Stella Neema

Stella Neema
Makerere University · Department of Sociology & Anthropology

PhD (Anthropology)

About

60
Publications
10,382
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Introduction
I am a medical anthropologist at the department of Sociology and anthropology, Makerere University. I am a specialist in qualitative research. Area of focus: adolescent sexual and reproductive health, Sexual and gender based violence, maternal health HIV/AIDS, Family planning, poverty, gender and health, health sector analysis, WASH, community participatory studies, AMR, Neglected tropical diseases

Publications

Publications (60)
Preprint
Background: Over-the-counter antibiotic access is common in low-and-middle-income countries, including Tanzania and Uganda, and this may accelerate antimicrobial resistance. Our study explores critical aspects of the drug seller-client interaction and antibiotic dispensing patterns for simulated COVID-19 symptoms during the pandemic in two study si...
Article
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Background Qualitative data show negative impacts of menstruation on health and education in many settings, but there are few longitudinal quantitative studies of the impact of menstruation. We analyse associations with menstrual anxiety and school attendance in a study of Ugandan secondary school students. Methods Data were from a longitudinal pi...
Article
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Background HIV is the leading cause of mortality among youth in sub-Saharan Africa. Uganda hosts over 1.43 million refugees, and more than 83,000 live in Kampala, largely in informal settlements. There is limited information about HIV testing uptake and preferences among urban refugee and displaced youth. HIV self-testing is a promising method for...
Article
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With over 1.4 million refugees, Uganda is Sub-Saharan Africa’s largest refugee-hosting nation. Bidi Bidi, Uganda’s largest refugee settlement, hosts over 230,000 residents. There is a dearth of evidence-based sexual violence prevention and post-rape clinical care interventions in low- and middle-income humanitarian contexts tailored for refugee you...
Preprint
Full-text available
BACKGROUND HIV is the leading cause of mortality among youth in sub-Saharan Africa. Uganda hosts over 1.43 million refugees, and more than 83,000 live in Kampala, largely in informal settlements. There is limited information about HIV testing uptake and preferences among urban refugee and displaced youth. HIV self-testing is a promising method for...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Poor menstrual health and hygiene (MHH) is a globally recognised public health challenge. A pilot study of an MHH intervention was conducted in two secondary schools in Entebbe, Uganda, over 9 months. The intervention included five components delivered by the implementing partner (WoMena Uganda) and the research team: (i) training teac...
Article
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Objectives Achieving good menstrual health and hygiene (MHH) is a public health challenge and there is little evidence to inform interventions. The aim of this study was to pilot test an intervention to improve MHH and school attendance in Uganda, in preparation for a future cluster-randomised trial. Design Longitudinal study with pre–post evaluat...
Article
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The aim of the study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the London Measure of Unplanned Pregnancy (LMUP) among female sex workers (FSWs) in Uganda. The LMUP was translated into Luganda and adapted for use with FSWs and underwent cognitive testing and two field tests. From the final Luganda LMUP, three other language versions were create...
Article
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Background: Nodding syndrome has increasingly become an issue of public health concern internationally. The etiology of the disorder is still unknown and there are yet no curative treatments. We explored perceptions about treatment practices and barriers to health seeking for nodding syndrome in Pader and Kitgum districts in northern Uganda in ord...
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Background Routine HIV counselling and testing as part of antenatal care has been institutionalized in Uganda as an entry point for pregnant women into the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) programme. Understanding how women experience this mode of HIV testing is important to generate ideas on how to strengthen the PMTCT pro...
Chapter
Full-text available
The aim of this chapter is to shed insights into the impact of HIV/AIDS on older people in Uganda. The study employed a mixed method approach using both in-depth interviews and focus group discussions. The findings suggest that the older population are overwhelmed by their situation. They are directly affected because AIDS is killing their children...
Article
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In-depth interviews were conducted with 39 very religious people living with HIV (16 had ever and 23 had never discontinued antiretroviral therapy-ART) to assess the role of religion in these treatment decisions and in coping with HIV. Participants who had ever discontinued ART gave reasons such as: teachings and prophecies from religious leaders,...
Article
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Disclosure of HIV serostatus by women to their sexual partners is critical for the success of the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) programme as an integrated service in antenatal care. We explored pregnant HIV-positive and HIV-negative women's partner disclosure experiences and support needs in eastern Uganda. This was a qu...
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Stigma has been associated with chronic health conditions such as HIV/AIDS, leprosy, tuberculosis, Mental illness and Epilepsy. Different forms of stigma have been identified: enacted stigma, perceived stigma, and self stigma. Stigma is increasingly regarded as a key driver of the HIV/AIDS epidemic and has a major impact on public health interventi...
Conference Paper
In-depth interviews were conducted with 39 very religious people living with HIV (16 had ever and 23 had never discontinued ART) to assess the role of religion in these treatment decisions and coping with HIV. Participants who had ever discontinued ART gave reasons such as: teachings and prophecies from religious leaders, and supporting Biblical sc...
