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Stephan Michael Funk

Stephan Michael Funk
Nature Heritage · Conservation biology

PhD MSc MSc
Director of NatureHeritage, specialising in data analysis, writing, capacity building & research. Open for collaboration

About

113
Publications
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Publications

Publications (113)
Article
Full-text available
The Sudd in South Sudan, formed by the White Nile's Baḥr al-Jabal section, is one of the largest and most important wetlands in the world. Communities in the region almost exclusively depend on fisheries for food and livelihoods. Although threatened by over-exploitation and habitat changes, fish populations are also affected by climate change. Usin...
Article
Full-text available
We assessed numbers and biomass of species hunted and sold for wild meat in 12 park-adjacent settlements in the Fazao Malfakassa National Park (FMNP), Togo. From hunter interviews and market carcass counts 33 species, 28 from hunter interviews and 26 from market surveys were taken, respectively. A total of 2605 animals were recorded in the study, 1...
Article
Full-text available
Central African cities are major centres of demand for wild meat, even when affordable alternative proteins are widely available. Many people eat wild meat in restaurants; therefore, restaurateurs are well placed to provide insights into the wild meat trade and consumer preferences. We surveyed 326 restaurants in Brazzaville and Kinshasa, the adjoi...
Article
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Wild meat markets play a crucial role for food security and cash income for subsistence hunters in the tropics and subtropics. In Nigeria, the amount of meat sold from most species crashed dramatically after the Ebola virus outbreak in 2014. Sales further diminished after arrival of COVID-19, likely because of restrictions to commerce and of change...
Article
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A body plan (= bauplan) is a suite of morphological characters shared by phylogenetically related animals at some point during their development. Despite its value, the bauplan concept is still rarely employed to characterize functional groups in community ecology. Here, we examine habitat use and spatio-temporal activity correlates of an entire se...
Article
Suitable habitats for anurans can be found in the ever-growing tropical urban environments but anurans’ adaptations to urban conditions, including their trophic ecology remain largely unknown. We studied the food habits of two generalist, widespread West African Sclerophrys adult toads: African common (S. regularis) and Hallowell's toad (S. maculat...
Article
Ebola virus disease, EVD, which has severely affected Western African countries has been linked with wild meat. In Nigeria, strict restrictions on the sale of wild meat were applied after the first case in the country, July 2014. We quantified wild meat trade in nine markets in southern Nigeria, during Oct. 2010 – Dec. 2019. We also undertook inter...
Chapter
Full-text available
People hunt wild animals in a wide range of settings all over the world. Zooarcheological evidence shows that hunting goes back at least two million years and even contributed to the extinction of megafauna in the Pleistocene period. Yet today, there is mounting evidence that apes are becoming a more desired product, and thus trafficking is increas...
Article
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A significant number of Baka Pygmies in Cameroon have been sedentarised in roadside villages, in contrast to their nomadic hunter-gatherer existence of the past. Although this change in lifestyle has had important consequences on health, most Baka villages still supplement their diets from forest products, especially wild meat. We used a combinatio...
Article
Full-text available
Background Forest inhabitants worldwide, and indigenous people especially, have depended for generations on plants and animals harvested in these ecosystems. A number of Baka hunter-gatherer populations in south-eastern Cameroon became sedentarised in the 1950s, but still rely on hunting and gathering to meet their basic needs. The use of wild edib...
Article
Full-text available
As a result of sedentarisation many Baka Pygmies have changed their mobility patterns away from nomadic lifestyles to living in roadside villages. These settled groups are increasingly dependent on cultivated foods but still rely on forest resources. The level of dependence on hunting of wild animals for food and cash, as well as the hunting profil...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background Forest inhabitants worldwide, and Indigenous Peoples especially, have depended for generations on plants and animals harvested in these ecosystems. A number of Baka Pygmy populations in south-eastern Cameroon became sedentarised in the 1950s, but still rely on hunting and gathering to meet their basic needs. The use of wild edible plants...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: Forest inhabitants worldwide, and Indigenous Peoples especially, have depended for generations on plants and animals harvested in these ecosystems. A number of Baka hunter-gatherer populations in south-eastern Cameroon became sedentarised in the 1950s, but still rely on hunting and gathering to meet their basic needs. The use of wild ed...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: Forest inhabitants worldwide, and Indigenous Peoples especially, have depended for generations on plants and animals harvested in these ecosystems. A number of Baka hunter-gatherer populations in south-eastern Cameroon became sedentarised in the 1950s, but still rely on hunting and gathering to meet their basic needs. The use of wild ed...
