Steffen Foss Hansen

Steffen Foss Hansen
Technical University of Denmark | DTU · Department of Environmental Engineering

About

127
Publications
37,143
Reads
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4,007
Citations
Citations since 2016
66 Research Items
2720 Citations
20162017201820192020202120220100200300400500
20162017201820192020202120220100200300400500
20162017201820192020202120220100200300400500
20162017201820192020202120220100200300400500
Additional affiliations
September 2006 - present
Technical University of Denmark
Position
  • Professor (Associate)

Publications

Publications (127)
Article
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In early 2021, the new definition of the term “nanomaterial” proposed by the European Commission (EC) was subject to a stakeholder consultation and in June 2022, the EC published its updated definition. Based on an independent analysis of the different versions of the definition and the results of the stakeholder consultation, the aim of this paper...
Article
Regulation is often seen as a barrier to innovation. However, if done properly, it can actually serve as a driver of innovation. To understand how environmental regulation can be designed to stimulate innovation, we scrutinise the scientific literature related to regulation, innovation and the environment. Fifty one carefully selected studies are e...
Article
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Regulation of plastics has emerged as a significant science-policy challenge, initiated by the increasing societal concerns regarding plastic pollution. A specific focus is now on plastic of sizes smaller than 1000 nm, often referred to as nanoplastics. The need to include nanoplastics in existing regulatory frameworks arises from the increased bio...
Article
The number and volume of advanced materials being manufactured is increasing. In order to mitigate future impacts from such materials, assessment methods that can provide early indications of potential environmental risk are required. This paper presents a further development and testing of an environmental risk screening method based on two proxy...
Article
Circular economy is viewed as the most promising path to a more sustainable use of plastic. It aims at reducing the consumption of resources by keeping materials within the value chain for longer periods compared to traditional linear material flow. Apart from reducing the consumption of plastics, plastic pollution (including microplastic contamina...
Chapter
Given the challenges of simply defining the boundaries of what are or are not “nano” products, the concept of nano-specific consumer product inventories has arguably been one of the most important results from more than a decade of international investment in nanotechnology risk-related research, tools, and resources. Two inventories are considered...
Article
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Background Consultation with partner expert groups (PEGs) is an important step in updating guidance under European chemical legislation concerning nanomaterials. Here, we briefly review the differences between PEGs and the broader use of expert groups in general, and scrutinise the five closed - and one ongoing-nano-specific PEGs to investigate sta...
Article
Plastic pollution is ubiquitous and the presence of plastic particles available for human uptake is documented e.g., in air, foodstuffs and drinking water. Meanwhile, researchers, organizations, and policy agencies call for large-scale analyses of plastic pollution exposure. Doing precisely this in neighboring research fields, we argue that Citizen...
Article
The European Environmental Agency (EEA) has formulated five early warning signs to be considered by regulators when it comes to materials and substances. These warning signs reflect many concerns raised about plastics and are thus worth considering during the design and regulation of new and established polymeric materials.
Article
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The precautionary principle finds itself at the forefront of scientific and regulatory discussions about nanotechnology and nanomaterials. In this study, we investigated whether European experts on nanotechnology governance and the management of nanomaterials (NMs) believe that more should be done to implement the precautionary principle when it co...
Article
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In the European Union the Annexes of its chemical legislation (REACH) were revised and now clarifies the technical data requirements for nanomaterials (NMs). These new provisions, effective from January 1, 2020, introduce requirements for manufacturers, importers and downstream users regarding registration and safety assessment of NMs. This study a...
Article
Plastic pollution is one of the major global environmental challenges and is therefore attracting increased societal attention. This has resulted in the adoption of a long array of national and international policies, targeting plastic pollution. Whereas early plastic pollution regulation focused mainly on banning specific plastic products such as...
Article
Stakeholder analysis (SA) is a widely used decision-support tool. This paper reviews the state-of-the-art of SA within environmental management and regulation. In total, 48 SA studies from the peer-reviewed literature were investigated according to 7 aspects: Topic and purpose; Elements included; Geographical area; Definition of key terms; Methods...
Article
It has now been more than 15 years since scientists, researchers, risk analyzers, policymakers, and other decision-makers initiated comprehensive investigations into the potential environmental, health, and safety risks of engineered nanomaterials. During this time, various tools have been proposed and/or developed to screen potential environmental...
Article
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In this study, we investigate whether the influence of natural organic matter (NOM) on the aquatic ecotoxicity of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) can be described quantitatively for the purpose of risk assessments based on existing ecotoxicity studies. A review of the literature studying the aquatic ecotoxicity of ENPs in the presence of NOM identi...
