Steffen Rust

Steffen Rust
Hochschule für angewandte Wissenschaft und Kunst - Hildesheim/Holzminden/Göttingen | HAWK HHG · Faculty of Resource Management

Prof. Dr. MSc

About

85
Publications
23,714
Reads
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692
Citations
Introduction
Current projects: Non-destructive methods to locate, quantify, and assess urban tree root systems Static and dynamic methods to assess trunk strength and anchorage of trees Effect of tree species choice on groundwater recharge in forested landscapes
Additional affiliations
March 1999 - April 2005
January 1995 - December 1999
Brandenburg University of Technology Cottbus - Senftenberg
April 1993 - March 1995
Leibniz Centre for Agricultural Landscape Research
Position
  • Researcher
Description
  • Hydraulic architecture of pine; tree and stand water relations
Education
September 1990 - September 1991
University of Oxford
Field of study
  • Forestry
October 1987 - March 1993
Georg-August-Universität Göttingen
Field of study
  • Forstwissenschaft

Publications

Publications (85)
Article
Full-text available
We tested the hypothesis that changes in crown architecture of old pedunculate oak trees (Quercus robur L. ssp. robur Kl. et Kr. et Rol.) reduce leaf specific hydraulic conductance of shoots, thereby limiting stomatal conductance and assimilation of affected shoots. At the end of summer 1999, hydraulic conductance and leaf specific hydraulic conduc...
Article
Electric resistivity tomograms of English oak (Quercus robur L.) show a very distinct pattern of electric resistivity that has not been found in any other tree species yet and that cannot be related to the distribution of wood moisture content over the stem cross section. To reveal the factors underlying this two-dimensional pattern of electric res...
Article
Tomographs are increasingly used in advanced tree assessment. Their accuracy depends on accurately measured sensor positions. For complex cross-sections, using the standard method based on electronic callipers, recording sensor positions is time consuming and, in rare cases, can even fail. Faster and easy to use methods could improve the quality of...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
A new device allows the non-destructive inspection of standing trees for cracks, cavities, and rot. It is based on the simultaneous measurement of the time of transmission of stress waves by several sensors arranged around the stem. The system was extensively tested by comparison of the tomogram with either the cross-section of the tree cut after t...
Article
This study demonstrates a new method to assess the anchorage of urban trees by quantitative analysis of the relationship between root-plate inclination and regional wind data. The load required for root failure correlates with loads required to achieve a specified inclination in the non-destructive range. Since load correlates with wind speed, rese...
Presentation
Full-text available
Dear colleagues, the association of tree consultants SAG Baumstatik e.V. would like to invite you to this upcoming event: In the course of the SAG Summer School 2022 in Trieste, a public conference with speakers of SAG Baumstatik and international guests will take place on Thursday, 21st of July 2022. There, lectures on some topics of the SAG Sum...
Article
Full-text available
Forest plantations, particularly high-density planted stands, are considered to be more prone to wind damage compared to naturally regenerated stands. The wind resistance (mechanical stability) of plantations can, however, be improved by close-to-natural management, for example, combining pioneer and shade-tolerant species. Presumably, the stabilit...
Article
Full-text available
In Northern Europe, the ongoing winter warming along with increasing precipitation shortens the periods for which soil is frozen, which aggravates the susceptibility of forest stands to wind damage under an increasing frequency of severe wind events via the reduction in soil-root anchorage. Such processes are recognized to be explicit in moist and...
Article
Although the industry has raised the standards of tree risk assessment considerably in recent years, the quality of judgements is still very variable and influenced by a wide range of factors. Due to the complexity and diversity of trees and sites, collecting and verifying relevant personal experiences takes tree assessors many years. In many count...
Article
Full-text available
(1) Background: Tomography is widely used in tree risk assessment and forest ecology. Tomograms should be accurate, repeatable and comparable between consecutive measurements. This is the first longitudinal study addressing reproducibility over a period of several years and the key factors influencing it, from raw data to final tomograms. (2) Metho...
Article
Full-text available
In urbanized areas, wind disturbances can be intensified by anthropogenic stresses under which trees may become hazardous, creating serious threats and damages to nearby targets. Therefore, species with notably lower both wood mechanical properties and compartmentalization, such as pioneers, are considered to have higher wind damage risk if subject...
