Steinar Andresen

Steinar Andresen
Fridtjof Nansens Institutt

About

104
Publications
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2,590
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Publications

Publications (104)
Article
Full-text available
This article examines two important conditions for achieving the Paris Agreement’s (PA) ambitious goals. The first is the actions of the largest emitters—China, the European Union (EU) and the USA whose combined share of global emissions is near 50%. The second condition is the bottom–up design of the PA itself. Drawing on the policy mix literature...
Article
Background: The formation of the Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations (CEPI) sheds light on how conditions for global collaboration are created and sustained. This is a multi-stakeholder initiative whose objective is to be a global financing and coordination mechanism that supports the development of vaccines against epidemic infectious...
Article
Full-text available
The Covid-19 pandemic is setting new challenges for global health cooperation. A pandemic spells universal needs and even with the unprecedented levels of financial resources devoted globally to finding a vaccine, there are no guarantees that poorer countries will have affordable access to the results.
Article
The initial key international climate policy and carbon market hub was the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Over time several international organizations and networks have been added to the “international carbon market web,” such as several World Bank (WB) initiatives. As to the latter, the Carbon Pricing Leadership Coalition...
Chapter
Architectures of Earth System Governance - edited by Frank Biermann May 2020
Article
What role has science played in China’s decision to support and ratify the Minamata Convention, and in its domestic policies on mercury? Since 2000 there has been a strong increase in internationally produced knowledge on mercury and China has increasingly taken part in this process, also developing a stronger domestic knowledge base for handling t...
Chapter
The Chapter looks into ‘Chinese Climate policy: Domestic Priorities, Foreign Policy and Emerging Implementation'
Article
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How has ecological knowledge been applied in Norwegian management of hydropower and protected areas? By recognizing a diversity of environmental ‘knowledges’ and science as potentially subordinated to political and economic interests, we explain the link between ecological knowledge and management by the state and scale of knowledge, political conf...
Article
The aim of this article is to assess and explain the effectiveness of the international climate regime in a problem-solving perspective, with a focus on mitigation. As CO 2 emissions have increased by more than 60 per cent since the start of the climate negotiations, effectiveness is exceedingly low. In explaining the performance of the regime, the...
Article
Full-text available
Over the last decade, the need for governance of human health and environmental safety risks of nanotechnology (NT) has received increased attention at international, national and EU levels. There were early calls for increased funding of independent research, risk analysis and voluntary or mandatory regulation, but currently overall regulatory eff...
Article
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Scientific advisory committees (SACs) are a critically important part of global environmental policy. This commentary reviews the role of SACs in six global and regional environmental regimes, defined here as the set of rules, norms, and procedures that are developed by states and international organizations out of their common concerns and used to...
Article
This contribution discusses how violence in educational settings can be characterised as injustice from the perspective of educational sciences. Three theses are presented which aim to dicuss the meaning that the ostracism of violence has for the positioning of educational sciences. Attention is drawn to the experience of those who suffered from se...
Article
This article investigates the roles of policy diffusion and policy learning in shaping the design of California’s cap-and-trade system. On the surface, it is very similar to other cap-and-trade programs, but in practice many detailed differences reflect active efforts by California policy-makers to avoid flaws that they saw in other systems, such a...
Chapter
This chapter first evaluates the MDGs achievements. The MDGs are evaluated positively for their achievements in poverty reduction, gender disparity in school education, gender equality and some of the health related goals. They have not succeeded in, among others, maternal mortality, sanitation and environmental sustainability. The critical weaknes...
Article
Full-text available
Most observers argue that this agreement is a step in the right direction. However, we do not know how effective it will be in terms of reducing emissions. We therefore discuss its potential effectiveness regarding EU climate policies and carbon markets. We argue that the Paris Agreement may have a positive effect but uncertainties abound.
Article
Antibiotic resistance (ABR) is a common-pool resource challenge. This means that efforts to address ABR can learn from similar collective action problems faced within the environmental sector. Multilateral environmental agreements are the backbone of global environmental governance. Their ability to effectively solve environmental problems depends...