Article
Nanorobots for biomedical applications have experienced extensive research and rapid development during the last decade, up to a point where they can now deliver cargos to designated sites in organisms under laboratory conditions. Despite this development, research into nanorobot risks and discussions about potential regulation of nanorobots have s...
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Stakeholder involvement is pivotal EU governance. In this paper, we complete a stakeholder analysis of the European Chemicals Agency’s recent Annex XV restriction proposal process on intentionally added microplastics. The aim of this study is to map the interests, influence and importance of active stakeholders in order to understand the arguments...
Article
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Many small- or medium-sized communities in Northern Europe employ only primary wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and effluent discharges can be a relevant source of pollution. The current study combines monitoring and modelling approaches to investigate concentrations, influent patterns, size distribution and removal of 20 elements for the two pr...
Article
The experiences gained from the past 15 years of nanomaterial risk analysis may be useful for the risk analysis efforts of other emerging technologies.
Article
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An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.
Article
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An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper
Poster
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course about :Global Environmental Management an online non-credit course authorized by Technical University of Denmark (DTU) and offered through Coursera
Article
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Following our call to join in the discussion over the suitability of implementing a reporting checklist for bio–nano papers, the community responds. Below we report short extracts highlighting the main messages of the correspondences we received.
Article
Nanomaterial risk governance requires models to estimate the material flow, fate and transport as well as uptake/bioavailability, hazard and risk in the environment. This study assesses the fit of such available models to different stages during the innovation of nano-enabled products. Through stakeholder consultations, criteria were identified for...
Article
Proxy measures have been proposed as a low-data option for simplified assessment of environmental threat given the high complexity of the natural environment. We here review studies of environmental release, fate, toxicity and risk to identify relevant proxy measures for manufactured nanomaterials (MNMs). In total, 18 potential proxy measures were...
Article
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The new revisions of the Annexes of the European Union’s chemical legislation with regards to nanomaterials will provide more structure and clarity, but they will also force manufacturers, importers and downstream users to put substantial effort into understanding the details of what should and should not be done.
Article
The field of engineered nanomaterial (ENM) risk analysis has matured significantly in the past decade. While there is a suite of new, emerging tools to evaluate ENM risks and make decisions regarding these risks, there has not yet been thorough testing of these tools. This analysis applies and tests three risk screening tools (NanoRiskCat, LICARA n...
Article
The use of nano-scale copper oxide (CuO) and basic copper carbonate (Cu2(OH)2CO3) in both ionic and micronized wood preservatives has raised concerns about the potential of these substances to cause adverse humans health effects. To address these concerns, we performed quantitative (probabilistic) human health risk assessment (HHRA) along the lifec...
Article
Due to their widespread application in consumer products, elemental titanium (e.g., titanium dioxide, TiO2) and silver (Ag), also in nanoparticulate form, are increasingly released from households and industrial facilities to urban wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). A seven-day sampling campaign was conducted in two full-scale WWTPs in Trondheim...
Chapter
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Risk perception has a significant impact on how society reacts to a given risk. There have been cases where a mismatch between the actual risk and the perception of it has led to poor decisions on societal initiatives, such as inappropriate regulatory measures. It is therefore important that the perception of risk is based on an informed foundation...
Article
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TiO2 is ubiquitously present in a wide range of everyday items, both as an intentionally incorporated additive and naturally occurring constituent. It can be found in a wide range of consumer products, including personal care products, food contact materials, and textiles. Normal use of these products may lead to consumer and/or environmental expos...
Article
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The European Chemical Agency (ECHA) is in the process of revising its guidance documents on how to address the challenges of ecotoxicological testing of nanomaterials. In these revisions, outset is taken in the hypothesis that ecotoxicological test methods, developed for soluble chemicals, can be made applicable to nanomaterials. European Research...
Article
The time has come to implement a regulatory framework tailored to manufactured materials. I propose a new legislative framework that combines registration, evaluation, authorization and categorization of nanomaterials.
Article
Steffen Foss Hansen and Anders Baun present some of the approaches that they have implemented in their Nanotechnology and the Environment course.
Article
Studies have shown that releases of nanoparticles may take place through the life cycle of products embedding nanomaterials, thus resulting in potential impacts on ecosystems and human health. While several life cycle assessment (LCA) studies have assessed such products, only a few of them have quantitatively addressed the toxic impacts caused by r...