Article
Full-text available
Storms and wind damage are the main cause of biomass loss in forests of Northern Europe, as well as they are synergic with the disturbances causing intense water and temperature stress. This highlights the necessity for climate-smart management at landscape level coupling ecological demands of forestry species with their wind resistance. Silver bir...
Article
Full-text available
Interactions between wind and trees control energy exchanges between the atmosphere and forest canopies. This energy exchange can lead to the widespread damage of trees, and wind is a key disturbance agent in many of the world's forests. However, most research on this topic has focused on conifer plantations, where risk management is economically i...
Article
Soil water potential can be used as a proxy for plant available water in irrigation scheduling. This study investigated the relationship between soil water potential and plant water status of pines (Pinus sylvestris L.) planted into two different substrates. Predawn leaf water potential as a well-established measure of the plant water status and so...
Article
Full-text available
Storms are the main abiotic disturbance in European forests, effects of which are expected to intensify in the future, hence the importance of forest stand stability is increasing. The predisposition of Norway spruce to wind damage appears to be enhanced by pathogens such as Heterobasidion spp., which reduce stability of individual trees. However,...
Article
Full-text available
The increasing effects of storms are considered the main abiotic disturbance affecting forest ecosystems. Bark-stripping damage from the growing ungulate populations, in turn, are among the main biotic risks, which might burden the stability of trees and stands. Therefore, the aim of our study is to estimate the effect of cervid bark-stripping on t...
Book
3., vollständig überarbeitete, aktualisierte und um 60 Seiten erweiterte Auflage 11.2019 ------------ Inhalt: 1 Stadtbäume und Urbane Forstwirtschaft C.-T. BUES 1.1 Die Stadt, Lebensraum der Zukunft 1.2 Der Stadtmensch und seine Sehnsucht nach Natur 1.3 Urbane Forstwirtschaft 1.4 Urbanes Grün, Stadtbäume und Baumpflege 1.5 Neue Formen der Stadtbegr...
Article
As the intensity and frequency of strong storms increase, the potential for damage to urban trees also increases. So far, the risk of ultimate failure for partially uprooted trees and how they may recover their stability is not well understood. This study sets out to explore if and to what extent trees can regain anchoring strength after their root...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Static load tests are used to non-destructively examie the strength of the anchoring roots and the trunk of a tree metrologically and to be able to estimate the stability of trees agaist strong winds. The measurements have been employed on thousands of trees worldwide (Wessolly 2010). An established method has emerged, the foundations of which have...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
For risk assessment of trees in forests and urban areas an estimate of anchorage may be required. To this end, the results of non-destructive static load tests have been used for more than 20 years. Data of applied bending moments and root plate inclination are extrapolated to the point of failure in at least three ways. However, almost no studies...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In several field studies, the effect of environmental conditions like air, wood, and soil temperature, soil moisture content and high ground water table, were tested on mature trees in non-destructive pulling tests and winching tests to ultimate failure. Furthermore, the effects of repeated loading with increasing stem base rotation were tested in...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
To date, the anchorage and wind load of urban trees can only be assessed in static load tests. These are complex and expensive, and the reliability of wind load estimates has been questioned. Monitoring the basal inclination of trees in natural winds yields a wind tipping curve, which can be used to inexpensively assess anchorage. Combining this wi...
Preprint
Full-text available
As the intensity and frequency of strong storms increase, the potential for damage to urban trees also increases. So far, the risk of ultimate failure for partially uprooted trees and how they may recover their stability is not well understood. This study sets out to explore if and to what extent trees can regain anchoring strength after their root...
Conference Paper
Mapping decay in standing trees non-destructively is a common component of advanced tree risk assessment. While penetrometers and tomographs based on stress wave velocity and electrical resistivity are well studied, the use of ground penetrating radar received much less attention. We used published and newly developed methods to map decay in large...
Conference Paper
The moisture content of untreated wood is a critical factor governing its affinity towards biological degradation. In this work, the effect of moisture content on the dielectric permittivity of glued laminated timber is described. Ground penetrating radar (GPR) measurements using a 1.6Ghz monostatic antenna have been performed on multiple beam sect...
