Stephan Goetz

Stephan Goetz
Pennsylvania State University | Penn State · Department of Agricultural Economics, Sociology and Education

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164
Publications
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Introduction
Skills and Expertise

Publications

Publications (164)
Article
Full-text available
Facility locations are crucial determinants of supply chain efficiency for aggregating and distributing products. The multi-disciplinary nature of the facility location problem requires multiple complementary approaches, at different levels of aggregation, to accommodate the salient features of location determinants. This study examines the facilit...
Article
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The COVID‐19 pandemic initially caused worldwide concerns about food insecurity. Tweets analyzed in real‐time may help food assistance providers target food supplies to where they are most urgently needed. In this exploratory study, we use natural language processing to extract sentiments and emotions expressed in food security‐related tweets early...
Article
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This article presents a spatial supply network model for estimating and visualizing spatial commodity flows that used data on firm location and employment, an input–output table of inter-industry transactions, and material balance-type equations. Building on earlier work, we proposed a general method for visualizing detailed supply chains across ge...
Article
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The literature on women in agricultural production in developing countries is vast. While female farmers in the United States have recently received more attention, their general characteristics and practices pursued have not received as much consideration by agricultural economists. Here we examine U.S. female farmers’ characteristics and factors...
Article
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We propose a measure of latent innovation in local economies based on spillovers among industries in terms of inter-industry sales and purchases as well as spatial proximity. The proposed measure captures innovation that is not reflected in typical NSF-based statistics such as patents, R&D spending, or science and engineering workers. When the resu...
Article
Since 1980, average life expectancy in the United States has increased by roughly five years; however, in recent years it has been declining. At the same time, spatial variation in life expectancy has been growing. To explore reasons for this trend, some researchers have focused on morbidity factors, while others have focused on how mortality trend...
Article
We examine how county characteristics affected voting outcomes in the 2016 presidential election, including the populist component represented by the President Trump to Mitt Romney vote difference. Different voter groups could be harmed or helped by policies proposed during the campaign, such as withdrawal from trade agreements, environmental dereg...
Article
Hop production has expanded dramatically in recent years along with the number of local craft breweries, but to date the relationship between these two phenomena has not been explored systematically. Using a state-level pooled count data model with observations from 2007, 2012, and 2017, we examine the independent lagged effects of breweries on the...
Article
The location quotient (LQ) measures regional industry concentration with the advantages of easy calculation and interpretation. However, it is a weak method for identifying industry clusters that consist of related industries geographically concentrated in contiguous counties. This paper proposes a new spatial input–output location quotient (SI-LQ)...
Article
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Food hubs are of interest in regional and local food system development because they potentially enhance the sustainability of food supply chains. Expanding on earlier literature, this study introduces economies of scale into an aggregation hub location model and disaggregates production into four seasons to account for geographic and seasonal vari...
Article
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Recent years have seen tremendous advances in the scientific study of networks, as more and larger data sets of relationships among nodes have become available in many different fields. This has led to pathbreaking discoveries of near-universal network behavior over time, including the principle of preferential attachment and the emergence of scali...
Article
Children whose parents were self-employed before China’s socialist transformation were more likely to become self-employed after the economic reform, even though they had no direct exposure to their parents’ businesses. The effect is statistically significant only for sons. The lack of direct exposure to family businesses impedes the transfer of bu...
Article
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Food hubs offer a novel solution to connect small and mid-sized local farms, which individually lack the scale to profitably market their products. Because many food hubs rely on grants and philanthropy to provide services and are not necessarily profit-driven, markets may unintentionally oversaturate due to overinvestment. We use a firm-entry mode...
Article
Resilience is defined as a system’s ability to initially resist and then recover from a shock. Here we apply this concept to examine the performance of U.S. counties during the Great Recession. The response of local economies to manmade and natural shocks is hypothesized to depend on the centrality of local industries within the economy, or how wel...
Article
This article investigates the relationship between industry technology intensity and the impacts of agglomeration economies on industrial growth. Many recent studies suggest the actual economic impacts of different forms of agglomeration economies depend on industrial characteristics such as technology intensity, but systematic empirical evidence i...
