Stephan Arndt

Stephan Arndt
University of Iowa | UI · Department of Psychiatry

Ph.D.

About

459
Publications
94,679
Reads
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29,499
Citations
Introduction
Stephan Arndt currently works at the Department of Psychiatry, University of Iowa. Stephan does research in epidemiology of substance use disorders, statistics, and medicine. A current project is 'Assessment of Recovery Capital.'
Additional affiliations
July 2019 - July 2019
University of Iowa
Position
  • Professor Emeritus
August 1988 - present
University of Iowa
Education
September 1976 - June 1980
Claremont Graduate University
Field of study
  • Psychology
September 1974 - June 1976
Claremont Graduate University
Field of study
  • Psychology
September 1970 - June 1974
Loyola Marymount University
Field of study
  • Psychology

Publications

Publications (459)
Article
To examine the association between military deployment of a parent and use of alcohol and drugs among children of deployed military personnel. Observational and cross-sectional study. Data from the USA 2010 Iowa Youth Survey, a statewide survey of 6th, 8th and 11th graders, were analyzed during 2011. Of all 6th-, 8th- and 11th-grade students enroll...
Article
Surveillance system indicators of morbidity, mortality, or behaviors are used to provide regional information for ever-smaller areas, most recently for ranking counties. These rankings are thought to provide information about the relative standing of regions and provide information about problem areas and the success of programs. We investigate the...
Article
Full-text available
Evidence-based health indicators are vital to needs-based programming and epidemiological planning. Agencies frequently make programming funds available to local jurisdictions based on need. The use of objective indicators to determine need is attractive but assumes that selection of communities with the highest indicators reflects something other...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: Substance use disorders (SUDs) are widespread and cause significant morbidity and mortality, yet most people in the United States with a SUD do not receive treatment. Recommendations call for widespread use of pharmacotherapy, including medications for opioid use disorder (MOUD). However, many facilities do not offer a full array of medic...
Article
Background Enrollment of a representative sample of racial or ethnic-minority participants can be challenging for researchers conducting clinical trials. One proposed solution is race/ethnicity matching (i.e., aligning the racial or ethnic identity of the trial recruiter with that of the desired participant), but in practice this idea has yielded m...
Research
Full-text available
Final report for the Co-MAT-IA project, funded by a 3-year grant from SAMHSA to increase access to medication to treat opioid use disorder in Iowa.
Article
Objectives To see whether the percentage of older adults entering substance use treatment for their first time continued to increase and whether there were changes in the use patterns leading to the treatment episode, particularly an increase in illicit drugs. Design Public administrative health record study. Setting The Treatment Episode Data Se...
Chapter
Full-text available
Abstract: Introduction: Health protocols have not included technology as a specific area of assessment or treatment. The Functional Assessment of Currently Employed Technology Scale (FACETS) was designed to do so. FACETS is a 10 item questionnaire assessing 5 functional domains. The current study was conducted to establish validity & reliability fo...
Article
Objective To examine the extent to which there was any therapeutic relationship between Veterans and their initial buprenorphine provider, and whether presence of this relationship influenced treatment retention. Data sources National, secondary administrative data used from the Veterans Health Administration (VHA), 2008-2017. Study Design Retros...
Article
Full-text available
We examined the effects of cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, and use of both cigarettes and alcohol on changes in sleep quality and duration among Chinese older adults. Using four waves of the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey (CLHLS), we employed Cox two-state regression models to examine the changes in sleep quality and duration...
Article
Full-text available
This review examines the impact of stigma on pregnant people who use substances. Stigma towards people who use drugs is pervasive and negatively impacts the care of substance-using people by characterizing addiction as a weakness and fostering beliefs that undermine the personal resources needed to access treatment and recover from addiction, inclu...
Article
Full-text available
Objective Treatment for opioid use disorder (OUD) may include a combination of pharmacotherapies (such as buprenorphine) with counseling services if clinically indicated. Medication management or engagement with in-person counseling services may be hindered by logistical and financial barriers. Telehealth may provide an alternative mechanism for co...