Conference Paper
Zwei Verfahren zur Beurteilung der Vitalität von Bäumen werden an Altbäumen verglichen. A. R OLOFF und U. W EIHS schätzten jeweils die Vitalität von 100 Berg-Ahornen und 47 Rot-Buchen ein. Der Zeitaufwand für beide Verfahren war ähnlich. Die Vitalitätsstufen der Bäume nach beiden Methoden hingen statistisch hoch signifikant, aber mit gro\s ser Stre...
Conference Paper
In dieser Studie wurde untersucht, ob die Silber-Linde bei Hitze und Trockenheit ihre Blätter so dreht, dass deren silbrig-weiße Unterseite nach oben gekehrt ist. Dazu wurden zwölf Bäume über mehrere Monate zweimal täglich fotogra-fiert und die Verteilung der Helligkeit in den Bildern der Oberkrone ausgewertet. Die Luft-temperatur hatte keinen Einf...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Vom Sturm angeschobene Bäume gefährden nicht nur die Verkehrssicherheit, sondern auch die Baumpfleger, die sie fällen. Da die Stand - sicherheit solcher Bäume sehr schwer zu beurteilen ist, werden sie häufig beseitigt. Dadurch wird zwar die Verkehrssicherheit wieder her - gestellt, aber auch die Ökosystemleistungen des Baumes beendet. Ziel dieser U...
Conference Paper
Radaruntersuchungen an Stämmen stehender Bäume sind aus der Literatur bekannt (z. B. L I et al. 2018; BUTNOR et al. 2009). Diese Unter - suchungen konzentrieren sich hauptsächlich auf den Nachweis von internen Anomalien wie Hohlräumen oder Bereichen, die von Pilzbefall betroffen sind. Die erfolgreiche Anwendung von Georadar an lebenden Baumstämmen...
Conference Paper
Die Gattung Platanus ist dafür bekannt, Borkenschuppen abzuwerfen, unter denen ein helles Gewebe zu Tage tritt. Aus der Praxis wird berichtet, dass sich an sonnenexponierten Rindenteilen ein verstärktes Abschuppen beobachten lasse, und dass hier auftretende helle Gewebe wird mit einem Hitzeschutz assoziiert. In dieser Arbeit wurde ein möglicher Zus...
Chapter
Full-text available
Root systems are complex subterranean structures, which direct a major part of the wind load to the ground. Below-ground damages to structural roots are not visible during a basic tree assessment. Therefore considerable uncertainties exist with regard to tree inspection especially on urban sites. Biomechanical studies have described the process of...
Chapter
Full-text available
The evaluation of a static load test involves a wind load analysis to estimate the static load causing the same maximum reaction of the tree as dynamic forces at the design wind speed do. The validity of this analysis has been disputed frequently. For the first time, this study compares loads measured on trees in storms to the results of wind load...
Article
Acoustic tomograms are widely used in tree risk assessment. They should be accurate,repeatable and comparable between consecutive measurements. Previous work has failed to address the effects of different approaches to record sensor positions, operators and models of tomograph on the resulting tomograms.In this study, three operators used the two m...
Chapter
Sonic tomograms were made of 30 trees in a park and further evaluated using structural tree analysis. 16 of these trees were analysed based on static pulling tests. In contrast to earlier publications, results were not consistent. Cracks, wood properties deviating from the Stuttgart strength catalogue, and low wind loads might explain the high safe...
Conference Paper
Standing dead trees are of great ecological value. Often, they are not removed, or even actively created in forests and urban areas. However, their safety can not be assessed quantitatively by conventional methods. We pulled spruce trees to failure, that had died between 1 and 10 years ago after being attacked by bark beetles. Their anchorage was o...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In einer Stichprobe von 189 Platanen in Essen haben strukturverändernde Schnittmaßnahmen nicht die Wahrscheinlichkeit erhöht, dass Platanen im Sturm "Ela" geschädigt wurden. In a sample of 189 London plane trees in Essen, Germany, severe pruning cuts did not change the risk of damage by a storm.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
We measured size and form of 78 branches collected in four Aesculus hippocastanum L. and one Aesculus x carnea Hayne. The slenderness coefficient of a branch varied depending on the method used to measure it. Thus, the method applied in a specific case, e. g. where exactly the basal diameter was measured, must be documented precisely. 87 % of all b...