Article
Full-text available
We determined stunting, wasting, and obesity frequencies in a total 1092 2-to-12 year old Baka Pygmy children from anthropometric and health data gathered in 34 villages in the Djoum-Mintom region in southeastern Cameroon in four health campaigns in 2010 and 2017–9. We compare these to the WHO Child Growth Standards, Amazonian Tsiname growth refere...
Article
Full-text available
STRUCTURE remains the most applied software aimed at recovering the true, but unknown, population structure from microsatellite or other genetic markers. About 30% of STRUCTURE‐based studies could not be reproduced (Molecular Ecology, 21, 2012, 4925). Here we use a large set of data from 2,323 horses from 93 domestic breeds plus the Przewalski hors...
Article
Full-text available
Differences in socioeconomic conditions and health have been reported for African Pygmies and their sympatric populations of other ethnic groups. We collected anthropometric data in southern Cameroon from Baka and their Bantu neighbours, and also extracted from the five available and representative Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) in sub-Sahara...
Article
Full-text available
The trade of bushmeat from rural areas to supply burgeoning cities is a major conservation and livelihood concern. Using a whole-city sampling strategy we mapped the distribution and numbers of meat outlets in the Kinshasa–Brazzaville metropolitan area, two neighboring capital cities in Central Africa. We show that both cities differ in the number...
Article
Full-text available
We found the ear mite parasite (Otodectes cynotis; Acari: Psoroptidae) in two distant insular endangered fox populations in Chile. We identified Otodectes cynotis in both the Darwin's fox (Pseudalopex fulvipes) from Chiloé and the Fuegian culpeo (Pseudalopex culpaeus lycoides) in Tierra del Fuego. These populations are approximately 2,000 km apart....
Preprint
Full-text available
Background African Pygmies exhibit a unique, genetically determined child growth dynamics and adult stature but the impact on assessing undernutrition remains unknown. Baka Pygmy health is highly compromised compared to sympatric populations. Evaluating child undernutrition is an important step to address this health quandry. We estimate stunting a...
Article
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Protected areas (PAs) in Central Africa provide unprecedented opportunities to maintain ecosystem integrity and safeguard the unique wildlife of one of the most biodiverse regions in the world. However, conflicts exist between wildlife protection, and the needs of human populations adjacent to PAs. Although the use of wildlife resources within PAs...
Article
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Effective protection of the ~19,000 IUCN-listed threatened species has never been more pressing. Ensuring the survival of the most vulnerable and irreplaceable taxa and places, such as those identified by the Alliance for Zero Extinction (AZE) species and their associated sites (AZEs&s), is an excellent opportunity to achieve the Aichi 2020 Targets...
Article
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To determine the evolutionary history, relationships and distinctiveness of allopatric populations of Hispaniolan solenodon (Solenodon paradoxus), a highly threatened Caribbean ‘relict’ mammal, to understand spatio-temporal patterns of gene flow and the distribution of diversity across complex large island landscapes and inform spatial conservation...
Article
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The island of Mauritius has experienced five reptile extinctions since the 1600s. Approximately half of the remaining herpetofauna has been restricted to offshore islets, resulting in small populations at high risk of extinction. Under the combined pressures of invasive species, habitat loss and fragmentation and climate change, translocations are...
Article
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Recent analyses of Internet search behaviour conclude that the public’s interest in environmental issues is falling (McCallum and Bury, Biodiv Conserv 22:1355–1367, 2013). Ficetola (Biodiv Conserv 22:2983–2988, 2013) argued that the nature of the underpinning data processing may create an artificially declining trend, even when the absolute number...
Article
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Populations of endangered mammals are often small, fragmented and have low genetic variability that can reduce the ability to evolve in response to environmental changes. The endangered Ethiopian wolf (Canis simensis) is a habitat specialist restricted to six small, isolated pockets of Afroalpine habitat, with a total population of fewer than 500 a...