Article
Introduction Veterans with opioid use disorder have an increased risk of suicide and overdose compared with the general population. Buprenorphine, a U.S. Food and Drug Administration–approved medication to treat opioid use disorder, has shown benefits, including decreased risk of illicit drug use and overdose. This study assesses the mortality outc...
Article
Background: Medical marijuana legalization (MML) has become more prevalent in the United States. This study examined the association between medical marijuana legalization and sources of obtaining marijuana among adults in the United States. Methods: Adult participants (age ≥18) from the 2018 wave of the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSD...
Article
Full-text available
Background Opioid use disorder (OUD), a chronic disease, is a major public health problem. Despite availability of effective treatment, too few people receive it and treatment retention is low. Understanding barriers and facilitators of treatment access and retention is needed to improve outcomes for people with OUD. Objectives To assess 3-month o...
Article
Cultural capital is a known factor supporting success in substance use disorder (SUD) treatment. We investigated Asian American and Pacific Islander (AAPI) State population metrics in relation to SUD treatment completion for US clients from 2006–2017 (N=5,404,374). Metrics that may signify greater available cultural capital were State AAPI Percenta...
Article
Full-text available
The stigma surrounding individuals who have substance use disorders is a pervasive phenomenon that has had detrimental effects on treatment outcomes, health care providers, treatments, research, policies, and society as a whole (Kelly JF, Dow SJ, Westerhoff C , J Drug Issues_40:805-818, Kelly JF, Westerhoff, Int J Drug Policy_21:202-207, 2010). Sti...
Article
Objectives Analyze 10-year trends in opioid use disorder with heroin (OUD-H) among older persons and to compare those with typical-onset (aged<30 years) to those with late (aged 30+) onset. Design Naturalistic observation using the most recent (2008-2017) Treatment Episode Data Set-Admissions (TEDS-A). Setting Admission records in TEDS-A come fro...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: Opioid use disorder (OUD), a chronic disease, is a major public health problem. Despite availability of effective treatment, too few people receive it and treatment retention is low. Understanding barriers and facilitators of treatment access and retention is needed to improve outcomes for people with OUD. Objectives: To assess 3-month...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: Opioid use disorder (OUD), a chronic disease, is a major public health problem. Despite availability of effective treatment, too few people receive it and treatment retention is low. Understanding barriers and facilitators of treatment access and retention is needed to improve outcomes for people with OUD. Objectives: To assess 3-month...
Article
This research focuses on associations of medical marijuana legalization with prescription drug misuse, illicit drug use, and a combination of both behaviors. Using three waves of the National Survey of Drug Use and Health (NSDUH, 2016–2018), adult participants (age ≥ 18) were selected for the final study sample (n = 127,438). Multinomial logistic r...
Article
Full-text available
Recovery from addiction requires various personal and environmental resources. The purposes of this study were to determine if the Assessment of Recovery Capital (ARC) scores measured at admission could predict substance abuse treatment (SAT) completion and to identify personal and environmental factors associated with ARC scores. Participants (N=2...
Article
Full-text available
Healthcare settings frequently rank among the lowest for referring clients to substance use disorder (SUD) treatment. Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral to Treatment (SBIRT) was employed to improve SUD outcomes; yet, effectiveness evidence is still needed. We used secondary data from patients screened in federally qualified health centers...
Article
Background: Diagnostic and treatment gaps exist for those with substance use disorders (SUD). SUD diagnostics in treatment have been critically under-investigated. We investigated known diagnoses in US addiction treatment centres receiving state or federal funding. Methods: Cross-sectional risk factor analysis of variables associated with known dia...
Article
Purpose: The recent opioid crisis is characterized by a relatively greater increase in opioid use disorder and related mortality in rural populations when compared with urban populations.1-5 As almost a quarter of our nation's veterans reside in rural settings, the United States Veterans Health Administration (VHA) is interested in the impact of t...
Article
The present study aims to investigate the associations of weekly marijuana use with health-related measurements, including overall, physical, and mental health, and quality of life among adults, in a single research effort with panel analysis. The two latest Waves (2014–2015 and 2015–2016) of the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health study (P...
Article
Full-text available
The US Epidemiologic data show that past-year marijuana use rates among the 50+ age group rose more than 300% between 2002 and 2017. In 2017, 10.2% of those aged 50-64 years and 3.7% of those aged 65+ years were past-year users, and 15% of these users reported all or part of their use to have been for medical purposes. In this symposium, using find...
