Stephan Leitner

Stephan Leitner
Alpen-Adria-Universität Klagenfurt · Department of Management Control and Strategic Management

Assoc.-Prof. Dr.

About

75
Publications
7,492
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
276
Citations
Citations since 2016
41 Research Items
187 Citations
2016201720182019202020212022010203040506070
2016201720182019202020212022010203040506070
2016201720182019202020212022010203040506070
2016201720182019202020212022010203040506070
Introduction
My research mainly applies simulation-based research approaches (agent-based simulation) to questions in the context of management science and the interconnection between organizational research and complex systems. Recent work is concerned with rendering neoclassical models into (multi-agent) models and the emergence of management controls, the emergence of coalitions among human decision-makers, behavioral control using the human belief system, and organizational and social learning.
Additional affiliations
October 2018 - present
Alpen-Adria-Universität Klagenfurt
Position
  • Quantitative Research Methods
March 2018 - present
Alpen-Adria-Universität Klagenfurt
Position
  • Professor (Associate)
October 2016 - present
Alpen-Adria-Universität Klagenfurt
Position
  • Corporate Risk Management
Education
March 2009 - June 2012
February 2005 - November 2008

Publications

Publications (75)
Article
Full-text available
In this article, we provide an overview of applications of simulation as a research method in the domain of management accounting and control (MAC). According to different perspectives on management control systems, we report on simulation-based research efforts related to (1) management accounting systems, (2) organizational control mechanisms for...
Article
Full-text available
The hidden-action model captures a fundamental problem of principal-agent theory and provides an optimal sharing rule when only the outcome but not the effort can be observed (Holmström in Bell J Econ 10(1):74, 1979). However, the hidden-action model builds on various explicit and also implicit assumptions about the information of the contracting p...
Article
Full-text available
Agent-based computational economics (ACE)—while adopted comparably widely in other domains of managerial science—is a rather novel paradigm for management accounting research (MAR). This paper provides an overview of opportunities and difficulties that ACE may have for research in management accounting and, in particular, introduces a framework tha...
Article
Full-text available
Research on infodemics, i.e., the rapid spread of (mis)information related to a hazardous event, such as the COVID-19 pandemic, requires integrating a multiplicity of scientific disciplines. The dynamics emerging from infodemics have the potential to generate complex behavioral patterns. To react appropriately, it is of ultimate importance for the...
Article
Full-text available
The hidden-action model provides an optimal sharing rule for situations in which a principal assigns a task to an agent who makes an effort to carry out the task assigned to him. However, the principal can only observe the task outcome but not the agent's actual action, which is why the sharing rule can only be based on the outcome. The hidden-acti...
Chapter
Full-text available
We focus on how individual behavior that complies with social norms interferes with performance-based incentive mechanisms in organizations with multiple distributed decision-making agents. We model social norms to emerge from interactions between agents: agents observe other the agents’ actions and, from these observations, induce what kind of beh...
Article
Full-text available
Automated recommendations can nowadays be found on many e-commerce platforms, and such recommendations can create substantial value for consumers and providers. Often, however, not all recommendable items have the same profit margin, and providers might thus be tempted to promote items that maximize their profit. In the short run, consumers might a...
Preprint
Full-text available
The emergence of new organizational forms--such as virtual teams--has brought forward some challenges for teams. One of the most relevant challenges is coordinating the decisions of team members who work from different time zones. Intuition suggests that task performance should improve if the team members' decisions are coordinated. However, previo...
Preprint
Full-text available
Multi-unit organizations such as retail chains are interested in the diffusion of best practices throughout all divisions. However, the strict guidelines or incentive schemes may not always be effective in promoting the replication of a practice. In this paper we analyze how the individual belief systems, namely the desire of individuals to conform...
Preprint
Full-text available
This paper introduces a model of multi-unit organizations with either static structures, i.e., they are designed top-down following classical approaches to organizational design, or dynamic structures, i.e., the structures emerge over time from micro-level decisions. In the latter case, the units are capable of learning about the technical interdep...
Chapter
Individuals cannot solve complex tasks by themselves due to their limited capabilities. By self-organizing into groups, individuals with different capabilities can overcome their limitations. Individuals and groups often change over time: The individuals that form the group learn new ways to solve the task, while groups adapt their composition in r...
Chapter
Limited memory of decision-makers is often neglected in economic models, although it is reasonable to assume that it significantly influences the models’ outcomes. The hidden-action model introduced by Holmström also includes this assumption. In delegation relationships between a principal and an agent, this model provides the optimal sharing rule...
Preprint
Full-text available
Organisations rely upon group formation to solve complex tasks, and groups often adapt to the demands of the task they face by changing their composition periodically. Previous research comes to ambiguous results regarding the effects of group adaptation on task performance. This paper aims to understand the impact of group adaptation, defined as a...
Preprint
Full-text available
