Steffen M Noe

Steffen M Noe
Estonian University of Life Sciences | EMU · Institute of Forestry and Rural Engineering

Professor

About

97
Publications
36,848
Reads
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1,790
Citations
Introduction
My current main project is to coordinate the SMEAR Estonia station (http://smear.emu.ee). The major research directions are biosphere-atmosphere interactions, forest carbon exchange, mathematical modeling and dynamics of processes within the earth system.
Additional affiliations
January 2008 - present
Estonian University of Life Sciences
Position
  • Senior Researcher
July 2004 - December 2007
University of Tartu
Position
  • Researcher
March 2000 - June 2004
Technische Universität Darmstadt
Position
  • Researcher

Publications

Publications (97)
Article
Leaf angle distribution influences forest canopy processes like radiation balance, photosynthesis, and evapotranspiration. Indeed, a strong sensitivity to variability in the leaf angle distribution is reported for many models. Difficulties in conducting leaf angle distribution measurements limit data availability and explanations of its species-spe...
Article
Full-text available
In summer 2018, Europe experienced a heatwave that impacted the forest carbon cycle. We assessed the influence of elevated temperatures on the carbon exchange of three forest stands of different types (coniferous, deciduous, and conifer-broadleaved) and a clear-cut area located in the geographical vicinity within a hemiboreal zone. The carbon fluxe...
Preprint
Full-text available
Eddy-covariance (EC) is a widely used method for measuring ecosystem-scale fluxes of various gases. The sensor placement height is typically constrained by the canopy height and area of interest size. We studied the carbon dioxide fluxes over a hemiboreal mixed forest with two EC measurement systems located at 30 m and 70 m. The lower system NEE (N...
Article
Integrative and Comprehensive Understanding on Polar Environments (iCUPE) project developed 24 novel datasets utilizing in-situ observational capacities within the Arctic or remote sensing observations from ground or from space. The datasets covered atmospheric, cryospheric, marine, and terrestrial domains. This paper connects the iCUPE datasets to...
Article
Full-text available
Estimations of forests’ carbon sequestration capacity relies on proper assessment of the eddy covariance measurement mast’s footprint. Harsh winter temperatures in Estonia lead to ice formation on 3D sonic anemometer sensor heads and thus induce measurement gaps in the data. To maximise data availability, we use a smart heating algorithm to mini- m...
Preprint
Despite a large number of studies, the effect of aerosols has the largest uncertainty in global climate model radiative forcing estimates. There have been studies of aerosol optical properties in climate models, but the effects of particle number size distribution need a more thorough inspection. We investigated the trends and seasonality of partic...
Article
Full-text available
The study area is in the Järvselja Training and Experimental Forest Centre, Estonia. The conservation of Järvselja old-growth forest started in 1924 when the area was excluded from all management activities and left to natural development. The aim of this study is to analyse the methods for calculating single tree height, tree stem lateral surface...
Article
Full-text available
This global study, which has been coordinated by the World Meteorological Organization Global Atmospheric Watch (WMO/GAW) programme, aims to understand the behaviour of key air pollutant species during the COVID-19 pandemic period of exceptionally low emissions across the globe. We investigated the effects of the differences in both emissions and r...
Article
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Secondary organic aerosols (SOAs) formed from biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) constitute a significant fraction of atmospheric particulate matter and have been recognized to significantly affect the climate and air quality. Atmospheric SOA particulate mass yields and chemical composition result from a complex mixture of oxidation produc...
Article
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In light of the difficulties in stand volume estimation of natural forests, we analyzed height–diameter relationships and derived a set of height estimation equations for volume estimation for naturally developing forest ecosystems, using the Järvselja old-growth and the Laeva commercial forest in Estonia as a case study. This contribution presents...
Preprint
Full-text available
Secondary organic aerosols (SOA) formed from biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) constitute a significant fraction of atmospheric particulate matter and have been recognized to affect significantly the climate and air quality. Many laboratory and field experiments have studied SOA particle formation and growth in the recent years. Most of t...