Article
Free full text until 12/7/19: --- https://authors.elsevier.com/a/1Zwoc1LiD2-ffG --- Background: Recovery capital represents client strengths associated with substance use disorder (SUD) recovery. Employment is part of recovery capital supporting long-term recovery. However, employment recovery capital (ERC) factors associated with SUD recovery are...
Article
Background Substance use disorders (SUDs) pose a significant public health concern. Previous findings, while equivocal, demonstrate screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment (SBIRT) is effective in reducing substance use and improving overall health. While race/ethnic and sex differences in SBIRT outcomes exist, racial/ethnic differe...
Presentation
Full-text available
Records from the Substance Abuse Mental Health Services Administration annual Treatment Episode Data – Admissions (TEDS-A) were combined for the years 2000 to 2017. Analyses were conducted on records from the state of Iowa. • There was a steady increase in opioid cases and deaths in Iowa from 2000 to 2017. This increase translates to an additional...
Conference Paper
Records from the Substance Abuse Mental Health Services Administration annual Treatment Episode Data – Admissions (TEDS-A) were combined for the years 2000 to 2017. Analyses were conducted on records from the state of Iowa. • There was a steady increase in opioid cases and deaths in Iowa from 2000 to 2017. This increase translates to an additional...
Article
Background: The use and misuse of opioid pain medication is a public health problem that has extended to pregnant women. Assessing both the use and misuse of opioid pain medication had been limited. Aims: The aim of the present study was to disseminate data from a national sample of pregnant and nonpregnant women, tracking the rate and predictor...
Article
Objective: The authors examined the efficacy of valproate to reduce relapse to heavy drinking among veterans with alcohol use disorder (AUD) and neuropsychiatric comorbidities and whether antecedent traumatic brain injury (TBI) or posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) affected treatment response. Methods: Participants were male veterans 18-60 yea...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Executive Summary • Iowa has seen an increase in the number of people with opioid use. disorder (OUD). Buprenorphine is an evidence-based medication for OUD treatment. Among Iowa Counties: o 15 counties' residents do not have access to buprenorphine treatment; 23 counties' residents have limited access (one provider); 61 counties have two or more p...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: Insurers, institutional and independent providers of health care have made increasing use of websites for patient communication, in the absence of data indicating that patients, especially older adults, utilize information technology (IT). The current study was designed to determine patient frequency of internet and IT utilization acr...
Article
Early stages of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are characterized by the loss and narrowing of terminal bronchioles in the lung resulting in 'air-trapping,' often occurring before overt emphysema manifests. Individuals with an airway-predominant phenotype of COPD display extensive lung air-trapping and are at greater cardiovascular dis...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: Health protocols have not included technology as a specific area of assessment or treatment. The Functional Assessment of Currently Employed Technology Scale (FACETS) was designed to do so. FACETS is a 10 item questionnaire assessing 5 functional domains. The current study was conducted to establish validity & reliability for FACETS....
Article
Mental health professionals and administrators work to improve substance use treatment for racially and ethnically diverse populations. However, a national comparison study of Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders (AAPIs) and non-AAPIs substance use outpatient treatment completion has received little attention. The present study examined treatment...
Presentation
Full-text available
This provides context of opioid and methamphetamine injection drug use in Iowa. The talk also compares national versus Iowa issues that need to be addressed. Suggestions are given for reducing infection transmissions among people who inject drugs and in the general population.
Presentation
Full-text available
How to best use and plan pilot studies and data from pilots for grant applications. Common problems and how to solve them.
Technical Report
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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Iowa has seen increasing rates of HIV, hepatitis, and opioid related problems in the last several years. An obvious connection between these issues is injection drug use (IDU) and people who inject drugs (PWID). We looked at SAMSHA's Treatment Episode Dataset-Admissions for the past 15 years of available data for Iowa treatment ce...
Technical Report
Full-text available
The present special report sought to identify important characteristics to consider in the treatment of Iowa veterans for substance use disorders. The analyses of Iowa veterans addresses the following questions: - How are Iowa veteran admission percentages changing over time? - Who are Iowa veterans presenting in non-VA SUD treatment? - What vetera...
