Stefano Luigi Gariano

Stefano Luigi Gariano
Italian National Research Council | CNR · Research Institute for Geo-Hydrological Protection IRPI

Ph.D. in Geology, M.Sc. in Environmental Engineering

About

102
Publications
36,545
Reads
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2,611
Citations
Additional affiliations
December 2018 - December 2019
Italian National Research Council
Position
  • Researcher
January 2014 - April 2017
Italian National Research Council
Position
  • Research Associate
Description
  • Impact of climate change on landslide occurrence, hazard, and risk.
March 2011 - April 2017
Italian National Research Council
Position
  • Research Assistant
Description
  • Rainfall thresholds for shallow landslide occurrence.
Education
January 2014 - April 2017
Università degli Studi di Perugia
Field of study
  • Geology. "Impact of climate change on landslide occurrence, hazard, and risk"
March 2011 - May 2012
Università della Calabria
Field of study
  • Dipartimento di Difesa del Suolo
October 2006 - May 2009
Università della Calabria
Field of study
  • Engineering

Publications

Publications (102)
Article
Full-text available
Only a few studies have investigated the geographical and temporal variations in the frequency and distribution of rainfall-induced landslides, and the consequences of the variations on landslide risk. Lack of information limits the possibility to evaluate the impact of environmental and climate changes on landslide frequency and risk. Here, we exp...
Article
Full-text available
Warming of the Earth climate system is unequivocal. That climate changes affect the stability of natural and engineered slopes and have consequences on landslides, is also undisputable. Less clear is the type, extent, magnitude and direction of the changes in the stability conditions, and on the location, abundance, activity and frequency of landsl...
Article
According to the fifth report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, an increase in the frequency and the intensity of extreme rainfall is expected in the Mediterranean area. Among different impacts, this increase might result in a variation in the frequency and the spatial distribution of rainfall-induced landslides, and in an increase...
Article
Full-text available
In many areas of the world, the prediction of rainfall-induced landslides is usually carried out by means of empirical rainfall thresholds. Their definition is complicated by several issues, among which are the evaluation and quantification of diverse uncertainties resulting from data and methods. Threshold effectiveness and reliability strongly de...
Article
Full-text available
In Alpine regions changes in seasonal climatic parameters, such as temperature, rainfall, and snow amount have already been observed. Specifically, in the South Tyrol area, meteorological observations indicate that temperatures are increasing and the number of snow days has generally diminished over time with perennial snow line now observed at hig...
Article
Full-text available
Among the various predisposing factors of rainfall-induced shallow landslides, land use is constantly evolving, being linked to human activities. Between different land uses, improper agricultural practices can have a negative impact on slope stability. Indeed, unsustainable soil tillage can modify the mechanical properties of the soils, leading to...
Chapter
Climate change is leading to changing patterns of precipitation and increasingly extreme global weather. There is an urgent need to synthesize our current knowledge on climate risks to water security, which in turn is fundamental for achieving sustainable water management. Climate Risk and Sustainable Water Management discusses hydrological extreme...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Several territorial landslide early warning systems in different parts of the world are based on empirical rainfall thresholds for landslide triggering. The calculation of such thresholds, using rainfall measurements gathered from rain gauges, has been examined frequently, especially considering uncertainties, modeling complexity, spatial assumptio...
Chapter
Rainfall causes changes in surface and groundwater dynamics that reduce the slope stability conditions and cause landslides. Such phenomena pose serious threats to population and infrastructures. Hence, the prediction of the occurrence of rainfall-induced landslides is a key issue. Evaluation of the relationships between rainfall and landslides can...
Article
Full-text available
Landslides are among the most dangerous natural hazards, particularly in developing countries, where ground observations for operative early warning systems are lacking. In these areas, remote sensing can represent an important detection and monitoring process to predict landslide occurrence in space and time, particularly satellite rainfall produc...
Article
Full-text available
Hydro-morphological processes (HMP, i.e. all processes contained within the spectrum defined between debris flows and flash floods) initiate in response to intense rainfall events. Efficient HMP hazard assessment over large regions is often hindered because of limited rainfall observations over mountainous areas. Real-time and easily accessible sat...