Article
Most observers agree that more than 20 years of UN climate negotiations have been a failure. Some argue that the top-down approach is one important reason for this and that a bottom-up approach or more exclusive club approaches would have rendered better results. Based on experience with these approaches so far this is far from self-evident and the...
Book
Why are some countries more willing and able than others to engage in climate change mitigation? The Domestic Politics of Global Climate Change compiles insights from experts in comparative politics and international relations to describe and explain climate policy trajectories of seven key actors: Brazil, China, the European Union, India, Japan, R...
Chapter
Japan’s climate policy has experienced significant changes in recent years. Frequent shifts of governments helped bring about various emission reduction pledges. However, only the brief Democratic Party of Japan (DPJ) rule had a truly ambitious policy, but its most ambitious parts were never implemented. A major reason was the 2011 Fukushima Daiich...
Chapter
In the final chapter, we return to the question of why some countries are more willing and able than others to engage in climate change mitigation. The authors compare findings across the seven key actors, based on the conceptual framework developed in the introductory chapter. The comparison shows that the framework proved useful in identifying an...
Chapter
Initially the UN climate regime was quite dynamic in terms of institution-building. Both the UNFCCC and the Kyoto Protocol at the time represented a necessary start of the process in targeting emissions from the rich countries. However this approach has grown increasingly obsolete in the face of strongly increased emissions from the emerging econom...
Article
This article examines how access and benefit sharing (ABS) in international transactions with genetic resources can be achieved and how Norway contributes to their realization. Regarding the first question, progress on the ground has been slow, but important principles have been agreed within the convention on biological diversity (CBD) and its Nag...
Article
During its twenty years in existence, the climate regime has created some innovative new mechanisms but with little practical significance in terms of emission reductions, for they continue to rise. Over time, efforts by the climate negotiators have increased significantly but the effectiveness of the regime has not increased. The Kyoto Protocol’s...
Technical Report
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Australian ABS legislation is advanced and pioneering in giving national effect to the third objective of the CBD with mandatory permits for all biodiscovery and mandatory benefit sharing agreements for biodiscovery with a commercial intent. Nevertheless, under Commonwealth legislation there is still only one biodiscovery case involving commercial...
Technical Report
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Policy Brief #4 Key Messages: 1. The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) require appropriate institutional support to integrate them effectively into institutions and practices, to coordinate activities, and to mobilize resources for implementation. The High-Level Political Forum on Sustainable Development (HLPF) can be a lead " orchestrator of or...
Chapter
The focus of this chapter is on the role of scientific expertise in multilateral environmental agreements (MEAs). The involvement of scientific expertise in MEAs has been institutionalized through the establishment of specific scientific bodies, which may indicate that scientific advice is more adhered to within these regimes than in cases where no...
Chapter
Robust political and social action is required for humanity to stay within planetary boundaries and ensure socially just and sustainable development. The challenges that this involves are increasingly discussed in terms of socio-ecological and sustainable transformation. The term "transformation" is an appropriate one because it points to the compl...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this paper is to explain how and why consensus was reached on a legally binding approach given the opposition of powerful actors. Why did the United States and key emerging economies change their positions? We apply tools from the regime formation literature—classical perspectives on power, interests and knowledge—and the use of diff...
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Acknowledgement This paper was prepared for the Joint Programming Initiative 'Connecting Climate Knowledge for Europe', also known as JPI Climate. We gratefully acknowledge the financial support of the German Aerospace Centre (DLR), The Swedish Research Council for Environment, Agricultural Sciences and Spatial Planning (FORMAS) and the Netherlands...
Article
Studies of environmental regime effectiveness have been conducted for more than two decades. Although there are still disputes and uncertainties regarding how to measure and explain effectiveness, significant advances have been made. To measure the precise proportion of behavioral change attributed to the regime in question may be theoretically pos...
Article
Sammendrag/Abstract This report explores the influence of non-governmental organisations (NGOs) on the design of the climate compliance regime and how they work to promote climate performance,among,both parties and non-parties tothe Kyoto Protocol. ,NGOs have been quite successful in attaining their goals for the design of the compliance regime: Th...
