• Home
  • Stephan Gollasch
Stephan Gollasch

Stephan Gollasch
GoConsult, Independent Researcher · Bioinvasions, ballast water and biofouling division

PhD

About

221
Publications
125,047
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
10,281
Citations
Introduction
Stephan Gollasch currently works at the Bioinvasions division, GoConsult, Independent Researcher. Stephan does research in Marine Biology, Zoology and Xenobiology as well as mainly in ballast water management related issues.
Additional affiliations
January 2018 - September 2020
Bundesamt für Seeschifffahrt und Hydrographie
Position
  • Ballast water expert
Description
  • Contributor to Interreg Project COMPLETE.
October 2014 - October 2014
European Maritime Safety Agency
Position
  • High level expert
Description
  • Training on ballast water sampling.
September 2014 - May 2015
World Maritime University
Position
  • e-CME Ballast Water
Description
  • Compliance monitoring and enforcement training course for ballast water management.
Education
April 1992 - July 1996
University of Hamburg, Zoological Institut and Museum
Field of study
  • Ballast water and biofouling sampling of commercial vessels

Publications

Publications (221)
Article
In recent decades, gobies have dispersed or introduced from the Ponto-Caspian region of eastern Europe in a westerly direction to North American and western European waters. By contrast, the naked goby, Gobiosoma bosc, is the only known gobiid species to have been introduced in an easterly direction from North American to western Europe. The potent...
Article
Full-text available
The International Convention for the Control and Management of Ships' Ballast Water and Sediments (BWM Convention) aims to mitigate the introduction risk of harmful aquatic organisms and pathogens (HAOP) via ships’ ballast water and sediments. The BWM Convention has set regulations for ships to utilise exceptions and exemptions from ballast water m...
Article
Full-text available
The threat posed by invasive non-native species worldwide requires a global approach to identify which introduced species are likely to pose an elevated risk of impact to native species and ecosystems. To inform policy, stakeholders and management decisions on global threats to aquatic ecosystems, 195 assessors representing 120 risk assessment area...
Article
During the type approval process of ballast water management systems (BWMS) performance tests need to be conducted according to the BWMS Code (previously Guidelines G8) of the International Maritime Organization (IMO). The shipboard tests previously included a control experiment with untreated ballast water to evaluate the BWMS performance by compa...
Chapter
Shipping is responsible for transporting 90% of the world's trade. This book provides a comprehensive review of the impact shipping has on the environment. Topics covered include pollutant discharges such as atmospheric emissions, oil, chemical waste, sewage and biocides; as well as non-pollutant impacts including invasive species, wildlife collisi...
Article
Ballast Water Managements Systems (BWMS) installed on vessels may use Active Substances (AS) to inactivate organisms. This paper provides new insights in the global issue of noxious Disinfection By-Products (DBP) produced with primarily oxidant-based BWMS, and the risk assessment for workers, including port State control officers, while performing...
Article
The Ballast Water Management Convention adopted at the International Maritime Organization (IMO) allows exemptions from ballast water management requirements. These exemptions may be granted when a risk assessment results in an acceptable low risk scenario. IMO has adopted a guideline describing different risk assessment approaches (G7 Guidelines,...
Technical Report
Full-text available
The Working Group on the Introductions and Transfers of Marine Organisms (WGITMO) has contributed several major achievements to the ICES vision, including the first ICES Viewpoint on Biofouling and its source document, two Cooperative Research Reports, and numerous pub-lications related to ToRs, and the continued population of the AquaNIS database....
Article
Full-text available
Ballast water treatment is required for vessels to prevent the introduction of potentially invasive neobiota. Some treatment methods use chemical disinfectants which produce a variety of halogenated compounds as disinfection by-products (DBPs). One of the most abundant DBPs from oxidative ballast water treatment is bromoform (CHBr3), for which we f...
Article
Ballast water managements systems (BWMS) installed on vessels may use active substances to inactivate organisms. This paper provides new insights in the global issue of noxious disinfection by-products (DBP) discharge with ballast water, and the related risk assessment for human health. The GESAMP ballast water working group plays a role in the cer...
Article
Full-text available
Ballast water treatment is required for vessels to prevent the introduction of potentially invasive neobiota. Some treatment methods use chemical disinfectants which produce a variety of halogenated compounds as disinfection by-products (DBPs). One of the most abundant DBP from oxidative ballast water treatment is bromoform (CHBr3) where we find an...