Article
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M. 2020: CarbonSink+-Accounting for multiple climate feedbacks from forests. Boreal Env. Res. 25: 145-159. Forests cool the climate system by acting as a sink for carbon dioxide (CO 2) and by enhancing the atmospheric aerosol load, whereas the simultaneous decrease of the surface albedo tends to have a warming effect. Here, we present the concept o...
Article
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The role of polar regions is increasing in terms of megatrends such as globalization, new transport routes, demography, and the use of natural resources with consequent effects on regional and transported pollutant concentrations. We set up the ERA-PLANET Strand 4 project “iCUPE – integrative and Comprehensive Understanding on Polar Environments” t...
Article
Full-text available
Fusarium head blight (FHB) caused by Fusarium pathogens is one of the most devastating fungal diseases of small grain cereals worldwide, substantially reducing yield quality and food safety. Its severity is increasing due to the climate change caused by weather fluctuations. Intensive research on FHB control methods has been initiated more than a d...
Article
Full-text available
The potential of carbonyl sulfide (COS) flux measurements as an additional constraint for estimating the gross primary production depends, among other preconditions, on our understanding of the soil COS exchange and its contribution to the overall net ecosystem COS flux. We conducted soil chamber measurements of COS, with transparent chambers, in t...
Preprint
Full-text available
The role of polar regions increases in terms of megatrends such as globalization, new transport routes, demography and use of natural resources consequent effects of regional and transported pollutant concentrations. We set up the ERA-PLANET Strand 4 project "iCUPE-integrative and Comprehensive Understanding on Polar Environments" to provide novel...
Article
Full-text available
Processes that change the carbon exchange between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere are pivotal in understanding climate impact on global scale. Volatile organic compounds (VOC) emissions change substantially with biotic stressors like gall-forming insects. We provide a first global estimate of the effect of changes in VOC emission dynamics...
Article
Hemiboreal forests form a transitional belt between boreal and temperate forests in Eurasia, and due to long-term climate warming they could potentially expand in a northerly direction. However, carbon (C) exchange studies in this transitional forest type are scarce. In 2014–2015 we analyzed CO2 exchange in a hemiboreal mixed forest at SMEAR Estoni...
Article
Full-text available
Aims The forest floor is a significant contributor to the stand-scale fluxes of biogenic volatile organic compounds. In this study, the effect of tree species (Scots pine vs. Norway spruce) on forest floor fluxes of volatile organic compounds (VOC) was compared in boreal and hemiboreal climates. Methods Monoterpenoid and sesquiterpene flux rates w...
Article
Full-text available
In our recent study (Li et al., 2018a), we examined the relationship between solar‐induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF) measured from the Orbiting Carbon Observatory‐2 (OCO‐2) and gross primary productivity (GPP) derived from eddy covariance flux towers across the globe, and we discovered that there is a nearly universal relationship between SIF...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The closed chamber method is widely used in greenhouse gas (GHG) flux measurement. However, the method has temporal resolution limits, which could be compensated by implementing an automated system. To have a more accurate estimation of the fluxes, automated systems are usually proposed. In opposition to manual chamber measurement, automated system...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Hemiboreal zone covers a substantial amount of forests in Estonia, Southern Finland and parts of Sweden, being the transitional part between boreal and temperate zones. The European heat wave of summer 2018 resulted in the prolonged high air temperature period (from May till the end of July) coupled with low precipitation causing a significant drou...
Article
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The effect of aerosol loading on solar radiation and the subsequent effect on photosynthesis is a relevant question for estimating climate feedback mechanisms. This effect is quantified in the present study using ground-based measurements from five remote sites in boreal and hemiboreal (coniferous and mixed) forests of Eurasia. The diffuse fraction...
