Stefano Schiaparelli

Stefano Schiaparelli
Università degli Studi di Genova | UNIGE · Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, dell'Ambiente e della Vita (DISTAV)

Associate Professor (Zoology)

About

192
Publications
50,768
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3,437
Citations
Additional affiliations
November 2008 - April 2020
Università degli Studi di Genova
Position
  • Professor (Associate)

Publications

Publications (192)
Article
Full-text available
The need for sound baseline information about community structure and composition against which changes can be detected and quantified is a well-recognised priority in Antarctica. Here, the collection of such data is challenging, especially at sea, where long-term monitoring is usually logistically feasible only in the proximity of permanent resear...
Preprint
Full-text available
Sampling impediments and paucity of suitable material for molecular analyses have precluded the study of speciation and radiation of deep-sea species in Antarctic ecosystems. This knowledge may serve to establish the framework for evaluating future anthropogenic alterations, particularly in a highly susceptible region like Antarctica. Here, we anal...
Article
One of the main requirements of any sound biological monitoring is the availability of long term and, possibly, temporal data with a high resolution. This is often difficult to be achieved, especially in Antarctica, due to a variety of logistic constraints, which make continuous sampling and monitoring activities generally unfeasible. Here we focus...
Article
Full-text available
Zooplankton is a fundamental group in aquatic ecosystems representing the base of the food chain. It forms a link between the lower trophic levels with secondary consumers and shows marked fluctuations in populations with environmental change, especially reacting to heating and water acidification. Marine copepods account for approx. 70% of the abu...
Article
Full-text available
The Southern Ocean is one of the most exposed regions to climate-related changes on our planet. Better understanding of the current biodiversity and past speciation events, as well as implementation of conservation actions and accurate identification of organisms to species level in this unique environment, is fundamental. In this study, two specie...
Article
Full-text available
The Antarctic marine environment hosts diversified and highly endemic benthos owing to its unique geologic and climatic history. Current warming trends have increased the urgency of understanding Antarctic species history to predict how environmental changes will impact ecosystem functioning. Antarctic benthic lineages have traditionally been exami...
Chapter
DNA barcoding is a powerful and widespread method used to identify large numbers of species collected in the framework of sampling activities in the field. With the exception of research projects that may count on large teams characterized by tasks’ delegation and where many activities may run in parallel, in the majority of cases the barcoding eff...
Chapter
The temporal dynamics of coastal planktic communities can be disclosed through DNA metabarcoding on the filters of reverse-osmosis desalination plants. Here, we describe the steps that are necessary to process the filters in order to create the subsamples used for DNA extraction and the bioinformatic pipeline to perform the first exploratory analys...
Article
Full-text available
Long-term monitoring projects are becoming more than ever crucial in assessing the effects of climate change on marine communities, especially in Antarctica, where these changes are expected to be particularly dramatic. Detailed studies of the Antarctic benthos are in fact particularly important for a better understanding of benthos dynamics and po...
Article
Full-text available
In the framework of the PNRA (Italian National Antarctic Research Program) project CARBONANT focusing on biogenic carbonates and held in January–February 2002, several Ross Sea banks were sampled to obtain samples of biogenic carbonates. In the Mawson Bank, species belonging to the isopod genus Chaetarcturus Brandt, 1990 were recorded, including a...
Article
Full-text available
We report for the first time the occurrence of at least two species of the phylum Gnathostomulida in the Southern Ocean, along the shores of the Ross Sea in Antarctica. At least one species for each of the orders of the phylum (Filospermoidea and Bursovaginoidea) was found using both morphological inspection and DNA metabarcoding of the shallow mar...
Article
Full-text available
1.The rapid changes in the climate of Antarctica are likely to pose challenges to living communities, which makes monitoring of Antarctic fauna an urgent necessity. Benthos is particularly difficult to monitor, and is sensitive to local environmental changes. At the same time, long‐term monitoring is complicated by logistical factors. It is therefo...