Book
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International environmental agreements provide a practical basis for countries to address environmental issues on a global scale. This book explores the workings and outcomes of these agreements, and analyses key questions of why some problems are dealt with successfully and others ignored. By examining fundamental policies and issues in environmen...
Article
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The United Nations conference in Rio de Janeiro in June is an important opportunity to improve the institutional framework for sustainable development.
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The current institutional framework for sustainable development is by far not strong enough to bring about the swift transformative progress that is needed. This article contends that incrementalism—the main approach since the 1972 Stockholm Conference—will not suffice to bring about societal change at the level and speed needed to mitigate and ada...
Article
Science assessments indicate that human activities are moving several of Earth's sub-systems outside the range of natural variability typical for the previous 500,000 years (1, 2). Human societies must now change course and steer away from critical tipping points in the Earth system that might lead to rapid and irreversible change (3). This require...
Article
The notion of global governance is widely studied in academia and increasingly relevant to politics and policy making. Yet many of its fundamental elements remain unclear in both theory and practice. This book offers a fresh perspective by analyzing global governance in terms of three major trends, as exemplified by developments in global sustainab...
Article
This article focuses on technology as a cure for environmental problems, based on how multilateral environmental agreements can contribute to solve or reduce international environmental problems. More specifically, it examines how science and technology can contribute to enhance the effectiveness of international environmental policies. Even though...
Article
This contribution focuses on carbon mitigation and biodiversity conservation in the context of the UN initiative for Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation in Developing countries (REDD). The design of REDD is important as it may channel much of the international funding that will potentially be made available for future enviro...
Article
States' foreign policies have broadened in recent years due to increased interdependence and globalization. With this trend, global health issues have become part of the foreign policies of many countries, including Norway. This article is an empirical study that traces the Norwegian case of the formation of a ‘health as foreign policy’ agenda. The...
Article
There is an emerging research agenda to analyse empirically the forces driving changes in global health governance. This study applies analytical tools from international relations research to explain the formation of international health regimes. The study utilizes two explanatory perspectives: individual leadership, and the interests of key non-s...
Article
The chapter focuses on the climate policy of China. Chinese climate policies are linked to its economic policy, particularly its energy policy. The three main determinants that are decisive for China’s climate change policy include economy, energy, and perceived vulnerability. It studies the role and influence of the main institutions involved in C...
Article
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The U.S. membership in the Asia-Pacific Partnership on Clean Development and Climate (APP) constituted an important element in the Bush administration’s voluntary and non-committing ‘soft-law’ approach to climate change. With the inauguration of President Barack Obama, the U.S. has embarked on a shift in its climate policy towards a legislative, ‘h...
Article
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In the introductory article it was concluded that the effectiveness of the UN environmental institutions studied was quite low. Key actors, especially the US and the EU, play a considerable role in explaining the course of development in these institutions. However, this does not mean that these processes are mainly state-driven as a number of othe...
Article
This is a study of the effectiveness of key UN institutions focussing on environment and sustainable development: the global conferences on development and the environment, the CSD and UNEP, primarily its co-ordinating functions. According to the indicators used to measure effectiveness here, it is concluded that the overall effectiveness of these...
Article
In the late 1980s/early 1990s the concept of leadership was introduced in the study of international regimes to describe the role negotiating parties some-times would take on to craft agreement. The concept seemed to grasp an essential feature of multilateral cooperative efforts: that parties can be differentiated by the extent to which they are ca...
Article
This paper discusses the Global Environment Facility (GEF) and its achievements and challenges in China, the country obtaining most GEF support. This paper relies on Chinese perceptions, and less on views from the implementing agencies (IAs), the World Bank, UNDP and UNEP. Most attention is given to climate change and biodiversity. The paper asks w...
Article
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The Multilateral Environmental Agreements (MEAs) concluded during the past decades have established complex interlinkages between the institutions established by MEAs and institutions such as UNEP, UNDP and the World Bank and the funds administered by the Bank, in particular the GEF. Questions regarding the effectiveness and legitimacy of this syst...