Article
Full-text available
At variance with conventional landslide susceptibility assessment, non-susceptibility analysis aims at selecting locations in which the likelihood of landslide occurrence is null or negligible. The advantage of this approach is that it does not require estimating different degrees of likelihood outside of the locations of negligible susceptibility....
Preprint
To join the Scientists Adoption Academy [ scadacademy.com ] +++++++++++++++++++++ Abstract: Regional calculation of the spatial rainfall threshold that triggers landslides has been examined frequently, especially in light of uncertainties, modeling complexity, spatial assumptions, and analytical tools. Installed rainfall stations that are spatia...
Article
Full-text available
Analyses of historical records of landslides and climate variables are useful tools to search for correlations between damaging landslide events and their triggers. In this work, we investigate the temporal and geographical relationships between two long-term historical series of catalogued landslide occurrences and daily rainfall data in Umbria, a...
Preprint
Full-text available
Landslides are among the most dangerous natural hazards, particularly in developing countries where ground observations for operative early warning systems are lacking. In these areas, remote sensing can represent an important tool to forecast landslide occurrence in space and time, particularly satellite rainfall products that have improved in ter...
Article
Full-text available
Landslides are frequent and widespread destructive processes causing casualties and damage worldwide [...]
Chapter
Hydrogeological hazards now exacerbated by the ongoing climate change pose serious challenges for the safety of the population worldwide. Among the others, the landslide risk can be mitigated by setting up efficient and reliable early warning systems. To date, rainfall thresholds are one of the most used tools to forecast the possible occurrence of...
Chapter
Although mass-movements can be caused by a variety of natural phenomena and human actions, in most areas of the world rainfall is their primary trigger. An often-neglected complication of the operational forecasting of rainfall-induced landslides is global warming, in particular the related ongoing and expected changes in rainfall and temperature....
Article
Full-text available
Rockfalls are frequent and harmful phenomena occurring in mountain ranges, coastal cliffs, and slope cuts. Although several natural processes occur in their formation and triggering, rainfall is one of the most common causes. The prediction of rock failures is of social significance for civil protection purposes and can rely on the statistical anal...
Chapter
We reviewed the Italian scientific literature published in the period 2008–2018 on the topic of rainfall thresholds for the landslide triggering, with the aim of analyzing the most significant advances and the main open issues. In the international literature, Italy occupies a relevant position from both a quantitative and a qualitative viewpoint:...
Article
Full-text available
Rainfall-triggered shallow landslides represent a major threat to people and infrastructure worldwide. Predicting the possibility of a landslide occurrence accurately means understanding the trigger mechanisms adequately. Rainfall is the main cause of slope failures in Slovenia, and rainfall thresholds are among the most-used tools to predict the p...
Preprint
Full-text available
Abstract. Rockfalls are frequent and harmful phenomena occurring in mountain ranges, coastal cliffs and slope cuts. Albeit several natural processes concur in their formation and triggering, rainfall is one of the most common causes. The prediction of rock failures is of social significance for civil protection purposes and can rely on the statisti...
Poster
Full-text available
Urbanization of mountainous areas characterized by rough morphology implies the construction of road networks intersecting the drainage streams by means of bridges, culverts, or low water crossings. Historical data on the occurrence of damage caused by floods or sediment-laden flows are a key element for the identification of critical road sections...
Article
Full-text available
The design, implementation, management, and verification of landslide early warning systems (LEWSs) are gaining increasing attention in the literature and among government officials, decision makers, and the public. Based on a critical analysis of nine main assumptions that form the rationale for landslide forecasting and early warning, we examine...
Article
In this report, we summarise the activities of the Research Institute for Geo-Hydrological Protection (IRPI, http://www.irpi.cnr.it/en/), of the Italian National Research Council (CNR, http://www.cnr.it/en/), as a World Centre of Excellence (WCoE) on Landslide Risk, of the International Programme on Landslides (IPL, http://iplhq.org). The report is...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The definition of empirical rainfall thresholds for the prediction of landslide occurrence is conditioned by several issues. The most debated ones are: the definition of objective and automatic procedures for threshold calculation; the evaluation and quantification of diverse uncertainties resulting from data and methods; the definition of validati...
