Stefano Tubaro

Stefano Tubaro
Politecnico di Milano | Polimi · Department of Electronics, Information, and Bioengineering

About

472
Publications
62,139
Reads
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6,996
Citations
Citations since 2016
156 Research Items
4355 Citations
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Introduction

Publications

Publications (472)
Article
Full-text available
A great deal of the images found in scientific publications are retouched, reused, or composed to enhance the quality of the presentation. In most instances, these edits are benign and help the reader better understand the material in a paper. However, some edits are instances of scientific misconduct and undermine the integrity of the presented re...
Preprint
The rapid spread of media content synthesis technology and the potentially damaging impact of audio and video deepfakes on people's lives have raised the need to implement systems able to detect these forgeries automatically. In this work we present a novel approach for synthetic speech detection, exploiting the combination of two high-level semant...
Preprint
Full-text available
Methods that can determine if two given video sequences are captured by the same device (e.g., mobile telephone or digital camera) can be used in many forensics tasks. In this paper we refer to this as "video device matching". In open-set video forensics scenarios it is easier to determine if two video sequences were captured with the same device t...
Preprint
Due to the reduction of technological costs and the increase of satellites launches, satellite images are becoming more popular and easier to obtain. Besides serving benevolent purposes, satellite data can also be used for malicious reasons such as misinformation. As a matter of fact, satellite images can be easily manipulated relying on general im...
Preprint
With the rapid development of deep learning techniques, the generation and counterfeiting of multimedia material are becoming increasingly straightforward to perform. At the same time, sharing fake content on the web has become so simple that malicious users can create unpleasant situations with minimal effort. Also, forged media are getting more a...
Article
Hyperspectral X-ray analysis is used in many industrial pipelines, from quality control to detection of low-density contaminants in food. Unfortunately, the signal acquired by X-ray sensors is often affected by a great amount of noise. This hinders the performance of most of the applications building on top of these acquisitions (e.g., detection of...
Preprint
This work proposes a method for source device identification from speech recordings that applies neural-network-based denoising, to mitigate the impact of counter-forensics attacks using noise injection. The method is evaluated by comparing the impact of denoising on three state-of-the-art features for microphone classification, determining their d...
Preprint
The widespread availability of image editing tools and improvements in image processing techniques allow image manipulation to be very easy. Oftentimes, easy-to-use yet sophisticated image manipulation tools yields distortions/changes imperceptible to the human observer. Distribution of forged images can have drastic ramifications, especially when...
Preprint
In this paper, we propose the application of denoising to microphone classification, to enable its usage on content with unfavorable noisy conditions. We first describe the proposed integrated approach; afterwards we discuss the baseline algorithm for microphone classification, and the various denoising procedures which can be combined with it in t...
Preprint
Full-text available
Audio signals are often stored and transmitted in compressed formats. Among the many available audio compression schemes, MPEG-1 Audio Layer III (MP3) is very popular and widely used. Since MP3 is lossy it leaves characteristic traces in the compressed audio which can be used forensically to expose the past history of an audio file. In this paper,...
Article
Full-text available
Source device identification is an important topic in image forensics since it allows to trace back the origin of an image. Its forensics counterpart is source device anonymization, that is, to mask any trace on the image that can be useful for identifying the source device. A typical trace exploited for source device identification is the photo re...
Preprint
Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images are a valuable asset for a wide variety of tasks. In the last few years, many websites have been offering them for free in the form of easy to manage products, favoring their widespread diffusion and research work in the SAR field. The drawback of these opportunities is that such images might be exposed to forg...
Article
Facial skin segmentation is an important preliminary task in many applications, including remote PhotoPlethysmoGraphy (rPPG), which is the problem of estimating the heart activity of a subject just by analyzing a video of their face. By selecting all the subject’s skin surface, a more robust pulse signal could be extracted and analyzed in order to...
Article
Full-text available
Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images are a valuable asset for a wide variety of tasks. In the last few years, many websites have been offering them for free in the form of easy to manage products, favoring their widespread diffusion and research work in the SAR field. The drawback of these opportunities is that such images might be exposed to forg...
Article
Full-text available
The widespread diffusion of synthetically generated content is a serious threat that needs urgent countermeasures. As a matter of fact, the generation of synthetic content is not restricted to multimedia data like videos, photographs or audio sequences, but covers a significantly vast area that can include biological images as well, such as western...
Article