Article
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The Posavina and Croatian Coldblood are Croatian autochthonous horse breeds with interwoven breeding histories for which studbooks have only recently been established. The Lipizzan breed has the oldest formalized breeding and no record of recent genetic introgression from other breeds in Croatia. We analyzed the genetic structure, interbreeding, an...
Article
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A total of 189 faecal samples of the critically endangered Darwin's fox (Pseudalopex fulvipes [Martin, 1837]), from different areas within Chiloé Island in southern Chile were examined for parasites eggs and oocysts using the sugar flotation technique. The results showed that 21.2% of the samples were positive to either one of nine helminthes and o...
Article
Full-text available
Un total de 189 heces del zorro de Darwin (Pseudalopex fulvipes [Martin, 1837]) en peligro crítico de extinción, de diferentes localidades de la isla de Chiloé en el sur de Chile, se examinaron en busca de huevos de parásitos y oocitos usando la técnica de flotación en azúcar. Los resultados mostraron que el 21,2% de las muestras fue positivo a nue...
Book
In the face of ever-declining biodiversity, zoos have a major role to play in species conservation. Written by professionals involved in in-situ conservation and restoration projects internationally, this is a critical assessment of the contribution of zoos to species conservation through evidence amassed from a wide range of sources. The first par...
Article
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This study examines the effect of a clumped, non‐defendable and abundant year‐round food resource (Cape fur seals) for black‐backed jackal Canis mesomelas social structure and spatial organization at Cape Cross Seal Reserve and the National West Coast Recreation Area in Namibia during the jackals' denning period in 2004 and 2005. Geo‐referenced obs...
Article
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Evidence is presented from morphological observations, multivariate and molecular analyses on the taxonomic status of specimens of Salanoia newly discovered at Lac Alaotra, Madagascar, which resemble but are phenotypically highly divergent from the monotypic species S. concolor. A detailed comparative description is provided, together with informat...
Article
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Black-backed jackals (Canis mesomelas, Schreber, 1775) survive in a wide range of environments. Their foraging strategies are highly variable in different habitats. Adaptations in foraging behaviour in relation to abundance and quality of food sources are expected to be highly pronounced in an extreme habitat like a desert. This study investigated...
Data
Accumulation of area size when selecting ecoregions by different prioritization methods. Lines represent the cumulative area size of ecoregions when incrementally increasing the number of included ecoregions, which were continuously prioritized by species richness (blue), endemism (red), δ-endemism (black) and threat (green). Symbols denote the are...
Data
Number of species unique to the prioritization method over prioritized ecoregion ranks. Lines represent unique species when incrementally increasing the number of included ecoregions, which were prioritized on the basis of species richness (blue), endemism (red), δ-endemism (black) and threat (green). Only the 250 highest ranking ecoregions are sho...
Data
Databases used. (0.04 MB DOC)
Data
Number of endangered species captured by prioritization metrics. (0.04 MB DOC)
Article
Full-text available
In the face of accelerating species extinctions, map-based prioritization systems are increasingly useful to decide where to pursue conservation action most effectively. However, a number of seemingly inconsistent schemes have emerged, mostly focussing on endemism. Here we use global vertebrate distributions in terrestrial ecoregions to evaluate ho...
Article
Severe population declines have resulted from the spillover of canine distemper virus (CDV) into susceptible wildlife, with both domestic and wild canids being involved in the maintenance and transmission of the virus. This study (March 2001 to October 2003) collated case data, serologic, pathologic, and molecular data to describe the spillover of...
Article
Full-text available
Headstarting refers to the raising of hatchlings in captivity and subsequently releasing them into the wild and it is a widely used tool to protect endangered species by increasing survivorship. Evaluating the success of headstart programs is necessary but challenging. We evaluated a headstart program for the endangered Mona Island iguana Cyclura c...
Article
Full-text available
The Salangid icefish Neosalanx taihuensis (Salangidae) is an economically important fish, which is endemic to China, restricted to large freshwater systems (e.g. lakes, large rivers and estuaries) and typically exhibit low vagility. The continuous distribution ranges from the temperate region of the Huai and Yellow River basins to the subtropical r...
Data
Nested clade analysis. Statistical analysis of the current and historic patterns of phylogenetic and geographic associations.