Presentation
Full-text available
This presentation looks at Iowa's opioid experience so far in the context of other substance use disorders. Opioid admissions to treatment display some unusual patterns when compared to other substances. Some of these patterns may lead to improved treatment outcomes.
Data
A Global Outcome Measure for Adolescents base on adolescent or emerging adult's ratings. Areas include: general outcome, family interactions, substance use, mental health, and peer relations. Additional questions are included about convenience of treatment, satisfaction with services, and cultural needs.
Data
A Global Outcome Measure for Adolescents base on family member's ratings. Areas include: general outcome, family interactions, substance use, mental health, and peer relations. Additional questions are included about convenience of treatment, satisfaction with services, and cultural needs.
Technical Report
Full-text available
The purpose of SYT-I is to expand and enhance evidence-based treatment and recovery support services for substance use disorders (SUD) and co-occurring disorders among adolescents (ages 12 to 17) and transitional aged youth (ages 18 to 25), and their families. Four community treatment agencies are currently involved. The SYT-I Families in Focus pro...
Technical Report
Full-text available
The Iowa Consortium for Substance Abuse Research and Evaluation (Consortium) is under contract with the Iowa Department of Public Health (IDPH) for the Outcomes Monitoring System (OMS) project. The OMS project provides an independent evaluation regarding substance use disorder treatment outcomes in Iowa. The Consortium conducts follow-up interviews...
Technical Report
Full-text available
The Outcomes Monitoring System (OMS) systematically gathers data on substance use disorder treatment outcomes in Iowa. Randomly selected clients from up to 22 treatment agencies receiving funding from the Iowa Department of Public Health were contacted for follow-up interviews. The interviews occur approximately six months after discharge from trea...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Recent changes in marijuana policies and their potential negative effects on youth development are a public health concern. Identifying the most appropriate treatment approaches for problematic marijuana use is important. Objectives: The aim of this study was to track marijuana use among young people by examining national changes fro...
Article
Full-text available
Objective The goal of this study was to determine whether the 50-item Assessment of Recovery Capital scale represents a single general measure or whether multiple domains might be psychometrically useful for research or clinical applications. Methods Data are from a cross-sectional de-identified existing program evaluation information data set wit...
Technical Report
Full-text available
On July 1, 2010, the Iowa Department of Public Health (IDPH) received a general fund appropriation from the Iowa Legislature (House File 2526) to implement pilot projects providing culturally competent substance abuse treatment. Three community-based agencies are providing services under the Culturally Competent Substance Abuse Treatment Project (C...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Admission and discharge data between December 18, 2006 and June 13, 2017 were analyzed to compare the Culturally Competent Treatment Project (Cultural Competency Project) with other treatment programs in the state. In this analysis, 1,115 clients in the Cultural Competency Project were compared to 16,843 minority clients admitted during the same pe...
Article
This review describes the contribution of psychiatric epidemiology to our understanding of the distribution and determinants of psychiatric disorders. First, it describes basic concepts within epidemiology, such as prevalence, incidence, case definition, bias, and confounding, and their specific meaning within psychiatric research. The two basic st...
Article
Full-text available
There are several methods for building prediction models. The wealth of currently available modeling techniques usually forces the researcher to judge, a priori, what will likely be the best method. Super learning (SL) is a methodology that facilitates this decision by combining all identified prediction algorithms pertinent for a particular predic...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Screening, Brief Intervention and Referral to Treatment (SBIRT) is a five-year grant (July 2012 – June 2017) awarded to the Iowa Department of Public Health and funded by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA); Center for Substance Abuse Treatment. SBIRT IOWA uses a compr...
Article
Full-text available
Objective The purpose of the present study is to explore the stability of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) in a clinical setting by comparing prescreening heavy drinking questions and AUDIT scores over time. Because instrument stability is equal to test–retest reliability at worst, investigating the stability of the AUDIT would...
Article
Background: A national analysis of Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders (AAPI) substance use treatment admissions has yet to be studied. We sought to explore admission trends for AAPI, demographic and treatment variable change, and individual state admission change over time. Methods: We used retrospective time-series logistic regression treati...