Book
Full-text available
* fundamentals, methods and tools of urban tree management * state of the art in the fields of urban forestry and tree biology * positive effects and uses of urban trees * features, requirements and selection criteria for urban trees * conditions and problems of urban trees * governance and management aspects * environmental education programs.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This study describes a simple method to estimate the correlation between root plate tilt and wind speed. The objective was to test if the tilt of trees in high winds can be predicted based on data obtained in the more often occurring low or mid wind events. Our conclusions are: There is a correlation of wind speed and root plate tilt. The correla...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Changes in the mechanical properties of the green wood fibres are observable if a tree stem has exceeded the limit of proportionality in bending, even before ultimate fracture occurs. The excess loading results in irreversible deformations on the compression side that reduce the Young's mo-dulus in compression along grain. A compression zone studie...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Evaluation of static pulling tests requires estimation of a design wind load. This is derived from a silhouette of the tree drawn on a digital picture. Here we analyze the uncertainty involved in this estimate from the variation in pictures of 18 birch trees taken from the four cardinal directions, and from different distances. There was a systemat...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
1. Unsicherheit bei der Schätzung der Windlast aus Kronenfotos 2. Einfluss der Bodentemperatur auf die Schätzung der Verankerungskraft 3. Auswirkung von Wurzelkappungen bei der Sanierung von Gehwegen 4. Primäres Versagen stark ausgehöhlter Stämme 5. Eigengewicht von Bäumen und Baumteilen
Article
Full-text available
Mixed stand of beech and spruce are often less prone to storm damage. The causes of this difference are not well known. We studied wind load and anchorage in both types of stand. Anchorage of spruce was similar in both stands. Wind loads on spruce were higher when mixed with beech. Mischbestände aus Fichte und Buche sind oft weniger windwurfgefähr...
Article
Inventory data of six urban tree species from seven cities across Germany were used to model regional variation of height growth, allometric scaling, and slenderness over a wide range of size and age using a quantile regression approach. Variation within and between species and cities was large. Height did not reach an asymptote but declined at hig...
Chapter
Full-text available
Findings of recent research on the pulling test method Pulling tests are recognized as a non-destructive method to assess the strength and stability of trees. A current research project sets out to test the influence of different parameters on the result of a pulling test and the reliability of extrapolating the load bearing capacity from measured...
Chapter
Full-text available
Two experiments tested anchorage strength and stiffness of tree trunks before and after irrigation. Irrigation and rising temperatures reduced anchorage, while trunk stiffness was increased during frost. Planning and evaluation of pulling tests must account for these weather effects.
Chapter
Full-text available
Natural frequencies and damping of seven trees were measured without cables, with static cables, and with dynamic cables. Neither treatment altered these parameters significantly.
Chapter
Full-text available
For the nondestructive detection of wetwood in horse-chestnut, electrical impedance and stress wave tomography were performed in combination. Two of the trees were felled subsequently. The spatial distribution of moisture content and density in the cross-sections was analyzed and compared with the tomograms. Moisture content and impedance were clos...
Chapter
Full-text available
Two oak trees were subjected to pulling tests. 440 wood samples were extracted from three cross-sections per tree. Density, modulus of elasticity and compressive strength of these samples were measured. Structural stiffness of cross-sections was estimated from these samples and compared to published data. Both estimates of structural stiffness were...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Aus den vermessenen Markröhrenverläufen von acht gespaltenen Buchenzwieseln konnte gefolgert werden, dass Entstehung und Ausmaß eingeschlossener Rinde vom jeweiligen Winkelverlauf der Stämmlinge zueinander abhängig sind und dass bei Buche frühestens ab einem Winkel von 30° auch dauerhaft nicht mit Rindeneinschluss zu rechnen ist. 28 stärkere Zwiese...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Die elektrischen Widerstandstomogramme der heimischen Eichen zeigen ein charakteristisches, bisher nicht erklärtes Muster. Die Holzdichte und -feuchtigkeit unterschieden sich nur unwesent- lich zwischen Splint und Kern. Ursache der Verteilung der elektrischen Leitfähigkeit im Querschnitt sind nach unseren Ergebnissen der große Unterschied der pH-We...