Article
Full-text available
Climate change and increased anthropogenic activities are expected to elevate the potential of introducing nonindigenous species (NIS) into the Arctic. Yet, the knowledge base needed to identify gaps and priorities for NIS research and management is limited. Here, we reviewed primary introduction events to each ecoregion of the marine Arctic realm...
Chapter
13.1 INTRODUCTION Oceans and seas are under pressure by the introduction of species as never before. Highlighted are mostly known nonindigenous species, but it should be noted that these are only a subset of species that are of concern. There are species for which it is unclear if they are native or not and these were termed cryptogenic species (Ca...
Article
The Adriatic Sea, a semi-enclosed and vulnerable environment, deserves special attention regarding the risk of introducing Harmful Aquatic Organisms and Pathogens via ships' ballast water as new species findings occur at an alarming rate. This species introduction vector was addressed with the 2004 International Convention for the Control and Manag...
Article
Full-text available
The ability to quantify vital aquatic organisms in the 2–50 µm size range was compared between five different flow cytometers and several different microscopes. Counts of calibration beads, algal monocultures of different sizes as well as organisms in a Wadden Sea sample were compared. Flow cytometers and microscopes delivered different bead concen...
Article
Following the Editorial addressing the BALMAS project, we open the ballast water management special issue for the Adriatic Sea by providing background information on non-indigenous species and the mechanisms (vectors) of transport. Problems allocating introduction mechanisms for various species with certainty are described; in general, key introduc...
Article
The International Maritime Organization (IMO), the United Nations’ shipping agency, adopted the International Convention for the Control and Management of Ships’ Ballast Water and Sediments (BWM Convention) in 2004 in an attempt to reduce one of the greatest negative influences humans have caused to the world’s oceans, i.e., species transfers beyon...
Chapter
The International Maritime Organization (IMO), the United Nations’ shipping agency, adopted the International Convention for the Control and Management of Ships’ Ballast Water and Sediments (BWM Convention) in 2004 (IMO 2004) in an attempt to reduce one of the greatest negative influences humans have caused to the world’´s oceans, i.e., species tra...
Article
Ballast water managements systems (BWMS) installed on vessels may use active substances to inactivate or kill organisms in the ballast water. This paper provides new insights in this global issue - discharge of hazardous disinfection by-products with ballast water and related risk assessment for the environment. Considering the possible extent of t...
Article
The biology of vessels´ ballast water needs to be analysed for several reasons, one of these being performance tests of ballast water management systems. This analysis includes a viability assessment of phytoplankton. To overcome logistical problems to get algae sample processing gear on board of a vessel to document algae viability, samples may be...
Article
Ballast water discharges may cause negative impacts to aquatic ecosystems, human health and economic activities by the introduction of potentially harmful species. Fifty untreated ballast water tanks, ten in each port, were sampled in four Adriatic Italian ports and one Slovenian port. Salinity, temperature and fluorescence were measured on board....
Article
The ballast water management convention incorporates principles of risk assessment. A new ballast water management risk assessment model was developed to support the implementation of most efficient management measures, which we also present as a flowchart decision support system model. The risk assessment model was tested using data from port base...
Chapter
1. The term “non-indigenous species ” (NIS) represents a biogeographical category, which indicates human involvement in the introduction of a certain species to a particular ecosystem and has nothing to do with putting “good” or “bad” tags on these species. 2. A biological invasion is the spread of a NIS or a cryptogenic species (of uncertain or un...
Article
This paper describes the methodological approach used for the development of an Early Warning System (EWS) for Non Indigenous Species (NIS) and ballast water management and summarizes the results obtained. The specific goals of the EWS are firstly to warn vessels to prevent loading of ballast water when critical biological conditions occur in ports...
Article
Full-text available
Coastal and regional sea ecosystems suffer from several human-induced stressors, including human mediated bioinvasions. The Baltic Sea is generally considered to be susceptible to invasions by non-indigenous species (NIS). Out of the total of 132 NIS and cryptogenic species recorded, 59% are currently established in at least one country surrounding...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Es wird für Deutschland die erste konsequent kriterienbasierte Bewertung der naturschutzfachlichen Invasivität von gebietsfremden aquatischen Arten aus den Gruppen der Pilze, Niederen Pflanzen und Wirbellosen Tiere vorgelegt. Zusätzlich werden kommentierte Gesamtartenlisten aller in Deutschland wild lebend nachgewiesenen gebietsfremden aquatischen...