Article
What is the outlook for engaging the United States in international cooperation to mitigate climate change? The question is crucial, since any global effort to curb global warming will be unsatisfactory without U.S. participation. It is also a pressing question for Kyoto party countries, currently at a loss regarding how to reengage the U.S. in ren...
Article
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While most scholars agree that NGOs make a difference in global environmental politics, there has been little systematic work that looks at the actual influence NGOs have on policy outcomes. This paper looks to shed some new light on the question of NGO effectiveness through an evaluation of the role played by NGOs in climate negotiations. We begin...
Chapter
In the paper presented at the conference on “Methodological Approaches to the Study of Regime Consequences” we focused mainly on our experiences acquired over more than a decade as case study workers on the effectiveness of international environmental regimes. Although we have not been among the chief architects conceptually or theoretically in thi...
Article
The role of nonstate actors in international environmental politics has been given increased scholarly attention during the last decade. While most analyses are focused on direct nonstate influence at the international level, one main objective of this article is to develop a multi-level approach that allows analysis of nonstate influence channeled...
Article
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The United States, the world's largest emitter of greenhouse gases, is not going to ratify the Kyoto Protocol in the foreseeable future. Yet, a number of countries have decided to stay on the Kyoto track. Four main explanations for this apparent puzzle are considered. The first is that remaining Annex I countries still expect the Kyoto Protocol to...
Article
The primary motivation for this paper is to illuminate the role of leadership exerted by individuals, institutions and nation-states at various stages of the global climate change regime. Four forms of leadership: intellectual, instrumental, power-based, and directional, are identified. Next, theoretical claims about the dominance of particular for...
Article
Climate change is a problem which US science has significantly helped to bring to the world's attention. It now requires initiatives in US domestic policy for even the first steps towards any realistic global resolution of this problem. This paper addresses three questions: (1) How has US climate policy evolved since climate change became an intern...
Article
Initially Norwegian climate policy was very ambitious and Norway stood forth as a pusher on the international scene. Over time Norwegian policy has become more sober, stressing the need for differentiated commitments and flexible implementation. In contrast to the initial enthusiastic phase, climate change policy has been increasingly seen in pragm...
Article
The United States has a penchant these days for joining international negotiations that spin out of control. We went to Kyoto to talk about climate change and discovered we couldn't sign the treaty. We went to Ottawa to talk about landmines and found our military problems ignored by other states. We may be the "indispensable country," as Secretary...
Article
This paper sets out to discuss the “effectiveness” of two regional environmental regimes: the North Sea/North-East Atlantic and the Baltic. Effectiveness is conceived of in terms of (1) outputs: decisions flowing from the regime; (2) outcome: behavioural change resulting from the regime; and finally (3) impact: consequences of the regime for the na...
Article
This article reports on the interim results from an international collaborative project to assess the effectiveness of different international environmental agreements. Case study research dating back to 1991 addresses the effectiveness of international problem solving in issue areas ranging from international whaling, hazardous waste and acid rain...
Article
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The effectiveness of the International Whaling Commission (IWC) is discussed in relation to three criteria: stated goals, correspondence between scientific advice and political decisions, and relative improvement in relation to the status quo. Under these criteria, the OWC has a low score on effectiveness in its initial phase (1949 to mid-1960s), b...
Article
This article summarizes some Important lessons from experience of international environmental cooperation. The main focus in the first part Is on institutional and procedural factors: participation; scope of the agenda; political leadership; incorporation of scientific knowledge; and design of the agreement. The second part focuses on global climat...
Article
The main purpose of this book is to analyse the part of science in political processes of resources management. The two key problems addressed are the role of science in initiating political processes and international cooperation, and the role of science in political decision making. There are four major sections considering the importance of scie...
Article
This paper addresses the extent to which the governmental authorities on the national and international level have the capacity to deal with the more varied and complex management tasks in Norwegian waters. By and large the responsible agencies have succeeded fairly well in handling the inter‐use conflicts in national waters and the maritime relati...

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