Article
Full-text available
Photosynthesis provides carbon for the synthesis of macromolecules to construct cells during growth. This is the basis for the key role of photosynthesis in the carbon dynamics of ecosystems and in the biogenic CO2 assimilation. The development of eddy-covariance (EC) measurements for ecosystem CO2 fluxes started a new era in the field studies of p...
Article
Full-text available
The effect of an aerosol loading on solar radiation and further on photosynthesis is a relevant question for estimating climate feedback mechanisms. This effect is quantified in the present study using ground-based measurements from five remote sites in boreal and hemiboreal (coniferous and mixed) forests of Eurasia. The diffuse fraction of global ra...
Article
Full-text available
Solar‐induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF) has been increasingly used as a proxy for terrestrial gross primary productivity (GPP). Previous work mainly evaluated the relationship between satellite‐observed SIF and gridded GPP products both based on coarse spatial resolutions. Finer‐resolution SIF (1.3 km × 2.25 km) measured from the Orbiting Carb...
Article
Full-text available
Photosynthesis, i.e. the assimilation of atmospheric carbon to organic molecules with the help of solar energy, is a fundamental and well-understood process. Here, we connect theoretically the fundamental concepts affecting C3 photosynthesis with the main environmental drivers (ambient temperature and solar light intensity), using six axioms based...
Article
Full-text available
Photosynthesis provides carbon for the synthesis of macromolecules to construct cells during growth. This fact generates the key role of photosynthesis in the carbon dynamics of ecosystems (Taiz et al., 2015) and biogenic CO2 consumption. The development of eddy covariance measurements of ecosystem CO2 fluxes started a new era in the field studies...
Article
Full-text available
Photosynthesis, i.e. the assimilation of atmospheric carbon to organic molecules with the help of solar energy, is a fundamental and well understood process. Here, we connect theoretically the fundamental concepts affecting C3 photosynthesis with the main environmental drivers (ambient temperature and solar light intensity), using six axioms based...
Poster
Full-text available
The poster shows the activities to measure air ions, aerosols and their precursor gases at the SMEAR Estonia station.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The trace gas carbonyl sulfide (COS) has been proposed as a tracer for canopy gross primary production (GPP), canopy transpiration and stomatal conductance of plant canopies in the last few years. COS enters the plant leaf through the stomata and diffuses through the intercellular space, the cell wall, the plasma membrane and the cytosol like carbo...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Hemiboreal zone is a transition between boreal and temperate zones characterized by the combination of climatic and edaphic conditions inherent in both zones. Hemiboreal forests are typically presented by mixed forests types with different ratios of deciduous and conifer tree species. Dominating tree species composition affects the functioning of f...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Soil heterogeneity plays important role in many soil processes. The microtopography of forest floor is one of the key factors that influence on such processes as water and nutrients movement (vertical and lateral) and distribution, the speed of the decomposition processes, temperature, and soil fluxes. Many previous studies of soil processes have s...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
With an average mole fraction of 100 ppb carbon monoxide (CO) plays a critical role in atmospheric chemistry and has an indirect global warming potential. While sources/sinks of CO on land at least partially cancel out each other and their magnitude is very likely lower compared to other sinks and sources, the magnitude of CO sources and sinks is h...
Article
Full-text available
The northern Eurasian regions and Arctic Ocean will very likely undergo substantial changes during the next decades. The Arctic–boreal natural environments play a crucial role in the global climate via albedo change, carbon sources and sinks as well as atmospheric aerosol production from biogenic volatile organic compounds. Furthermore, it is expec...
Article
In addition to climate warming, greater herbivore pressure is anticipated to enhance the emissions of climate-relevant biogenic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from boreal and subarctic forests and promote the formation of secondary aerosols (SOA) in the atmosphere. We evaluated the effects of Epirrita autumnata, an outbreaking geometrid moth, fe...