Seismic deblending is an ill-posed inverse problem that involves counteracting the effect of a blending matrix derived from the shots’ position and firing time. In this letter, we propose a seismic deblending method based on so-called deep preconditioners. A convolutional autoencoder (AE) is first trained in a patch-wise fashion to learn an effecti...
Preprint
The widespread diffusion of synthetically generated content is a serious threat that needs urgent countermeasures. The generation of synthetic content is not restricted to multimedia data like videos, photographs, or audio sequences, but covers a significantly vast area that can include biological images as well, such as western-blot and microscopi...
Article
Full-text available
Attention and awareness towards musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) in the dental profession has increased considerably in the last few years. From recent literature reviews, it appears that the prevalence of MSDs in dentists concerns between 64 and 93%. In our clinical trial, we have assessed the dentist posture during the extraction of 90 third lowe...
Article
Full-text available
Identifying the source camera of images and videos has gained significant importance in multimedia forensics. It allows tracing back data to their creator, thus enabling to solve copyright infringement cases and expose the authors of hideous crimes. In this paper, we focus on the problem of camera model identification for video sequences, that is,...
Preprint
Full-text available
The unprecedented ease and ability to manipulate video content has led to a rapid spread of manipulated media. The availability of video editing tools greatly increased in recent years, allowing one to easily generate photo-realistic alterations. Such manipulations can leave traces in the metadata embedded in video files. This metadata information...
Article
The complete understanding of the decision-making process of Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) is far from being fully reached. Many researchers proposed techniques to interpret what a network actually learns from data. Nevertheless many questions still remain unanswered. In this work we study one aspect of this problem by reconstructing speech...
Article
Full-text available
Several methods for synthetic audio speech generation have been developed in the literature through the years. With the great technological advances brought by deep learning, many novel synthetic speech techniques achieving incredible realistic results have been recently proposed. As these methods generate convincing fake human voices, they can be...
Preprint
Data interpolation is a fundamental step in any seismic processing workflow. Among machine learning techniques recently proposed to solve data interpolation as an inverse problem, Deep Prior paradigm aims at employing a convolutional neural network to capture priors on the data in order to regularize the inversion. However, this technique lacks of...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The importance of soundfield imaging techniques is expected to further increase in the next few years thanks to the ever-increasing availability of low-cost sensors such as MEMS microphones. When it comes to processing a relevant number of sensor signals, however, the computational load of space-time processing algorithms easily grows to unmanageab...
Article
Full-text available
Forgery operations on video contents are nowadays within the reach of anyone, thanks to the availability of powerful and user-friendly editing software. Integrity verification and authentication of videos represent a major interest in both journalism (e.g., fake news debunking) and legal environments dealing with digital evidence (e.g., courts of l...
Article
Full-text available
Irregularity and coarse spatial sampling of seismic data strongly affect the performances of processing and imaging algorithms. Therefore, interpolation is a usual preprocessing step in most of the processing workflows. In this work, we propose a seismic data interpolation method based on the deep prior paradigm: an ad hoc convolutional neural netw...
Article
Full-text available
Internet of Things (IoT) applications play a relevant role in today’s industry in sharing diagnostic data with off-site service teams, as well as in enabling reliable predictive maintenance systems. Several interventions scenarios, however, require the physical presence of a human operator: Augmented Reality (AR), together with a broad-band connect...
Preprint
Source device identification is an important topic in image forensics since it allows to trace back the origin of an image. Its forensics counter-part is source device anonymization, that is, to mask any trace on the image that can be useful for identifying the source device. A typical trace exploited for source device identification is the Photo R...
Preprint
The fast and continuous growth in number and quality of deepfake videos calls for the development of reliable detection systems capable of automatically warning users on social media and on the Internet about the potential untruthfulness of such contents. While algorithms, software, and smartphone apps are getting better every day in generating man...
Article
Full-text available
The problem of performing remote biomedical measurements using just a video stream of a subject face is called remote photoplethysmography (rPPG). The aim of this work is to propose a novel method able to perform rPPG using single-photon avalanche diode (SPAD) cameras. These are extremely accurate cameras able to detect even a single photon and are...
Conference Paper
Interpolation of seismic data is an important pre-processing step in most seismic processing workflows. Through the deep image prior paradigm, it is possible to use Convolutional Neural Networks for seismic data interpolation without the costly and prone-to-overfitting training stage. The proposed method makes use of the multi-res U-net architectur...
Preprint
Full-text available
Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) have proved very accurate in multiple computer vision image classification tasks that required visual inspection in the past (e.g., object recognition, face detection, etc.). Motivated by these astonishing results, researchers have also started using CNNs to cope with image forensic problems (e.g., camera model...