Article
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Poor mental health creates significant economic costs, in addition to human suffering, and is a growing world-wide concern, especially with an aging population. To estimate the cost of this disease in the U.S., we adopt a conventional economic growth model and include the number of poor mental health days (PMHD) as a right-hand side variable. Contr...
Article
Average absolute upward mobility is greater for youth in non-metropolitan counties than in metropolitan counties. What may be more important for upward mobility of low-income youth, however, is not whether their county is metro or non-metro but rather how far their county is from metropolitan centres. We test this hypothesis and find support for th...
Article
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Recent discoveries of genetically modified (GM) wheat growing in farm fields across several U.S. states have renewed public worries about GM wheat contamination if GM wheat is commercialised. There would appear to be a need for research designed to identify reactive risk mitigation strategies to maintain the sustainability of grain supply chains (S...
Article
Introduction Many diabetes education programs address the problem of diabetes, but little attention is given to the economic impact of such programs. Our objective was to assess the effectiveness of a community-based education program in improving diabetes-related lifestyle behaviors and biomarkers and ascertain the economic benefits of the program...
Article
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Purpose The purpose of this paper is to identify the factors associated with farm financial success for those farms known to produce for local supply chains. The analysis considers alternative measures of farm financial performance and considers the role of the local foods supply chain in the choice to market locally. Design/methodology/approach T...
Article
The question of where entrepreneurs obtain information that inspires them to innovate has largely remained unexplored. In order to identify specific actors and organizations that entrepreneurs interact, we employ a novel approach using Twitter data from entrepreneurs participating in ‘One Million Cups’ in Kansas City, a weekly meet-up program where...
Article
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This article identifies through modeling the optimal locations of regional fresh produce facilities across the U.S. In contrast to much of the literature, we introduce establishment-level economies of scale to assess their impact on optimal solutions of facility locations, numbers and sizes. The facility location problem is formulated as a mixed in...
Article
To set the stage for future research aimed at developing public policies that support economic prosperity in rural areas, we review the current economic conditions of rural America and the current literature. Rural America is often characterized as a uniform, distressed place where agriculture dominates. In fact, rural America is diverse, with many...
Article
With inequality returning to historically high levels, intergenerational mobility has attracted growing attention from policy makers and academics. The authors use recently published county-level data to study the determinants of intergenerational mobility, measured by income levels and teen birth rates. Following Solon’s mobility model, the author...
Article
Access to affordable and nutritious food is a widely-debated public policy issue in the U.S. In non-metro (including semi-urban and rural) U.S. areas, poor food access is mostly the result of lack of food stores, and in particular the absence of large ones (e.g., full-line groceries or superstores). Any policy designed to improve food access in non...
Article
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The Enhancing Food Security in the Northeast (EFSNE) project started in 2011 to explore the potential for regional food systems to improve food security in the Northeastern U.S. Building on the nationwide interest in local food systems, EFSNE researchers have been motivated by a desire to understand whether regional food systems, which have a large...
Article
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Interest in supporting local and regional food systems is rising and food hubs have attracted considerable attention among Federal, State, and local policymakers. This study explores the problem of endogenous hub location in fresh produce value chains in the Northeastern United States. To overcome limitations in the literature, we incorporate the e...
Article
en Many urban areas around the world have expanded from monocentric to polycentric regions forming larger hierarchical structures. These regions represent functional regions or labour market areas (LMAs) that are classified as groups of counties representing mutually exclusive, non‐overlapping geographies. In practice, however, a county may belong...
Conference Paper
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While demand for locally produced food has increased sharply in recent years, interest in supporting local food systems is rising among Federal, State, and local policymakers. This study explores the idea of endogenous hub location on the fresh produce value chains. To overcome limitations in the literature, we integrate the effect of economies of...
Conference Paper
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Wheat contamination issues of recent years harmed the reputation and customer trust of U.S. production and threatened U.S. exports. There would appear to be a need for research designed to identify and validate novel reactive strategies designed to maintain sustainable and competitive grain supply chains. This research attempts to identify cost-eff...
Article
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With food safety a growing concern in agriculture, the structure and management of agricultural supply chains has become a significant policy issue. In turn, agricultural supply chains are often analytically complex, characterized by feedback and time sensitive, often random parameters. Modern commodity chains such as wheat handling in Canada are n...