Article
Full-text available
Preface of the NHESS Special Issue on Landslide early warning systems: monitoring systems, rainfall thresholds, warning models, performance evaluation and risk perception. https://www.nat-hazards-earth-syst-sci.net/special_issue896.html
Article
Bhutan is highly prone to landslides, particularly during the monsoon season. Several landslides often occur along the Phuentsholing–Thimphu highway, a very important infrastructure for the country. Worldwide, empirical rainfall thresholds represent a widely used tool to predict the occurrence of rainfall-induced landslides. Nevertheless, no thresh...
Article
Full-text available
Empirical rainfall thresholds are commonly used to forecast landslide occurrence in wide areas. Thresholds are affected by several uncertainties related to the rainfall and the landslide information accuracy, the reconstruction of the rainfall responsible for the failure, and the method to calculate the thresholds. This limits the use of the thresh...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Scientific community recognizes warming of the Earth climate system unequivocal. The warming could induce substantial climate changes (CC) with relevant variations due to the region, weather patterns and time horizon of interest. In this perspective, the impact of CC on weather-induced disasters represents a crucial topic also due to the associated...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The calculation of reliable, objective, reproducible, and effective rainfall thresholds for landslide forecasting is a fundamental component in the definition of a regional landslide early warning system. The process regarding the definition of rainfall thresholds was deeply investigated, producing numerous case studies at different scales and seve...
Article
The topic of rainfall thresholds for landslide occurrence was thoroughly investigated, producing abundance of case studies at different scales of analysis and several technical and scientific advances. We reviewed the most recent papers published in scientific journals, highlighting significant advances and critical issues. We collected and grouped...
Article
Full-text available
GA SAKe is an empirical-hydrological model aimed at forecasting the time of occurrence of landslides. Activations can be predicted of either single landslides or sets of slope movements of the same type in a homogeneous environment. The model requires a rainfall series and a set of dates of landslide activation as input data. Calibration is perform...
Article
Full-text available
Land use and land cover (LULC), as well as their geographical and temporal variations, affect landslide occurrence and the related risk, in ways that are difficult to determine. Here, we propose a method for the regional analysis of variations in landslide frequency and distribution in response to observed and projected LULC changes. The method is...
Chapter
The primary trigger of damaging landslides in Italy is intense or prolonged rainfall. Definition of the rainfall conditions responsible for landslides is a crucial issue and may contribute to reducing landslide risk. Criteria for identifying the rainfall conditions that could initiate slope failures are still lacking or uncertain. Expert investigat...
Article
Full-text available
A process chain for the definition and the performance assessment of an operational regional warning model for rainfallinduced landslides, based on rainfall thresholds, is proposed and tested in a landslide-prone area in the Campania region, southern Italy. A database of 96 shallow landslides triggered by rainfall in the period 2003–2010 and rainfa...
Conference Paper
The anthropogenic global warming could significantly affect weather patterns, with variable impacts at the regional scale. Geo-hydrological hazards represent an interesting example of the possible impacts. We present a study of the effects of potential climate change on slope stability conditions in two different contexts in the Italian Apennines....
Conference Paper
Urbanization in hazardous regions, the abandonment of rural and mountain areas, and changed agricultural and forest practices have increased the impact of landslides through the years. Hence, the changing climate variables, like rainfall, acted and will act on a human-modified landscape. In this work, we analyze the role of rainfall variation and l...
Conference Paper
Mass wasting events occurring on the Earth’s surface may induce seismic signals, which can be recorded also at tens of kilometers from the source area. The waveforms relevant to mass wasting differ from those caused by earthquakes, because they are usually characterized by a cigar shaped waveform, duration of several tens of seconds, and low freque...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
According to the fifth report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, " warming of the climate system is unequivocal ". The influence of climate changes on slope stability and landslides is also undisputable. Nevertheless , the quantitative evaluation of the impact of global warming, and the related changes in climate, on landslides remai...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Landslide early warning systems at regional scale are used to warn authorities, civil protection personnel and the population about the occurrence of rainfall-induced landslides over wide areas, typically through the prediction and measurement of meteorological variables. A warning model for these systems must include a regional correlation law and...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Seismic techniques are increasingly adopted to detect signals induced by mass movements and to quantitatively evaluate geo-hydrological hazards at different spatial and temporal scales. By analyzing landslide-induced seismicity, it is possible obtaining significant information on the source of the mass wasting, as well as on its dynamics. However,...