Article
Plastic pollution and its environmental effects has received global attention the recent years. However, limited attention has so far been directed towards how plastics are regulated in a life cycle perspective and how regulatory gaps can be addressed in order to limit and prevent environmental exposure and hazards of macro- and microplastics. In t...
Article
The use of alternatives assessment to substitute hazardous chemicals with inherently safer options is gaining momentum worldwide as a legislative and corporate strategy to minimize consumer, occupational, and environmental risks. Engineered nanomaterials represent an interesting case for alternatives assessment approaches as they can be considered...
Article
Within toxicology there is a pressure to find new test systems and organisms to replace, reduce and refine animal testing. In nanoecotoxicology the need for alternative testing strategies (ATS) is further emphasized as the validity of tests and risk assessment practices developed for dissolved chemicals are challenged. Nonetheless, standardized who...
Article
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Background: Decision analysis-a systematic approach to solving complex problems-offers tools and frameworks to support decision making that are increasingly being applied to environmental challenges. Alternatives analysis is a method used in regulation and product design to identify, compare, and evaluate the safety and viability of potential subs...
Article
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Over the last decade the number of products on the market containing engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) has increased significantly and concerns have been raised regarding the potential for ecotoxicological effects of ENPs. To promote safe and sustainable use of ENPs, environmental safety assessments are needed and for this purpose relevant and reliab...
Article
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Over the last decade the number of products on the market containing engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) has increased significantly and concerns have been raised regarding the potential for ecotoxicological effects of ENPs. To promote safe and sustainable use of ENPs, environmental safety assessments are needed and for this purpose relevant and reliab...
Article
Many nano-enabled consumer products are known to be in the global market. At the same, little is known about the quantity, type, location etc. of the engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) inside the products. This limits the scientific investigations of potential environmental effects of these materials, and especially the knowledge of ENM behaviour and...
Article
To provide greater transparency and comprehensive information to consumers regarding their purchase choices, the European Parliament and the Council have mandated via Regulation 1169/2011 that foods containing engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) be labeled. This review covers the main concerns related to the use of ENMs in foods and the potential impac...
Article
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The development, production and application of engineered nanomaterials are becoming more and more widespread. Because researchers, developers and industrial workers are the first in line to be exposed to potentially hazardous nanomaterials, appropriate occupational exposure assessment is a key area of concern. Therefore, a number of Control Bandin...
Article
The use of silver nanoparticles (NPs) in commercial products has become increasingly common in the past decade, mostly due to their antimicrobial properties. Using Ag NP-containing articles may lead to particle release, which raises concern of human and environmental safety. The published literature addressing particle release is scarce, especially...
Article
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The Biocidal Products Regulation (BPR) contains several provisions for nanomaterials (NMs) and is the first regulation in the European Union to require specific testing and risk assessment for the NM form of a biocidal substance as a part of the information requirements. Ecotoxicological data are one of the pillars of the information requirements i...
Article
The analysis of the potential risks of engineered nanomaterials (ENM) has so far been almost exclusively focused on the pristine, as-produced particles. However, when considering a life-cycle perspective, it is clear that ENM released from genuine products during manufacturing, use, and disposal is far more relevant. Research on release of material...
Article
Since the turn of the century a growing chorus of researchers has been espousing reduced meat and dairy intake as a partial strategy to transition towards a sustainable food system. Many of these studies have been predicated on a life-cycle assessment (LCA) methodology and though transparent in communicating their work within that framework, it has...
Technical Report
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Available @: http://www.dtu.dk/-/media/DTUdk/Samarbejde/Skifergas_udredning/videnskabelig_udredning_af_international_viden_om_skifergas_relateret_til_en_dansk_kontekst.ashx?la=da Indvinding af skifergas har i de senere år påkaldt sig stigende interesse internationalt og i Danmark. På den baggrund har Miljø- og Fødevareministeriet bedt DTU, GEUS og...
Article
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Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are currently being used in many different kinds of consumer products in order to take advantage of their antimicrobial properties. However, the potential migration of silver nanoparticles into food and subsequent consumer exposure has hardly been addressed. In the current study, we investigated four brands of commercia...
Article
Nanomaterials (NMs) are currently being used for a wide variety of products, and a number of them are utilized as biocides due to their antimicrobial or antifungal properties. Little is known to what extent these biocides are available on the market as consumer products. In the EU, the Biocidal Product Regulation (BPR) lays out a list of requiremen...
Article
The European chemical legislation requires manufacturers and importers of chemicals to do consumer exposure assessment when the chemical has certain hazards associated to it (e.g. explosive, carcinogenicity, and hazardous to the aquatic environment), but the question is how this obligation can be met in light of the scientific uncertainty and techn...