Article
Full-text available
To assess the safety of roadside trees or as part of ecophysiological research it is often important to investigate the spatial distribution and development of tree roots. Conventionally this is done by laborious excavations or by the application of root drills which in many cases do not allow a comprehensive data collection. An indirect method for...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Mit Hilfe einer neu entwickelten Methode wurden 30 kodominante Vergabelungen von Rotbuche (Fagus sylvatica) mit Stammumfängen zwischen 70 cm und 165 cm bis zum Versagen belastet. Die untersuchten Zwiesel ließen sich anhand ihrer äußerlich sichtbaren Merkmalsausprägungen vier typischen Zwieselklassen zuordnen. Neben Aussagen zu dem für ein Versag...
Article
Full-text available
• Non-destructive detection of fungal decay in living trees is relevant for forest management of valuable species, hazard tree assessment, and research in forest pathology. A variety of tomographic methods, based on stress wave timing, radioactive radiation, or electrical resistivity have been used to detect decay in standing trees non-destructivel...
Article
Full-text available
Bieker, D. & Rust, S. 2010. Non-destructive estimation of sapwood and heartwood width in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.). Silva Fennica 44(2): 267–273. Accurate estimates of the water conducting sapwood area are necessary to scale sapflow measurements to tree and stand level transpiration. We tested a non-destructive method, electric resistivity t...
Article
Full-text available
For the nondestructive testing of standing trees sonic tomography is currently the ‘state-of-the-art’ method in many parts of the world. Although in the majority of cases the results are correct and easy to interpret, some limits remain. In our research group, Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT) has been adapted from Geoelectrics to be used for t...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract: The Phytophthora disease of alder was discovered in 1993 in Great Britain and has already spread widely in whole Europe. In Spreewald biosphere reserve, what represents the largest contiguous forest of common alder in Central Europe, the disease has reached an alarming dimension. Since infested plant material fulfil an important vector fu...
Article
Cladoptosis, the abscission of twigs, is the main mechanism of changes in crown structure in senescing pedunculate oak (Quercus robur L.). We tested the hypotheses that abscission zones in nodes of old pedunculate oak trees reduce leaf-specific hydraulic conductance of shoots and thereby limit the stomatal conductance and assimilation.Hydraulic con...
Article
In pedunculate oak (Quercus robur L.) the architecture of the crown is strongly influenced by age and vigour of the tree. In old oak trees cladoptosis is a major mechanism on the transformation of crown architecture. Although it can be seen quite regularly, the causes and timing of shedding of twigs as well as the quantity of affected branches rema...
Article
Full-text available
A new device allows the non - destructive inspection of standing trees for cracks, cavities, and rot. It is based on the simultaneous measurement of the time of transmission of stress waves by several sensors arranged around the stem. The system was extensively tested by comparison of the tomogram with either the cross - section of the tree cut aft...
Article
Full-text available
Following reports from field foresters on so-called 'beech regeneration dieback', the root systems and competitive relationships of sapling-stage mixtures of beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) and ash (Fraxinus excelsior L.) were investigated in vivo and in vitro. Ash has a plate-root system from an early age, and beech a heart-root system. The distributio...
Article
Various drought stress indicators (predawn water potential, osmotic adjustment, free proline, hydraulic conductance, embolism, sap flux density) were monitored in five Scots pine stands in northern Germany. The study was designed to clarify whether a grass-dominated herb layer due to nitrogen input increases the risk of the pine overstorey to suffe...
Article
Full-text available
To evaluate the impact of herb layer structure on the transpiration of Scots pine ecosystems in north-eastern Germany, we measured tree canopy and herb layer transpiration in three stands. Parameters of tree hydraulic architecture were measured and their drought stress monitored. Despite striking differences in ecosystem structure, combined tree an...
Article
Full-text available
Three methods for the estimation of conductive xylem area were compared in several stands of Scots pine in northern Germany: (1) computer tomography (seven stands, 105 trees), (2) staining of increment scores (seven stands, 75 trees), and (3) resistance to penetration (two stands, 35 trees). The staining method gave significantly higher estimates o...
Article
 Shoot hydraulic conductance was measured in beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) that had previously been exposed to high levels of nitrogen input. Whole-shoot hydraulic conductance, conductance per unit pressure gradient and leaf specific conductance were negatively correlated with the number of bud scars per unit length, a morphological parameter of tree...