Previous research on organizations often focuses on either the individual, team, or organizational level. There is a lack of multidimensional research on emergent phenomena and interactions between the mechanisms at different levels. This paper takes a multifaceted perspective on individual learning and autonomous group formation and adaptation. To...
Preprint
Full-text available
Automated recommendations can nowadays be found on many e-commerce platforms, and such recommendations can create substantial value for consumers and providers. Often, however, not all recommendable items have the same profit margin, and providers might thus be tempted to promote items that maximize their profit. In the short run, consumers might a...
Chapter
To solve complex tasks, individuals often autonomously organize in teams. Examples of complex tasks include disaster relief rescue operations or project development in consulting. The teams that work on such tasks are adaptive at multiple levels: First, by autonomously choosing the individuals that jointly perform a specific task, the team itself a...
Preprint
Full-text available
Today's research in recommender systems is largely based on experimental designs that are static in a sense that they do not consider potential longitudinal effects of providing recommendations to users. In reality, however, various important and interesting phenomena only emerge or become visible over time, e.g., when a recommender system continuo...
Preprint
Full-text available
The hidden-action model provides an optimal sharing rule for situations in which a principal assigns a task to an agent who makes an effort to carry out the task assigned to him. However, the principal can only observe the task outcome but not the agent's actual action. The hidden-action model builds on somewhat idealized assumptions about the prin...
Preprint
Full-text available
Models of economic decision makers often include idealized assumptions, such as rationality, perfect foresight, and access to all relevant pieces of information. These assumptions often assure the models' internal validity, but, at the same time, might limit the models' power to explain empirical phenomena. This paper is particularly concerned with...
Chapter
Social norms are rules and standards of expected behavior that emerge in societies as a result of information exchange between agents. This paper studies the effects of emergent social norms on the performance of teams. We use the \(N\!K\)-framework to build an agent-based model, in which agents work on a set of interdependent tasks and exchange in...
Preprint
Full-text available
Limited memory of decision-makers is often neglected in economic models, although it is reasonable to assume that it significantly influences the models' outcomes. The hidden-action model introduced by Holmstr\"om also includes this assumption. In delegation relationships between a principal and an agent, this model provides the optimal sharing rul...
Preprint
Full-text available
This paper introduces a model of a stylized organization that is comprised of several departments that autonomously allocate tasks. To do so, the departments either take short-sighted decisions that immediately maximize their utility or take long-sighted decisions that aim at minimizing the interdependencies between tasks. The organization guides t...
Preprint
Full-text available
Social norms are rules and standards of expected behavior that emerge in societies as a result of information exchange between agents. This paper studies the effects of emergent social norms on the performance of teams. We use the $N\!K$-framework to build an agent-based model, in which agents work on a set of interdependent tasks and exchange info...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Decision-makers are often confronted with complex tasks which cannot be solved by an individual alone but require collaboration in the form of a coalition. Previous literature argues that instability, in terms of the re-organization of a coalition concerning its members over time, is detrimental to performance. Other lines of research, such as the...
Preprint
Full-text available
To solve complex tasks, individuals often autonomously organize in teams. Examples of complex tasks include disaster relief rescue operations or project development in consulting. The teams that work on such tasks are adaptive at multiple levels: First, by autonomously choosing the individuals that jointly perform a specific task, the team itself a...
Preprint
Full-text available
We focus on how individual behavior that complies with social norms interferes with performance-based incentive mechanisms in organizations with multiple distributed decision-making agents. We model social norms to emerge from interactions between agents: agents observe other the agents' actions and, from these observations, induce what kind of beh...
Research
Full-text available
Ein großer Teil der betriebs- und verhaltenswissenschaftlichen Forschung ist durch eine Lücke zwischen der Mikro- und der Makroebene gekennzeichnet. Die Mikroebene bezieht sich auf das Verhalten auf individueller Ebene und umfasst z. B. die Entscheidungen und Handlungen einzelner Führungskräf- te. Die Makroebene bezieht sich hingegen auf das betrac...
Preprint
Agent-based computational economics (ACE) - while adopted comparably widely in other domains of managerial science - is a rather novel paradigm for management accounting research (MAR). This paper provides an overview of opportunities and difficulties that ACE may have for research in management accounting and, in particular, introduces a framework...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
We introduce an agent-based model of delegation relationships between a principal and an agent, which is based on the standard-hidden action model introduced by Holmström and, by doing so, provide a model which can be used to further explore theoretical topics in managerial economics, such as the efficiency of incentive mechanisms. We employ the co...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This work researches the impact of including a wider range of participants in the strategy-making process on the performance of organizations, which operate in either moderately or highly complex environments. Agent-based simulation demonstrates that the increased number of ideas generated from larger and diverse crowds and subsequent preference ag...