Chapter
Full-text available
Case histories of aquatic non-indigenous and cryptogenic species [in German]
Article
Information about the profile of ballast water discharges in a port is one of the basic elements of the decision making process in ballast water risk assessment and management, and supports the evaluation of dimensions and processes of aquatic species invasions with vessels ballast water. In the lack of ballast water reporting, ballast water discha...
Article
Until now, the purpose of ballast water sampling studies was predominantly limited to general scientific interest to determine the variety of species arriving in ballast water in a recipient port. Knowing the variety of species arriving in ballast water also contributes to the assessment of relative species introduction vector importance. Further,...
Book
Full-text available
Foreword Over the past few years, new records and reports of non-native species have provided additional insight into the potential vectors and spread of introduced pathogens, plants, and animals. This five-year report brings together and summarizes the nonnative species introductions reported in annual reports to the Working Group on Introductions...
Book
Full-text available
Didemnum vexillum Kott (2002) is a high-impact, globally-invasive, colonial tunicate species that is native to Japan (Lambert, 2009; Stefaniak et al., 2012). It is generally a temperate cold-water organism, and its introduced range currently includes New Zealand, the Netherlands, France, Ireland, United Kingdom, Spain, Italy, and both the west and...
Book
Full-text available
Didemnum vexillum Kott (2002) is a high-impact, globally-invasive, colonial tunicate species that is native to Japan (Lambert, 2009; Stefaniak et al., 2012). It is generally a temperate cold-water organism, and its introduced range currently includes New Zealand, the Netherlands, France, Ireland, United Kingdom, Spain, Italy, and both the west and...
Article
Several legal and administrative instruments aimed to reduce the spread of non-indigenous species, that may pose harm to the environment, economy and/or human health, were developed in recent years at international and national levels, such as the International Convention for the Control and Management of Ship's Ballast Water and Sediments, the Int...
Article
The latest research continues to show that the ballast water issue is very complex, which makes it very challenging to manage. In 2004, the International Convention for the Control and Management of Ships' Ballast Water and Sediments (BWM Convention) was adopted to globally harmonize action against the transfer of harmful aquatic organisms and path...
Chapter
Full-text available
A comprehensive review of ballast water sampling and analyses methods for CME indicative analyses and detailed test was conducted. Missing BWS sampling and analyses tools were identified and bought to provide each participating county with an indicative and detailed test for in-tank and at-discharge sampling. BWS and analyses methods were be tested...
Chapter
Full-text available
This report consists of two parts. First is a review of financing mechanisms being in place and operational worldwide and second part a case study for Slovenia. Case study analyses application feasibility for identified self-funding options in Slovenia. The essence of self-funding mechanism is independency from governmental or regional resources. T...
Chapter
Full-text available
Monitoring programmes and surveillance activities are generally of limited efficacy if carried out on a local scale. As such, it is clearly important to promote and ultimately establish an Adriatic monitoring and surveillance system in order to optimize the use of existing capacity; involve key societal sectors; and implement standardized procedure...
Chapter
Full-text available
The scope of the Guidance for PSC for compliance control measures, including BWS, introduced according to the BWM Convention for CME in the Adriatic is to provide additional guidance to Adriatic PSCO for implementation of the tools and systems prepared to support common approaches for an effective implementation of the BWM Convention in the Adriati...
Chapter
Full-text available
Review of RA approaches and methods for BWM was conducted, and new RA models and approaches were developed based on analyses of shipping patterns, quantity and origin of ballast water discharges and sediments disposals, legislation etc. in the Adriatic Sea area. RA DSS models were developed for targeting vessels for BWM and CME (BWRA), for exemptio...
Chapter
Full-text available
A review of existing Port State Control (PSC) measures, tools, procedures and systems, to enable monitoring of vessels compliance with BWM Convention and Paris MoU was conducted. A Decision Support System (DSS) that includes BWM control (CME) measures for compliance with BWM Convention and Paris MoU was developed to support implementation of the BW...