Article
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AbstractAs a result of the disarmament of Germany after the Second World War, 65,000 tons of chemical munitions were dumped in the Baltic Sea. Approximately 13,000 tons containing chemical warfare agents (CWAs) of which 11,000 tons were dumped in the Bornholm Basin east of Bornholm. This paper addresses the ecotoxicity of compounds actually present...
Article
In 2015, the OECD finally published the findings of its seven year testing programme for manufactured nanomaterials. Here, we present the first in-depth analysis of the published OECD dossiers with regards to data on physical and chemical properties, environmental fate and ecotoxicology. Each individual study in the dossiers was reviewed with regar...
Article
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It remains unclear which kinds of nanoproducts are available on the European market, although this information is a prerequisite for any kind of exposure and risk assessment. In order to address this lack of information, we have established The Nanodatabase (http://www.nanodb.dk), which is an online inventory of products claimed by manufacturers to...
Article
The European chemical legislation requires manufacturers and importers of chemicals to do consumer exposure assessment when the chemical has certain hazards associated to it (e.g. explosive, carcinogenicity, hazardous to the aquatic environment), but the question is how this obligation can be met in light of the scientific uncertainty and technical...
Article
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First concerns about the use of nanosilver were raised almost a decade ago, but assessing the risks has been extremely challenging scientifically, and regulation to protect environmental and human health remains controversial. In order to understand the known risks and issues associated with the use of nanosilver, we carried out a DPSIR analysis an...
Article
Environmental risk assessment (ERA) is often considered as the most transparent, objective and reliable decision-making tool for informing the risk management of chemicals and nanomaterials. ERAs are based on the assumption that it is possible to provide accurate estimates of hazard and exposure and, subsequently, to quantify risk. In this paper we...
Article
This study explored the potential for engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) to contaminate the UK drinking water supplies and established the significance of the drinking water exposure route compared to other routes of human exposure. A review of the occurrence and quantities of ENPs in different product types on the UK market as well as release scenari...
Article
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The European Biocidal Product Regulation (BPR) requires dedicated risk assessment of nanomaterials. When it comes to ecotoxicological testing of nanomaterials, meeting these requirements is especially challenging. Overall, these challenges fall into four overall categories: 1) materials characterization, 2) exposure preparation, 3) monitoring stabi...
Article
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Water scarcity brings an increased focus on wastewater reclamation for drinking water supply. Meanwhile, the production volume of nanoparticles (NPs) is rapidly increasing, but to date there has been little attention to the fate of NPs in water systems based on wastewater reclamation. We have investigated the possible concentrations of silver (Ag),...
Chapter
Nanotechnologies, as highlighted by this volume, are already ubiquitous in nature. Current and future applications of the technology are expected to lead to substantial societal and environmental benefits. For governments, investment in nanotechnologies, and indeed other emerging technologies, is seen as fundamental for driving the innovation agend...
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To the Editor Within nanoecotoxicology, various scientific tensions exist in dynamic interplay. For example, exploratory and curiosity-driven basic research competes with strategic-, applied- and regulatory-oriented approaches; research done within a paradigm of environmental chemistry must rival with a biological one; and research focused on well...
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History confirms that while technological innovations can bring many benefits, they can also cause much human suffering, environmental degradation and economic costs. But are we repeating history with new and emerging chemical and technological products? In preparation for volume 2 of 'Late Lessons from Early Warnings' (European Environment Agency,...
Article
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Information related to the potential environmental exposure of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) in the solid waste management phase is extremely scarce. In this paper, we define nanowaste as separately collected or collectable waste materials which are or contain ENMs, and we present a five-step framework for the systematic assessment of ENM exposur...
Technical Report
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Under the Agreement "Better Control of Nanomaterials" (“Bedre styr på nanomaterialer”), the Danish EPA has commissioned a number of projects aiming to investigate and generate new knowledge on the presence of nanomaterials in products on the Danish market and assess the possible associated risks to consumers and the environment. The NanoDEN project...
Article
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In order to understand how companies identify and handle emerging risks related to nanomaterials, we completed more than 15 in-depth interviews with key personnel in various Danish companies. Companies varied greatly in regard to number of employees and overall R & D capacity and health and safety personnel, but also in regard to level of which, th...
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The literature on nano(eco)toxicology is growing rapidly and has become increasingly difficult to interpret. We have developed a systematic tool called NanoRiskCat that can support companies and regulators in their first-tier assessment and communication on what they know about the hazard and exposure potential of consumer products containing engin...