Preprint
Full-text available
Decision makers are often confronted with complex tasks which cannot be solved by an individual alone, but require collaboration in the form of a coalition. Previous literature argues that instability, in terms of the reorganization of a coalition with respect to its members over time, is detrimental to performance. Other lines of research, such as...
Preprint
Full-text available
Research on infodemics, i.e., the rapid spread of (mis)information related to a hazardous event, such as the COVID-19 pandemic, requires the integration of a multiplicity of scientific disciplines. The dynamics emerging from infodemics have the potential to generate complex behavioral patterns. In order to react appropriately, it is of ultimate imp...
Preprint
Full-text available
We introduce an agent-based model of delegation relationships between a principal and an agent, which is based on the standard-hidden action model introduced by Holmström and, by doing so, provide a model which can be used to further explore theoretical topics in managerial economics, such as the efficiency of incentive mechanisms. We employ the co...
Preprint
Full-text available
This work researches the impact of including a wider range of participants in the strategy-making process on the performance of organizations which operate in either moderately or highly complex environments. Agent-based simulation demonstrates that the increased number of ideas generated from larger and diverse crowds and subsequent preference agg...
Article
Full-text available
This position paper discusses emerging behavioral, social, and economic dynamics related to the COVID-19 pandemic and puts particular emphasis on two emerging issues: First, delayed effects (or second strikes) of pandemics caused by dread risk effects are discussed whereby two factors which might influence the existence of such effects are identifi...
Preprint
Full-text available
This position paper discusses emerging behavioral, social, and economic dynamics related to the COVID-19 pandemic and puts particular emphasis on two emerging issues: First, delayed effects (or second strikes) of pandemics caused by dread risk effects are discussed whereby two factors which might influence the existence of such effects are identifi...
Preprint
Full-text available
The hidden action model captures a fundamental problem of principal-agent theory and provides an optimal sharing rule when only the outcome but not the effort can be observed. However, the hidden action model builds on various explicit and also implicit assumptions about the information of the contracting parties. This paper relaxes key assumptions...
Chapter
Das Controlling in internationalen Unternehmen weist eine Reihe von Besonderheiten auf, die teils in engerem Zusammenhang mit anderen Teilbereichen der Betriebswirtschaftslehre stehen. Dazu zählen etwa Fragen der Gestaltung von internationalen Logistik- und Beschaffungsstrukturen, der Ziel- bzw. Budgetvorgabe für ausländische Standorte bei schwanke...
Article
This paper analyzes the impact of both non-systematic and systematic forecasting errors on the coordination of distributed investment decisions. The forecasts of concern pertain to the expected cash outlay necessary to launch and operate an investment project, to the expected cash flows generated by the project’s operation, and to the self-assessme...
Conference Paper
In this paper, we analyze how different modes of coordination and different approaches of multi objective decision making interfere with organizational performance and speed at which performance improves. The investigation is based on an agent-based simulation of a stylized hierarchical business organization. In particular, we employ a model based...
Chapter
Full-text available
One of the most important tasks of corporate financial management is to assure the efficiency of investment decisions (Ryan and Ryan 2002 Dutta and Fan 2009). In corporate practice it can be observed that departments are often endowed with decision making authority regarding their investments. This is due to rapidly changing markets, products, and...
Article
Full-text available
Financial resources are scarce, which is why corporate capital budgeting needs to employ efficient allocation mechanisms. This paper conceptually transfers the idea behind a hurdle rate based coordination mechanism from an agency model into a computational model of a multi-divisional corporation with both heterogeneous departments and heterogeneous...
Article
Full-text available
This paper investigates the impact of inaccurate forecasting on the coordination of distributed investment decisions. In particular, by setting up a computational multi-agent model of a stylized firm, we investigate the case of investment opportunities that are mutually carried out by organizational departments. The forecasts of concern pertain to...
Article
Full-text available
The efficient allocation of scarce financial resources lies at the core of financial management. Whenever humans are involved in the allocation process, it would be reasonable to consider abilities, in order to assure efficiency. For the context of coordinating investment decisions, the competitive hurdle rate (CHR) mechanism (Baldenius et. al, 200...
Chapter
Full-text available
In this paper we transfer the concept of the competitive hurdle rate (CHR) mechanism introduced by Baldenius et al. (2007) into an agent-based model, and test its robustness with respect to an occurrence of errors in forecasting. We find that our CHR born mechanism is most robust for highly diversified investment alternatives and a limited amount o...
Article
Full-text available
This paper analyses how different coordination modes and different multi-objective decision making approaches interfere with each other in hierarchical organizations. The investigation is based on an agent-based simulation. We apply a modified NK-model in which we map multi-objective decision making as adaptive walk on multiple performance landscap...
Article
Full-text available