Chapter
Full-text available
In general a Decision Support System (DSS) is a supporting tool to enhance a decision-making process. One of the critical factors in the decision making process is subjectivism which is induced by the decision-making operator, which can be avoided with a DSS. DSSs may consist of different elements and structures depending on their application field...
Article
The biological traits of the sixty-eight most widespread multicellular non-indigenous species (MWNIS) in European Seas: Baltic Sea, Western European Margin of the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea were examined. Data for nine biological traits was analyzed, and a total of 41 separate categories were used to describe the biological and ecolog...
Article
Different phytoplankton analysis methods (pulse-amplitude modulated fluorometry (PAM) and microscopy) were compared in preparation for compliance monitoring and enforcement with ballast water discharge standards. The key objective was to practically evaluate the performance of different new methods and tools to identify indicatively living phytopla...
Article
Full-text available
The risk assessment (RA) developed according to the BWM Convention is the most recently agreed global RA for bioinvasions. It was developed to enable a selective ballast water management (BWM) approach according to the BWM Convention and the G7 Guidelines. It describes three different BWM RA methods, “environmental matching”, “species’ biogeographi...
Article
The annual number of new species records world-wide has paralleled shipping and is increasing. For example, in ICES member countries a new introduction forming a new population beyond its natural range occurs approximately every 9 weeks. The introduction of non-indigenous species by ships’ ballast water is known since more than 100 years, but it wa...
Article
There is a wealth of policy and management options addressing species introductions including conventions, treaties, multilateral agreements and codes of practices. Together these instruments support an internationally consistent management of specific transport vectors, quarantine or other biosecurity measures. This chapter lists selected global l...
Article
A Decision Support System (DSS) is a supporting tool enhancing a decision-making process. Decision-makers are frequently faced with the problem to take decisions on very complex issues, which requires large data inputs, and a timely decision process. DSSs provide decision makers with a tool to reduce uncertainties, and to simplify and speed-up the...
Chapter
Ballast water management was demonstrated to be a complex issue, hence there are no simple solutions. The BWM Convention was adopted to support globally a uniform approach to prevent harmful aquatic organisms and pathogens to be further spread around the world by ballast water and sediment releases, considering the aspects of safe and efficient ope...
Chapter
In this chapter we focus on ballast water management systems (BWMS) which are currently in use as well as treatment approaches manufacturers have chosen for the development of future BWMS. The main purpose of this review is to identify the current availability of BWMS technologies worldwide. Until January 2014 we brought together information of 104...
Article
Full-text available
The most effective way to manage species transfers is to prevent their introduction via vector regulation. Soon, international ships will be required to meet numeric ballast discharge standards using ballast water treatment (BWT) systems, and ballast water exchange (BWE), currently required by several countries, will be phased out. However, there a...
Book
Full-text available
The North American bivalve mollusc Ensis directus (Conrad, 1843) (Bivalvia, Pharidae) is native to the Northwest Atlantic coasts from southern Labrador to northern Florida (Bousfield, 1960; Theroux and Wigley, 1983; Swennen et al., 1985; Abbott and Morris, 2001; Turgeon et al., 2009; Vierna et al., 2013). This species has been introduced outside it...
Book
Full-text available
Executive Summary In Ballast Water Opportunity one of the duties in WP5 was to review the test requirements of ballast water management systems (BWMS) as stated in the “International Convention for the Control and Management of Ships’ Ballast Water and Sediments, 2004” (BWM Convention) and its supporting guidelines, i.e., “Guidelines for approval...
Book
Full-text available
Today global shipping transports over 90 % of the world’s overseas trade and trends anticipate that it will continue to play an increasing role world-wide. Shipping operations inevitably include also pressures on natural environments. The most recent waterborne threat is the transfer of harmful aquatic organisms and pathogens with ballast water and...
Chapter
In the past, the purpose of ballast water sampling studies was limited to general scientific interest, awareness raising or the determination of organism numbers per water volume. In this chapter we focus on compliance control sampling with BWM requirements as set out in the BWM Convention. Key aspects described are sampling methods and approaches...
Chapter
The importance of ballast water as a vector for moving non-indigenous species was initially addressed in a 1973 International Maritime Organization (IMO) resolution. Subsequently IMO worked towards the finalization of the International Convention for the Control and Management of Ships’ Ballast Water and Sediments (BWM Convention) which was adopted...