Article
Full-text available
Although the extent of near-shore and coastal habitats around the Antarctic Continent is limited, they host an abundant and diversified fish fauna dominated by notothenioids. Nevertheless, the spatial distribution of fishes at small scales and their relationships with the surrounding habitat are still poorly known. The purpose of this study is to p...
Article
Full-text available
In the Antarctic seas, where hard substrates are scarce, the presence of secondary bio-substrates formed by calcareous organisms is an essential condition to increase the epibiosis and therefore the diversity of sessile benthic fauna. The aggregations of stylasterid hydrozoa, with their branched carbonate structures, are an example of a secondary h...
Article
Full-text available
In the framework of the British Antarctic Survey (BAS) Expedion JR 15005 SO-AntEco, held in February-March 2016, the South Orkney Islands seafloor was sampled in order to investigate the distribution and composition of benthic communities around the area. A new species of the genus Pseudidothea Ohlin, 1901 is described from the Burdwood Bank area (...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract Tiny snail-like conchs of Pelagiella Matthew are important in discussions of lophotrochozoan and mollusc origins in the Cambrian Evolutionary Radiation (CER). Limited morphologic features of Pelagiella conchs have led to the Pelagiella-problem: 1) poorly distinguished Pelagiella species, 2) an exceptional genus range across all Cambrian p...
Cover Page
Full-text available
Cover Story : Carbonate skeletonized organisms such as bryozoans, mollusks, echinoderms, cnidarians, barnacles, serpulids, foraminifers, ostracods, and red algae occur in Antarctic marine biota today. Depending on the different carbonate polymorphs secreted and postmortem circumstances, their skeletal remains play a major role in reconstructions of...
Article
Full-text available
Marine biogenic skeletal production is the prevalent source of Ca-carbonate in today’s Antarctic seas. Most information, however, derives from the post-mortem legacy of calcifying organisms. Prior imagery and evaluation of Antarctic habitats hosting calcifying benthic organisms are poorly present in the literature, therefore, a Remotely Operated Ve...
Article
Gametes from gravid Antarctic toothfish (Dissostichus mawsoni) were combined in vitro and buoyancy measurements were made on fertilised eggs during early development. Eggs were strongly positively buoyant, indicating that they would ascend quickly in the water column and reside near or in association with the underside of sea ice, which covers most...
Chapter
Heliacus jeffreysianus (Tiberi, 1867) is one of the rarest and elusive gastropods of the Mediterranean Sea, known for little more than 10 specimens collected in over ~ 150 years. Its ecology and details of the association to its host and prey, the gold coral Savalia savaglia Bertoloni, 1819, a parasitic zoanthid, were only partially known until the...
Article
Full-text available
Sampling impediments and paucity of suitable material for molecular analyses have precluded the study of speciation and radiation of deep-sea species in Antarctica. We analyzed barcodes together with genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphisms obtained from double digestion restriction site-associated DNA sequencing (ddRADseq) for species in the fa...
Article
Aim The long history of isolation of the Antarctic continent, coupled with the harsh ecological conditions of freezing temperatures, could affect the patterns of genetic diversity in the organisms living there. We aim (a) to test whether such pattern can be seen in a mitochondrial marker of bdelloid rotifers, a group of microscopic aquatic and limn...
Article
Over the last decade, our knowledge of the phylogenetic and taxonomic diversity of coralline algae has greatly progressed thanks to the use of DNA sequence data. Despite this, in some geographic regions the knowledge of coralline diversity is still incomplete, because it is entirely based on traditional morpho-anatomical grounds; Antarctica can cer...
Article
Full-text available
Thanks to newly collected material from the Terra Nova Bay area (Ross Sea, Antarctica), we discuss the taxonomy of the ampharetid genera Amage Malmgren, 1866 and Amythas Benham, 1921. A new species of Amage, A. giacomobovei sp. nov., is described based on morpho-anatomical data. This is the second new species described from an area which appears to...