On the one hand, management accounting systems increase in complexity, and the frequency and intensity of use of the provided information for decision-making are rising. On the other hand, there is evidence that the provided information is inaccurate, which in most cases incurs economic costs. This paper analyzes the impact of biases in raw account...
Book
Full-text available
This volume presents recent advances in the dynamic field of Artificial Economics and its various applications. Artificial Economics provides a structured approach to model and investigate economic and social systems. In particular, this approach is based on the use of agent-based simulations and further computational techniques. The main aim is to...
Chapter
Full-text available
This simulation study presents results on the effects of distortions in raw accounting data on the quality of the information provided by costing systems. The results give insights into interactions among biases and indicate that multiple biases do not necessarily affect information quality negatively. Surprisingly, in some setups interactions amon...
Book
Full-text available
There is evidence that data provided by management accounting systems (MAS) is distorted and the occurrence of biases in accounting information is widely accepted among users of MAS. At the same time, the intensity and the frequency of use of MAS in order to retrieve information as the basis for decision-making increase. Consequently, the quality o...
Chapter
This chapter analyzes the research question (1) “How does the level of (traditional) costing system sophistication affect the quality of decision-facilitating and decision-influencing information provided by costing systems in case of intended and unintended biases in input data?”. Hence, the main focus is on measures for costing system sophisticat...
Chapter
This chapter analyzes the research question (2) “What are the effects of intended and unintended single biases in input data on the quality of decision-facilitating and decision-influencing information provided by costing systems?”. While Chap. 5 concentrates on different levels of costing system sophistication and keeps parameterization of input b...
Chapter
This chapter analyzes the research question (3) “What are the effects of interactions among multiple intended and unintended biases in input data on the quality of decision-facilitating and decision-influencing information provided by costing systems?”. As in Chap. 6, this chapter analyzes different levels of distortion in input data whereby, in co...
Chapter
This chapter provides the conceptual and the theoretical basis for this simulation study. In the first section, the concepts of bias and error are elaborated. In a first step, the conceptual understanding of the terms bias and error in various contexts which are relevant to this simulation study are reviewed and finally brought into a concept which...
Chapter
In order to give a comprehensive and systematic overview of the simulation model, there are three aspects that have to be discussed in detail. First, the formal model of the costing system has to be specified. On the one hand, this model defines the way in which data is processed by the different components of the costing system; on the other hand,...
Chapter
This section summarizes and concludes the results that are presented in the previous chapters.
Chapter
This chapter focuses on management accounting. Section 2.1 outlines the various (changing) roles that management accounting captures. Section 2.2 on the one hand elaborates an understanding of management accounting information and on the other hand gives information on the different roles of management accounting information within organizations. F...
Article
Full-text available
Viele Unternehmen bekennen sich zum Ziel der Nachhaltigkeit. Als Prinzip einer dreidimensionalen Wertschöpfung sind damit ökonomische, ökologische und soziale Ziele zu berücksichtigen. Zwischen diesen Dimensionen können sowohl komplementäre als auch konfliktäre Beziehungen bestehen. Entscheidungen unter mehrfacher Zielsetzung bringen eine Reihe von...
Chapter
Full-text available
The paper analyses the effect of organisational design elements on the level of achieved performance and speed of performance improvement in multiple criteria decision making setups. The analysis is based on an agent based simulation approach. Especially, we model multi criteria decision making as adaptive walk on multiple NK fitness landscapes wit...
Chapter
Full-text available
This paper analyses how different multi criteria decision-making modes affect organisational performance under the regime of alternative organisational design options. We set up a computational model based on the concept of NK-fitness landscapes. Our results indicate that organisational design and especially departmentalisation with respect to deci...

Network

Cited By

Projects

Projects (7)
Project
In our day to day lives, we sometimes face tasks that, because of their complexity, cannot be solved by our means alone. This also include new problems and challenges introduced by the spread of digitalization and technological change. Individuals tend to form coalitions, even autonomously, in order to be able to solve these complex problems. While traditional research on coalition formation has mainly focused on the stability of coalitions, the existence of dynamic capabilities suggests that adapting the composition of coalitions to the environment over time could be beneficial for task performance. The use of agent-basedsimulations allows us to better understand this issues, and improve the way we can research about coalition formation and decision-making.
Project
Strategy is a high level plan to achieve an intended set of goals under con- ditions of uncertainty. Traditionally, organizations search for a high performing strategy in a closed setting with upper management creating and implementing strategy with no transparency of input, process or output. Advances in digital technologies, such as social media platforms, now enable a more transparent inclusive manner of strategy making called Open Strategy, with a wider range of participants. By agent-basedsimulation of the strategy making process, we aim to elucidate the impact of various implementations of Open Strategy on the search for performance, taking into account e.g. the diversity of participants and social network effects.