Article
Full-text available
The large physiographic variability and the abundance of landslide and rainfall data make Italy an ideal site to investigate variations in the rainfall conditions that can result in rainfall-induced landslides. We used landslide information obtained from multiple sources and rainfall data captured by 2228 rain gauges to build a catalogue of 2309 ra...
Chapter
Changes in the main weather features are becoming perceivable in Italy. In the last years, the average temperature and the intensity of rainstorms are increasing. Such phenomena could lead to changes in the earth-atmosphere interaction. Accounting for the high vulnerability of the Italian territory, an obvious consequence would concern the effects...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
GA-SAKe è un modello empirico-idrologico per la previsione di frane, la cui calibrazione è automatica grazie all’utilizzo di algoritmi genetici. È applicabile a singole frane (superficiali o profonde) o a popolazioni di frane simili, in contesti geo-ambientali omogenei. Richiede in input serie di piogge e di date di attivazione di frana. Vengono pr...
Data
Criteria for the definition of the rainfall events responsible for landslides are lacking, ill-defined, poorly formalized or ambiguous. To overcome the problem, we developed an algorithm for the objective and reproducible reconstruction of rainfall events, and of rainfall conditions responsible for landslide occurrence (Melillo et al., 2015). The a...
Article
Full-text available
The study area of the Costa Viola mountain ridge is strongly exposed to shallow landslides triggered by rainfall. Starting from a susceptibility map, recently published by the same team, the related risk has been assessed, limitedly to landslide sources. The hazard has first been evaluated by considering the recurrence periods of triggering events....
Conference Paper
Full-text available
GA-SAKe-the Genetic-Algorithm based release of the hydrological model SAKe (Self Adaptive Kernel) – allows to forecast the timing of activation of landslides [1, 2], based on dates of landslide activations and rainfall series. The model can be applied to either single or set of similar landslides in a homogeneous context. Calibration of the model i...
Article
The occurrence of sinkholes not directly related to karst has been determined in several areas worldwide in recent years. These phenomena may be particularly dangerous to humans and infrastructure due to their subtle origin and need to be carefully examined. In this work, we describe five sinkholes recently identified in a hilly setting of Southern...
Article
Review of the literature on the reconstruction of the rainfall responsible for slope failures reveals that criteria for the identification of rainfall events are lacking or somewhat subjective. To overcome this problem, we developed an algorithm for the objective and reproducible reconstruction of rainfall events and of rainfall conditions responsi...
Article
Full-text available
GA SAKe is a new hydrological model aimed at forecasting the triggering of landslides. The model is based on genetic algorithms and allows one to obtain thresholds for the prediction of slope failures using dates of landslide activations and rainfall series. It can be applied to either single landslides or a set of similar slope movements in a homo...
Article
Full-text available
We exploit a catalogue of 1466 rainfall events with landslides in the 90-year period 1921 – 2010 to study temporal and geographical variations in the occurrence of landslides in Calabria, Southern Italy. We use daily rainfall records obtained by a network of 318 rain gauges to reconstruct 448,493 rainfall events. Combining the rainfall and the land...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Heavy rainstorms often induce flash floods, shallow landslides and debris flows, which cause several damage to manmade infrastructures and loss of lives. The analysis of spatial distribution and temporal features of intense rainfall events is a fundamental step for a better understanding of the phenomena and for its possible prediction. The present...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Prediction of rainfall-induced landslides can rely on empirical rainfall thresholds. These are obtained from the analysis of past rainfall events that have (or have not) resulted in slope failures. Accurate prediction requires reliable thresholds, which need to be validated before their use in operational landslide warning systems. Despite the clea...