Article
Full-text available
We isolated and characterized 11 microsatellite loci in the Mona Island iguana (Cyclura cornuta stejnegeri). Eleven loci exhibit moderate to high allelic diversity (two to 12 alleles, mean = 4.5) and polymorphism (mean observed heterozygosity, 0.56; range, 0.26 to 0.78) in 41 adults. This marker set has low probability of identity and high parentag...
Article
Gait selection is a strategy used by quadrupeds to meet the demands of locomotion under variable environmental conditions. The movement of black-backed jackals Canis mesomelas within a desert area was investigated. The usage and distribution of gaits in three distinct desert environments in the Namib Desert, Namibia, were analysed. The areas were c...
Article
Full-text available
Headstarting refers to the raising of hatchlings in captivity and subsequently releasing them into the wild and it is a widely used tool to protect endangered species by increasing survivorship. Evaluating the success of headstart programs is necessary but challenging. We evaluated a headstart program for the endangered Mona Island iguana Cyclura c...
Article
The pygmy hog, Sus salvanius, the smallest and rarest extant suid was first described as the only member of the genus Porcula. It is currently regarded as member of the genus Sus and a sister taxon of the domestic pig/Eurasian wild boar (Sus scrofa). Phylogenetic analyses of 2316 bp from three mtDNA loci (control-region, cytochrome b, 16S) by Bayes...
Article
The golden monkey (Rhinopithecus roxellana) is one of the most endangered primate species due to its dramatically shrinking distribution during the past 400 years. Its populations are restricted to three isolated regions, Qinglin (QL), Sichuan/Gansu (SG), and Shennongjia (SNJ) in China. As with other snub-nosed monkeys in China and Vietnam, the bio...
Article
Full-text available
The population of the endangered iguana Cyclura cornuta stejnegeri, endemic to Mona Island (Puerto Rico), is characterized by a low density and an adult-skewed age distribution. In this study we measured space use patterns in nine adult iguanas (five males and four females) during the non-breeding period in an undisturbed environment in order to de...
Article
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ABSTRACT • Disease epizootics can significantly influence host population dynamics and the structure and functioning of ecological communities. Sarcoptic mange Sarcoptes scabiei has dramatically reduced red fox populations Vulpes vulpes in several countries, including Britain, although impacts on demographic processes are poorly understood. We revi...
Article
Microcebus ravelobensis is an endangered nocturnal primate endemic to northwestern Madagascar. This part of the island is subject to extensive human intervention leading to massive habitat destruction and fragmentation. We investigated the degree of genetic differentiation among remaining populations using mitochondrial control region sequences (47...
Article
Full-text available
The kodkod (Leopardus guigna) is one of the least known endangered felid species. In order to find an adequate anaesthetic association to handle safely kodkod individuals during ecological studies and veterinary procedures, we conducted 10 chemical immobilizations in 7 animals using a combination of ketamine hydrochloride (KH) and xylazine hydrochl...
Article
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The presence of the dog biting louse, Trichodectes canis (De Geer, 1778; Ischnocera: Trichodectidae), is reported for the first time in the critically endangered Pseudalopex fulvipes (Martin, 1837) in Chiloé Island, south Chile.
Article
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Endemic taxa are those restricted to a specific area, and can be defined as the exclusive biodiversity of a region. Areas with high endemic numbers are irreplaceable, and are of high priority for conservation. We investigated global patterns of endemicity of terrestrial vertebrates (mammals, birds, reptiles and amphibians) by employing data from Wo...
Article
Although the mechanisms controlling gene flow among populations are particularly important for evolutionary processes, they are still poorly understood, especially in the case of large carnivoran mammals with extensive continuous distributions. We studied the question of factors affecting population genetic structure in the grey wolf, Canis lupus,...
Article
Full-text available
Vicariance and isolation leading to speciation of reptiles on islands is well exemplified in a number of taxa in the Caribbean. The St. Lucia whiptail (Cnemidophorus vanzoi), considered a single species, is found on two small islets (Maria Major and Maria Minor) off the main island of St. Lucia. From lizards collected from both localities, we gathe...
Article
We developed six new microsatellite loci for the black mangrove (Avicennia germinans), an important member of wetland communities worldwide. Loci showed moderate to high polymorphism and a survey of four locations [Puerto Rico (Jobos Bay and Luquillo), Mexico, French Guyana] revealed clear regional (and local) population structure. All populations...