Article
Full-text available
The implementation and utilization of programmes for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV in most low income countries has been described as sub-optimal. As planners and service providers, the views of health workers are important in generating priorities to improve the effectiveness of the PMTCT programme in Uganda. We exp...
Article
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The aim of the study is to measure trends in condom use in marital and cohabiting relationships in South Africa and Uganda. The data for the study come from two cross sectional surveys conducted in 1998 and 2008 among adult men and women and their partners in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa and the Jinja district, Uganda. The findings suggest that cons...
Conference Paper
Background: Condoms have often been stigmatized through their association with extramarital or elicit sex. As marriage becomes a risk factor for HIV infection in high prevalence countries, introducing condom use within stable relationships is an increasing priority for prevention. Methods: In-depth interviews were conducted with both spouses of 40...
Article
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While community-based groups are able to provide vital support to people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHIV), their organizational and technical capacities are limited, and they frequently operate in isolation from PLHIV groups. We evaluated a three-year project implemented by the International HIV/AIDS Alliance in Uganda to increase the involvement of PL...
Article
In the last decade, three randomized controlled trials in Kenya, South Africa, and Uganda have shown that medical male circumcision (MMC) reduces the sexual transmission of HIV from women to men. Objectives of this assessment were to measure acceptability of adult MMC and circumcision of children to inform policies regarding whether and how to prom...
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Prevention of unplanned pregnancies among HIV-infected individuals is critical to the prevention of mother to child HIV transmission (PMTCT), but its potential has not been fully utilized by PMTCT programmes. The uptake of family planning methods among women in Uganda is low, with current use of family planning methods estimated at 24%, but availab...
Article
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Unwanted pregnancy and HIV infection are issues of significant concern to young people. Limited data exists on contraceptive decision-making and practices among HIV-infected and HIV-negative young people in low resource settings with generalized HIV epidemics. From July 2007 until April 2009, we recruited, and followed up over a one year period, a...
Article
Vaginal microbicides currently under development are substances that may prevent the transmission of HIV. Qualitative, in-depth post-trial interview data from a Phase III clinical trial of 6% Cellulose Sulfate microbicide gel in two sites in Africa (Uganda and Benin) and two in India (Chennai and Bagalkot) were examined in order to better understan...
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The percentages of couples in HIV sero-discordant relationships range from 5 to 31% in the various countries of Africa. Given the importance of procreation and the lack of assisted reproduction to avoid partner transmission, members of these couples are faced with a serious dilemma even after the challenge of disclosing their HIV status to their sp...
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To understand reasons for persistent high fertility rate, we explored perceptions and influences of fertility motivation among young people from Uganda. Qualitative inquiry was used, data were organised using NVivo 2 package and latent content analysis performed. Major themes that emerged on factors that entrench high fertility included "Sustenance...
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This article critically examines the challenges associated with demand for immunization, including the interplay of political, social, economic and technological forces that influence the level of immunization coverage. The article suggests a framework to capture the complex and dynamic nature of the immunization process and tests its effectiveness...
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The results are presented from a 2005 survey of 377 women in four HIV/AIDS treatment programs in Uganda. The aim of the study was to explore women's economic hardships and the association with four sexual risk behaviors: whether a woman was sexually active in the last 12 months, whether a condom was used during the last sex act, whether she reporte...
Article
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Sixty percent of new HIV infections in Uganda occur in stable relationships between HIV discordant couples. Given the importance of fertility in Uganda, we hypothesized that unsafe sexual practices may be used to found a family/replace a dead child. Thus, we explored sexual practices to understand to what extent these are influenced by the desire t...
Article
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Introduction: This paper presents HIV/AIDS experiences of elderly persons in Uganda as revealed by an ongoing descriptive cross-sectional study covering eight districts, namely: Pallisa, Kampala, Jinja, Lira, Nebbi, Ntungamo, Luwero and Mbarara. These districts represent both the rural and urban areas of the four regions of Uganda, including: Weste...
Article
In this article, we present caregivers' grapples with major depression seen among their physically ill patients. A thematic analysis of 29 in-depth caregiver interviews identified four themes: (a) caregivers' perceptions of depression, (b) barriers to caregivers' focus on depression, (c) resources and opportunities for managing depression, and (d)...
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Since 2001, Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) has been integrated as part of the Uganda National Program for Comprehensive HIV/AIDS Care and Support. If patients take Antiretroviral drugs (ARVs) as prescribed, quality of life is expected to improve and patients become healthier. It is, however, postulated that scale up of ARVs could erode the previous a...
Article