Article
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Public interest in food systems has grown dramatically, and agricultural economists have important roles to play in contributing to and leading large-scale interdisciplinary studies of the subject. Key topics include understanding food system participants' behaviors and incentives and determining what food systems can and cannot achieve. I review a...
Article
To bridge the gap in the quality of life (QOL) and economic growth literature and understand the reinforcing effects of QOL and human capital on economic development, we examine the interactive effects of these two factors on wage growth from 2000 to 2007 at the county level across the United States. First, a Rosen–Roback model is employed to estim...
Article
Numerous studies have evaluated the impact of Extension on farm productivity and related outcomes. Here we use annual data from 1983 to 2010 covering the 50 U.S. states to examine the impact of Extension on net changes in the number of farmers. The historical transition of farmers out of U.S. agriculture raises the question of whether Cooperative E...
Article
Rural areas in the United States face lagging economic performance, shrinking populations, and waning political influence. We analyze key words used by advocacy organizations to understand how they advance their interests and seek to influence federal rural policy discourse. We identify several clusters of discourse, including clusters centered on...
Article
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This paper investigates the moderating effects of entrepreneurial activity on the impact of trade penetration. Entrepreneurs may help to mitigate adverse trade shocks through several mechanisms, i.e., more flexible output structure, diversified economic portfolio, and higher knowledge spillovers from trade-induced R&D activities. Our empirical work...
Article
County-level location patterns of INC5000 companies provide one map of American entrepreneurship and innovativeness, and understanding the local factors associated with these firms’ emergence is important for stimulating regional economic growth and innovation. We draw on the knowledge spillover theory of entrepreneurship to motivate our regression...
Article
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A regional economy perturbed by a shock may move onto a new growth path by reestablishing economic linkages both internally and with other regions. This dynamic property of regions has recently been explained in terms of regional economic resilience. In this paper, we introduce a more refined measure of economic resilience and then apply it to mont...
Article
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Population growth creates a challenge to food availability and access. To balance supply with growing demand, more food has to move from production to consumption sites. Moreover, demand for locally-grown food is increasing and the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) seeks to develop and strengthen regional and local food systems. This article ex...
Article
Poor mental health is a concern in the US and world-wide. In this study we examine the effects of socioeconomic and environmental variables on the number of days of poor mental health reported across US counties. The results suggest that educational attainment, employment opportunities including self-employment, and social capital have important be...
Article
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Community-focused agriculture has been heralded as a development strategy to induce local economic growth. This study examines county-level linkages between community-focused agriculture and growth in total agricultural sales and economic growth more broadly. Using Census of Agriculture data, regional growth models are estimated on real personal in...
Chapter
This chapter reviews labor supply, demand, and equilibrium topics with the goal of showing how they determine labor market area (LMA) outcomes across geographic space. Labor supply curves are based on utility-maximizing choices between working and leisure, subject to a budget constraint, while labor demand curves are derived from the firm’s product...
Chapter
Because of the agricultural sector's economic linkages, the proper use and application of economic models to estimate economic, employment, and household income impacts from changes in agricultural sector's activity due to droughts, disasters, expansion of export sales, or changes in public policies is of interest. This article provides an overview...
Article
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This paper addresses the wholesale hub location problem in food supply chains. The paper aims to design an optimal hub location network to serve food consumption markets through efficient connections with production sites. These optimal locations can be compared with the current locations of hubs to determine whether changes could lead to greater e...
Poster
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Geospatial interdependencies of cropping systems as well as intensities of key enterprises linked to farm sizes are often overlooked components of agricultural sustainability. We have developed a remotely-sensed framework for bridging the gap between agronomic and econometric modeling families to evaluate fine-scale systems-level dynamics and farmi...
Article
AbstractA U.S. county workplace‐to‐workplace or latent migration data set is generated from overlapping migration and commuting networks. The latent migration network is the estimated number of movers between places of work, which is then compared with the actual number of migrants between places of residence. This allows both employment‐related an...
Article
The sustained surge in self-employment since 2000 has largely gone unnoticed by policy makers and economic developers. Here the authors document this surge and identify variables associated with expanding self-employment. Results provide mixed evidence about the importance of capital access to self-employment growth, but reveal that different appro...
