacity of different tree species at micro-scal...
Article
Global processes of urban growth lead to severe environmental impacts such as temperature increase with an intensification of the urban heat island effect, and hydrological changes with far reaching consequences for plant growth and human health and well-being. Urban trees can help to mitigate the negative effects of climate change by providing eco...
Article
Urban tree plantings for climate-adapted and resilient cities need to consider growth, vitality and ecosystem services of the planted tree species particularly during drought. However, information on growth and ecosystem services of urban trees under changed climate conditions are rare for most species. This study investigated the intra-annual grow...
Article
People living in cities are experiencing summerly heat stress situations with severe consequences for their health, especially under climate change. Urban planning needs to address this problem focusing on areas where people are exposed to heat such as in public squares. Typical square designs include green infrastructure which can positively affec...
Article
The role of trees in city cooling has warranted much attention based on concerns over climate change and urban expansion. Simultaneously, there is an interest in introducing species from dry habitats to cope with the increasing risks of drought under climate change. The general understanding is that the evolutionary adaptation to respective resourc...