The study compared life events experienced by depressed patients seen at primary healthcare (PHC) centres with those among healthy community controls. Data was collected from 74 depressed patients and 64 unmatched controls from village locales of patients. Interview instruments included the depression module of the Mini International Neuropsychiatr...
Article
The Ponseti method has been demonstrated to be an effective, low-technology method of correcting congenital clubfoot. The purpose of this paper is to identify barriers to adherence to the Ponseti method of clubfoot treatment in Uganda. Understanding of barriers underlies successful and culturally appropriate approaches to program implementation. A...
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Uganda has been hailed as a success story in the fight against HIV that has seen a reversal in prevalence from a peak of 15% in 1991 to about 6.5% currently Since 1992, the largest and most consistent declines in HIV have occurred among the 15-19-year-olds. While many studies have examined how key behavior changes (Abstinence, Be faithful and Condo...
Article
Using data from the 2004 National Adolescent Surveys, this paper undertook a detail analysis of knowledge of correct condom use and consistency of use, as well as their covariates, among adolescents in Burkina Faso, Ghana, Malawi and Uganda. The strongest predictor of knowledge of correct condom use among both male and female adolescents is exposur...
Article
In this article, the authors present findings from a qualitative study exploring how people diagnosed with depression conceptualize their condition and how their conceptualization shaped their efforts to seek help. They used an interview guide based on an explanatory model framework for data collection. Four major themes emerged from the analysis:...
Article
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Introduction: Traditionally, the African extended family gave psychosocial support to all members, which cushioned any illness effects including depression. Recent changes in the African family, notably urbanization and market economies, have changed that structure. Changes, especially roles of the family and its relationship to life events and dep...
Article
Malaria in pregnancy is a serious health problem that contributes greatly to maternal morbidity and mortality. This study investigated risk perceptions and care seeking practices for malaria in pregnancy among adolescents. Data were collected using focus group disusions(FGDs) and key informant interviews (KIIs). Results showed that malaria was perc...
Article
In malaria endemic areas intermittent treatment with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) is recommended for malaria prevention in pregnancy. Yet, data on perceptions regarding use of this drug are scarce. An exploratory study was conducted to assess perceptions on SP in Mukono district, Uganda. This is an initial step towards a review of the policy aime...
Article
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Understanding treatment-seeking practices for malaria in pregnancy is necessary in designing effective programmes to address the high malaria morbidity in pregnancy. This study assessed women's perceptions on malaria in pregnancy, recognition of early signs of pregnancy and of malaria, and the cultural context in which treatment seeking takes place...
Article
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Although the efficacy of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) in malaria prevention is well documented, the low coverage of ITNs in malaria endemic countries necessitates investigation on factors that limit access to this intervention. An exploratory study was conducted in Mukono district, Uganda, to assess perceptions and use of ITNs. Results show that...
Article
The aim of this study was to assess the political and social dynamics resulting from the rapid change in user-fee reforms in Uganda and the effects on service delivery for malaria control. Using political mapping and political risk analysis techniques, the study analysed qualitative and quantitative data obtained from secondary data sources and key...
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Postnatal depression seems to be a universal condition with similar rates in different countries. However, anthropologists question the cross-cultural equivalence of depression, particularly at a life stage so influenced by cultural factors. To develop a qualitative method to explore whether postnatal depression is universally recognised, attribute...
Article
In order to understand and elicit the psychosocial factors influencing compliance with sexual partner referral, 10 focus group discussions (FGDs) and 40 individual interviews based on the attitude-social influence-self efficacy (ASE) model were held in Mbarara District of Uganda. The focus groups were derived from both rural and urban areas. Inform...
Article
In order to understand lay people's perceptions of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) focus group discussions and semi-structured interviews were held with community members and patients with STIs in Mbarara and Kampala, Uganda. Symptoms of common STIs and the modes of transmission methods were known. STIs were perceived as naturalistic disease...
Article
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To study the differences in sexual practices, hygienic behaviors, and other HIV risk factors between circumcised and uncircumcised men. A cross-sectional study of men >17 years of age selected by single stage cluster sampling in the Industrial Borough, Mbale, Uganda. Using a structured questionnaire, 188 circumcised and 177 uncircumcised consenting...
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The study aimed to analyze reasons for the use or non-use of antenatal care services and malaria treatment among pregnant women living in rural areas in Uganda. Focus group discussions with pregnant women, in-depth interviews with key informants (Traditional Birth Attendants (TBAs) and health workers) and a structured questionnaire administered to...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: Traditionally, the African extended family gave psychosocial support to all members, which cushioned any illness effects including depression. Recent changes in the African family, notably urbanization and market economies, have changed that structure. Changes, especially roles of the family and its relationship to life events and dep...

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Project (1)
Project
To assess and determine the relationships between Nodding Syndrome occurrence and environmental, dietary factors and ecological factors