Article
This article reviews the literature that evaluates WalMart’s impacts on local economies. The authors first describe the methods used to account for potential reverse causality of WalMart’s store location decisions, and then they discuss the literature assessing the company’s effect on three aspects of community life: (a) retail (and nonretail) busi...
Conference Paper
Multifunctional Farms – Emerging Trend and Implications on Farm and Community Prosperity Chyi-lyi Liang, University of Vermont, cliang@uvm.edu Jason P. Brown, USDA Economic Research Service, jbrown@ers.usda.gov Mary Ahearn, USDA Economic Research Service, mahearn@ers.usda.gov Stephan Goetz, Penn State Univ. and NERCRD, sgoetz@psu.edu Smal...
Article
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Even as self-employment continues to increase, policymakers remain largely unaware of this trend and fail to see it as an opportunity for addressing enduring joblessness. In part, this is explained by limited data on the self-employed and by widespread perceptions that returns to self-employment are low; that the self-employed are merely patching t...
Article
Using the fact that connections between vertices of a network often represent directed and weighted flows, we apply hydraulic principles to develop novel insights into network structure and growth. We develop a network model based on Bernoulli's principle and use it to analyze changes in network properties. Simulation results show that velocity of...
Article
Objective The recent surge in hate group activity is a concern to many citizens and policymakers. We examine the roles of socioeconomic factors measured at the county level that are hypothesized to account for the presence of such groups, including social capital and religious affiliations.Methods We estimate a Poisson regression model using counts...
Article
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Multifunctionality of agriculture is being heralded as a way to achieve food and fiber production while simultaneously providing ecological services and promoting rural development through the establishment of new enterprises. However, in order for multifunctional agriculture to achieve these objectives it must be viable. To date there have been no...
Article
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Lack of access to nutritious and affordable food has become an important public policy issue in the U.S.: various interest groups are seeking to reverse a trend whereby certain areas lack larger, full-service grocery stores that provide “higher” quality foods. Based on game-theoretic findings suggesting that lack of food access can be an equilibriu...
Article
Food retailers and restaurants are under scrutiny for their alleged effects on diets and obesity, although no clear evidence of a causal relationship exists. Furthermore, because no prior study controls for nutrition education and the dynamic nature of the underlying phenomena, existing estimates quantifying these relationships could be biased. Usi...
Article
This study explores the relationship between self-employment and income growth, employment growth, and change in poverty in metro and non-metro areas in the United States using county-level panel data. We investigate the impact of the relative size of the self-employment sector measured by the share of non-farm proprietorships (NFPs) in total full...
Article
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A data set for U.S. counties that includes residence status of firm owners is used to assess whether per capita density of locally owned businesses affects local economic growth, compared with nonlocal ownership. The database also permits stratification of firms across different employment size categories. Economic growth models that control for ot...
Article
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In attempting to promote economic development, states often pursue either a race-to-the-bottom approach focused on lowering business costs or a more investment-based, race-to-the-top approach that aims to increase productivity, innovation, and entrepreneurship. Whether either approach promotes growth and produces broad-based economic gains across t...
Article
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Communities experiencing rapid growth due to energy development ('boomtowns') have reported positive and negative impacts on community and individual well-being. The perceptions of impacts vary according to stage of energy development as well as experience with extractive industries. Development of the Marcellus Shale provides an opportunity to exa...
Article
Many questions have arisen about the relationship between international agricultural trade and poverty in developing countries. This article explores these questions by analyzing local agricultural tradability indices, which measure the degree to which commodities produced in a particular region are traded internationally. Data are examined for Chi...
Article
Labor market areas (LMAs) have long been a staple of regional and urban analysis. As commuting patterns have expanded over time, these areas have become larger and more complex, and the dichotomous designation of a county either belonging to an LMA or not may no longer be adequate. We apply recent advances in network science to conduct a more refin...
Article
Evaluating RD Policies for Social and Human Capital Development In the EU, building social capital and developing human capital are increasingly seen as key to development in rural areas. Social capital is fundamentally about human interrelationships and networks. Evaluation of policy initiatives to promote social capital needs to go beyond indicat...