Preprint
Forgery operations on video contents are nowadays within the reach of anyone, thanks to the availability of powerful and user-friendly editing software. Integrity verification and authentication of videos represent a major interest in both journalism (e.g., fake news debunking) and legal environments dealing with digital evidence (e.g., a court of...
Article
In this manuscript we propose a methodology for the reconstruction of sound fields in arbitrary locations based on the signals acquired by a spatial distribution of compact microphone arrays (virtual miking). The proposed method is suitable for operating in reverberant environments, thanks to a two-stage analysis process, the former of which aims a...
Article
In this manuscript we present a methodology for source localization in reverberant environments from Generalized Cross Correlations (GCCs) computed between spatially distributed individual microphones. Reverberation tends to negatively affect localization based on Time Differences of Arrival (TDOAs), which become inaccurate due to the presence of s...
Article
Source identification is an important topic in image forensics, since it allows to trace back the origin of an image. This represents a precious information to claim intellectual property but also to reveal the authors of illicit materials. In this paper we address the problem of device identification based on sensor noise and propose a fast and ac...
Article
Buried landmines and unexploded remnants of war are a constant threat for the population of many countries that have been hit by wars in the past years. The huge amount of casualties has been a strong motivation for the research community toward the development of safe and robust techniques designed for landmine clearance. Nonetheless, being able t...
Preprint
Full-text available
To decide whether a digital video has been captured by a given device, multimedia forensic tools usually exploit characteristic noise traces left by the camera sensor on the acquired frames. This analysis requires that the noise pattern characterizing the camera and the noise pattern extracted from video frames under analysis are geometrically alig...
Preprint
Full-text available
The advent of Generative Adversarial Network (GAN) architectures has given anyone the ability of generating incredibly realistic synthetic imagery. The malicious diffusion of GAN-generated images may lead to serious social and political consequences (e.g., fake news spreading, opinion formation, etc.). It is therefore important to regulate the wide...
Preprint
Full-text available
In the last few years, several techniques for facial manipulation in videos have been successfully developed and made available to the masses (i.e., FaceSwap, deepfake, etc.). These methods enable anyone to easily edit faces in video sequences with incredibly realistic results and a very little effort. Despite the usefulness of these tools in many...
Article
Full-text available
In this work we present a facial skin detection method, based on a deep learning architecture, that is able to precisely associate a skin label to each pixel of a given image depicting a face. This is an important preliminary step in many applications, such as remote photoplethysmography (rPPG) in which the hearth rate of a subject needs to be esti...
Chapter
In this article we use omnidirectional images obtained from equirectangular panoramas of Google MapsTM to estimate camera egomotion. The systems was also tested using a 360 camera. The goal is to provide an effective and accurate positioning system for indoor environments or in urban canyons where GPS signal could be absent. We reformulated classic...
Preprint
Full-text available
Source identification is an important topic in image forensics, since it allows to trace back the origin of an image. This represents a precious information to claim intellectual property but also to reveal the authors of illicit materials. In this paper we address the problem of device identification based on sensor noise and propose a fast and ac...
Article
We propose a novel methodology for estimating the radiation pattern of acoustic sources, which is general enough as to be suitable for a wide variety of sources without the need of anechoic conditions of operation. Multiple plenacoustic cameras (which can be thought of as arrays of acoustic cameras) scan the source while keeping reflections and int...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In this paper we deal with the problem of hy-perspectral X-Ray image denoising. In particular, we compare a classical model-based Wiener filter solution with a data-driven methodology based on a Convolutional Autoencoder. A challenging aspect is related to the specific kind of 2D signal we are processing: it presents mixed dimensions information si...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In recent years, the number of images shared online has continuously grown. The forensics community has kept the pace by developing techniques to both reliably extract information from these images, but also to remove it. In particular, the latest developments in im- age anonymization methods exposes an attack vector when used by skilled ill-intent...
Article
In this paper we present a view synthesis algorithm for the generation of novel intermediate views that smoothly interpolate between two reference images of the same scene acquired from two different point of views. If the acquisition system is not calibrated, there is no way to access the Euclidean frame and therefore it is impossible to determine...
Preprint
Manipulating video content is easier than ever. Due to the misuse potential of manipulated content, multiple detection techniques that analyze the pixel data from the videos have been proposed. However, clever manipulators should also carefully forge the metadata and auxiliary header information, which is harder to do for videos than images. In thi...