Article
Full-text available
Methyl ethyl ketone (MEK) enters the atmosphere following direct emission from vegetation and anthropogenic activities, as well as being produced by the gas-phase oxidation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) such as n-butane. This study presents the first overview of ambient MEK measurements at six different locations, characteristic of forested,...
Article
Full-text available
We analyzed the size distributions of atmospheric aerosol particles measured during 2013-2014 at Värriö (SMEAR I) in northern Finland, Hyytiälä (SMEAR II) in southern Finland and Järvselja (SMEAR-Estonia) in Estonia. The stations are located on a transect spanning from north to south over 1000 km and they represent different environments ranging fr...
Article
Full-text available
Atmospheric air ions, clusters and aerosol particles participate in a variety of atmospheric processes and considerably affect e.g. global climate and human health. When measured, air ions as well as atmospheric clusters and particles have been observed to be present practically always and everywhere. In this overview, we present a brief summary of...
Article
Full-text available
The Northern Eurasian regions and Arctic Ocean will very likely undergo substantial changes during the next decades. The arctic-boreal natural environments play a crucial role in the global climate via the albedo change, carbon sources and sinks, as well as atmospheric aerosol production via biogenic volatile organic compounds. Furthermore, it is e...
Article
Full-text available
Tropospheric mixing ratios of reactive trace gases (ozone, sulphur dioxide, nitric oxide and nitrogen dioxide) together with meteorological parameters were measured at SMEAR Estonia (Järvselja, Estonia) from August 2013 until May 2015. Seasonal monthly median mixing ratios of the trace gases were determined. Data of incoming wind directions were us...
Article
Full-text available
Establishment of the SMEAR Estonia at a hemiboreal mixed deciduous broad-leaved-evergreen needle-leaved forest at Järvselja, SouthEastern Estonia, has strongly enhanced the possibilities for national and international cooperation in the fi elds of forest ecosystem – atmosphere research and impacts of climatic changes on forest ecosystems, atmospher...
Research
Full-text available
Presenting the usage of long term flux and forest measurements to assess biomass production sustainablility.
Conference Paper
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The Station for Measuring Ecosystem-Atmosphere Relations (SMEAR Estonia) was established in Estonia to measure the concentrations and fluxes of energy and matter on different temporal and spatial scales. It is located in a mixed hemiboreal forest stand (at 58.2714 N, 27.2703 E at 36 m a.s.l.) and represents the southernmost point in SMEAR network l...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Soil is an essential component of terrestrial ecosystems, impacting on ecosystem processes in multiple ways. It is a non-homogeneous body with specific patterns in both spatial and temporal variability. While temporal variation mostly depends on climatic conditions, spatial variability is a result of complex inter-related factors and therefore a ch...
Chapter
Full-text available
Volatile organic compounds (VOC) are a relatively minor component of the atmosphere and yet are widely recognized to have important roles in air quality and climate. With the exception of methane, an important greenhouse gas, atmospheric VOC are primarily of interest because of their impact on other atmospheric constituents, including oxidants and...
Chapter
Full-text available
The turbulence within and immediately above a vegetation canopy is the driver of the exchange processes of heat, trace gases and particles between the soil, the plants and the atmosphere above.
Conference Paper
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Heterogeneity is one of the key components of sustainable development of every living system. It provides the source for restocking of ecosystem living components, irregular distribution of nutrients and habitats. Main components of forest horizontal heterogeneity are related with horizontal distribution of dominant species, soil properties, topogr...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Forest ecosystems are a major part of the biosphere and control land surface-atmosphere interactions. They influence atmospheric composition and climate significantly being sources and sinks of trace gases and energy. Mixed stands of both coniferous and deciduous tree species are characterized by greater seasonal variability of forest microclimate,...
Book
Volatile organic compounds (VOC) are a relatively minor component of the atmosphere and yet are widely recognized to have important roles in air quality and climate. With the exception of methane, an important greenhouse gas, atmospheric VOC are primarily of interest because of their impact on other atmospheric constituents, including oxidants and...