Article
A coiled shell is the most evident feature of the typical Bauplan of a gastropod mollusc. However, at least 54 families independently evolved an apparently simplified shell morphology: the limpet. Species with this largely uncoiled, depressed shell morphology occur in almost every aquatic habitat and are associated to a number of different lifestyl...
Article
Species in the family Capulidae (Littorinimorpha: Capuloidea) display a wide range of shell morpholo- gies. Several species are known to live in association with other benthic invertebrates—mostly bivalves and sabellid worms, but also other gastropods—and are believed to be kleptoparasitic filter feeders that take advantage of the water current pro...
Article
Full-text available
Distributional data on planktic copepods (Crustacea, Copepoda) collected in the framework of the III rd , V th , and X th Expeditions of the Italian National Antarctic Program (PNRA) to the Ross Sea sector from 1987 to 1995 are here provided. Sampling was performed with BIONESS and WP2 nets at 94 sampling stations at depths of 0-1,000 m, with a spe...
Article
Full-text available
Complex cell-to-cell interactions (including the production of antibiotics and the quorum sensing phenomenon) occur between benthic marine organisms and bacteria, leading to the establishment of synergistic interactions, especially in extreme and harsh environments, such as Antarctica. Despite this, current data concerning the composition, host- an...
Article
Full-text available
Molluscan shells are an example of a mineral-based biocomposite material, and most studies to date have focused on understanding their biomineralization mechanisms. Meanwhile, large amounts of these shells are produced as waste globally by seafood which is used by other industries as a source of biogenic calcium carbonates. In this study, we propos...
Book
Full-text available
Crustaceans are an important component in the diet of numerous predators of the Southern Ocean (water masses located south of the Subtropical Front). As identifying crustaceans from food samples using conventional methods is not easy, a crustacean guide was written to aid scientists working on trophic relationships within the Southern Ocean. Having...
Article
Full-text available
The Southern Ocean represents one of the world regions most sensitive to warming and there is an urgent need for quantitative data to understand changes in coastal communities. This goal can be achieved through the establishment of permanent monitoring sites and robust sampling designs. In this study, we used an emerging, photogrammetry-based techn...
Article
Full-text available
The Internet and social media have profoundly changed the way the public receives and transmits news. The ability of the web to quickly disperse information both geographically and temporally allows social media to reach a much wider audience compared to traditional mass media. A powerful role is played by sharing, as millions of people routinely s...
Article
Full-text available
We present a data set on Antarctic biodiversity for the phylum Rotifera, making it publicly available through the Antarctic Biodiversity Information facility. We provide taxonomic information, geographic distribution, location, and habitat for each record. The data set gathers all the published literature about rotifers found and identified across...
Article
Full-text available
In the Ross Sea, biodiversity organisation is strongly influenced by sea-ice cover, which is characterised by marked spatio-temporal variations. Expected changes in seasonal sea-ice dynamics will be reflected in food web architecture, providing a unique opportunity to study effects of climate change. Based on individual stable isotope analyses and...
Article
1.New methods for species distribution models (SDMs) utilise presence‐absence (PA) data to correct the sampling bias of presence‐only (PO) data in a spatial point process setting. These have been shown to improve species estimates when both data sets are large and dense. However, is a PA data set that is smaller and patchier than hitherto examined...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Oceanographic moorings (OMs) are standard marine platforms composed of wires, buoys, weights and instruments, and are used as in situ observatories to record water column properties. However, OMs are also comprised of hard substrates on which a variety of invertebrates can settle when they encounter these structures along their dispers...
Article
In most marine gastropods, the duration of the larval phase is a key feature, strongly influencing species distribution and persistence. Antarctic lineages, in agreement with Thorson's rule, generally show a short pelagic developmental phase (or lack it completely), with very few exceptions. Among them is the ascidian-feeding gastropod family Velut...
Article
Full-text available
This study provides taxonomic and distributional data of bryozoan species from the Ross Sea area, mainly around Terra Nova Bay, based on specimens curated at the Italian National Antarctic Museum (MNA, Section of Genoa). Bryozoan specimens were collected at 75 different sampling stations in the Ross Sea and in the Magellan Strait, in a bathymetric...
Article
Full-text available
This study provides taxonomic and distributional data of bryozoan species from the Ross Sea area, mainly around Terra Nova Bay, based on specimens curated at the Italian National Antarctic Museum (MNA, Section of Genoa). Bryozoan specimens were collected at 75 different sampling stations in the Ross Sea and in the Magellan Strait, in a bathymetric...
Chapter
The microbial colonization of living surfaces may be affected by several environmental and biological factors and may play an important role in the development and evolution of the holobiont. Antarctica, as an extreme and isolated environment, offers a unique opportunity to study the peculiar and often strict interactions that are established betwe...
Poster
Full-text available
The Ross Sea Region Marine Protected Area (RSRMPA) has been legally established in December 2017 and covers a surface of ca. 1.55 million km2, encompassing a vast area (1.12 million km2) of full protection (General Protection Zone, GPZ). Because of intrinsic difficulties, not much visual information is available about resident benthic communities i...
Presentation
From December 2017, the Ross Sea (Antarctica), one of the most pristine environments in the world, has been subject to protection. Its biological diversity and richness reflects the highest productivity of the Southern Ocean and the extraordinary adaptations shown by the majority of species living under such peculiar conditions. Some of these Antar...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Introduction: Human acceptance over the presence of predators is crucial for their conservation and is highly ruled by people’s perception of the risk they can involve. Even if predator attacks on humans are rare, they arouse a disproportionate media attention. The way the media covers predator attacks and the resonance that these reports have on t...
Article
Full-text available
Ecological studies about marine benthic communities received a major leap from the application of a variety of non-destructive sampling and mapping techniques based on underwater image and video recording. The well-established scientific diving practice consists in the acquisition of single path or ‘round-trip’ over elongated transects, with the im...
Article
Full-text available
This new dataset presents occurrence data for Porifera collected in the Ross Sea, mainly in the Terra Nova Bay area, and curated at the Italian National Antarctic Museum (MNA, section of Genoa). Specimens were collected in 331 different sampling stations at depths ranging from 17 to 1,100 meters in the framework of 17 different Italian Antarctic ex...
Article
Full-text available
The present dataset is a compilation of georeferenced occurrences of asteroids (Echinodermata: Aster-oidea) in the Southern Ocean. Occurrence data south of 45°S latitude were mined from various sources together with information regarding the taxonomy, the sampling source and sampling sites when available. Records from 1872 to 2016 were thoroughly c...
Article
Full-text available
e distributional records of Ophiuroidea stored at the Italian National Antarctic Museum (MNA, Sec- tion of Genoa) are presented, corresponding to 1595 individuals that belong to 35 species and 17 genera. Specimens were collected in 106 di erent sampling stations at depths ranging from 21 to 1652 m in the framework of 14 Antarctic expeditions to the...
Article
Full-text available
In polar areas, where benthic sampling is con- strained by a series of limitations imposed by climate and logistic challenges, knowledge about the key elements required to plan a successful survey is fundamental. Dur- ing the International Polar Year (IPY, 2007/2008), under the Census of Antarctic Marine Life (CAML), new sam- pling campaigns were u...
Article
Historical data sets from vast and relatively inaccessible areas are sources of potentially unique information still valuable for biodiversity studies today. In many research fields, ranging from climate change to projection of species loss, great efforts have been made to integrate historical data sets with recent data to create databases that are...
Article
Full-text available
The biodiversity, ecosystem services and climate variability of the Antarctic continent and the Southern Ocean are major components of the whole Earth system. Antarctic ecosystems are driven more strongly by the physical environment than many other marine and terrestrial ecosystems. As a consequence, to understand ecological functioning, cross-disc...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Autonomous Reef Monitoring Structures are standardized artificial largely used in shallow, tropical marine locations to assess the cryptofauna (Knowlton et al. 2010, Plaisance et al. 2011, Knowlton et al. 2015). These multilayer type I PVC structures offer a succession of closed and open layers for the small and very small fauna and flora to coloni...