Stefano Longo

Stefano Longo
University of Milan | UNIMI · Department of Biomedical Sciences for Health

M.Sc.: Exercise and Sport Sciences; Ph.D.: Physical Activity and Health

About

88
Publications
33,069
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1,320
Citations
Introduction
Stefano Longo currently works at the Department of Biomedical Sciences for Health, University of Milan (Università degli Studi di Milano). Stefano does research in Exercise Physiology, covering interests from morphological adaptations in muscles and tendons to different kind of stimuli/training, to improvements in sport performance.
Additional affiliations
October 2011 - present
University of Milan
Position
  • Researcher
October 2011 - present
University of Milan
Position
  • Professor (Assistant)
Description
  • Topics: Basis of Human Movement Fundations of Physical Education Lectures are given in theory and practice.
May 2010 - December 2010
I.R.C.C.S. Istituto Auxologico Italiano
Position
  • Researcher
Education
December 2005 - December 2008
University of Milan
Field of study
  • Ageing of muscles and strength training
November 1997 - October 2004
University of Milan
Field of study
  • Sports and Exercise Sciences

Publications

Publications (88)
Article
Background: Subacromial space (SS) narrowing may result in unsafe contact of rotator cuff tendons and bursa with the acromion, possibly promoting rotator cuff pathologies and pain. We measured SS in asymptomatic subjects after three movements employed for shoulder muscles' training. Participants and main outcome measures: Twenty-five males (age...
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The study was aimed at assessing possible correlations of the electromechanical delay components during muscle contraction (DelayTOT) and relaxation (R-DelayTOT), with muscle-tendon unit (MTU), muscle, and tendon stiffness before and after static stretching (SS). Plantarflexor muscles' maximum voluntary torque (Tmax) was measured in 18 male partici...
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Aim: Muscle thickness (MT) measured by ultrasound has been used to estimate cross-sectional area (measured by CT and MRI) at a single time-point. We tested whether MT could be used as a valid marker of MRI determined muscle anatomical cross-sectional area (ACSA) and volume changes following resistance training (RT). Methods: Nine healthy, young,...
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The present study investigated the relationship between local fat percentage (SKfat) and muscle quality (MQ) estimated by a new hand-held electrical impedance myography (hEIM) device or derived from ultrasound and strength assessments. The right anterior thigh of 90 healthy participants (mean±SD; age=22.9±2.9 years; 46 men: BMI=23.9 ± 2.4 kgm-2 ; 4...
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Purpose We investigated the effects of 12 weeks of passive static stretching training (PST) on force-generating capacity, passive stiffness, muscle architecture of plantarflexor muscles. Methods Thirty healthy adults participated in the study. Fifteen participants (STR, 6 women, 9 men) underwent 12-week plantarflexor muscles PST [(5 × 45 s-on/15 s...
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Purpose Drawing on correlations between the mechanomyographic (MMG) and the force signal, we devised a novel approach based on MMG signal analysis to detect voluntary activation (VA) of the synergistic superficial heads of the quadriceps muscle. We hypothesized that, after a fatiguing exercise, the changes in the evoked MMG signal of each quadricep...
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Overhead press is commonly performed to reinforce the muscles surrounding the shoulders. However, many overhead press variations can be executed, thus varying the stimuli to each muscle. Therefore, the current study compared the muscles excitation during overhead press performed with the barbell passing in front or behind the head or using a should...
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Aim: We planned a cross-sectional investigation (study 1) and a longitudinal training intervention (study 2) to investigate whether recreational dancing affords greater neuroprotective effects against age-related neuromuscular junction (NMJ) degeneration compared to general fitness exercise training. Methods: In study 1, we recruited 19 older vo...
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The present study examined the posterior chain muscle excitation in different deadlift variations. Ten competitive bodybuilders (training seniority of 10.6 ± 1.8 years) performed the Romanian (RD), Romanian standing on a step (step-RD), and stiff-leg deadlift (SD) with an 80% 1-RM. The excitation of the gluteus maximus, gluteus medius, biceps femor...
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Purpose: The current study compared the local and systemic vascular responsiveness after small muscle mass endurance training or passive stretching training (PST). Methods: Thirty-six sex-matched healthy participants underwent 8-week single-leg knee extension (SLKE) (N = 12) training or PST (N = 12), or no intervention (control, N = 12). Before...
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The current study aimed to verify whether or not passive static stretching affects balance control capacity. Thirty-eight participants (19 women and 19 men) underwent a passive static stretching session, involving the knee extensor/flexor and dorsi/plantarflexor muscles, and a control session (no stretching, CTRL). Before (PRE), immediately after (...
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Purpose The present study investigated whether or not passive stretching increases the force-generating capacity of the antagonist muscle, and the possible neuromuscular mechanisms behind. Methods To this purpose, the neuromuscular function accompanying the force-generating capacity was assessed in 26 healthy male volunteers after passive stretchi...
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Background Vascular dysfunction and associated disorders are major side effects of chronic bed rest, yet passive mobilization as a potential treatment has only been theorized so far. This study investigated the effects of passive mobilization treatment on vascular function in older, chronically bedridden people. Methods The study sample was 45 chr...
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Purpose: The current study investigated the effects of unilateral passive stretching on the neuromuscular mechanisms involved in the force-generating capacity of the contralateral muscle. Methods: Twenty-six healthy men underwent unilateral passive stretching of the plantar flexors (5 x 45-s on+15s-off, total stretching time: 225 s). Before and...
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The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of using real-time visual feedback (VF) during a one-week balance training intervention on postural sway parameters in young karatekas. Twenty-six young male karatekas (age = 14.0 ± 2.3 years) were randomly divided into two groups: real-time VF training (VFT; n = 14) and control (CTRL; n = 12). Their...
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This study aimed to compare the effects of non-sport-specific and sport-specific training methods on physical performance and perceptual response in young football players. Seventy-nine under 11 participants were selected and assigned to non-sport-specific (NSSG), sport-specific (SSG), and control (CNTG) groups. The NSSG training protocol consisted...
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The aim of the present study was to investigate the differences between types of sport (i.e., closed vs. open skills sport) on inhibitory control and motor fitness in children. Forty-nine children were allocated into three groups based on their sports participation, which comprised an open skill sport group, a closed skill sport group, and a sedent...
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The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between basic cognitive functions and sport-specific physical performance in young volleyball players. Forty-three female volleyball players (age 11.2 ± 0.8 years) were tested for cognitive performance by measuring simple reaction time (clinical reaction time), executive control (Flanker tas...
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The present study investigated the activation of gluteal, thigh, and lower back muscles in different squat variations. Ten male competitive bodybuilders perform back-squat at full (full-BS) or parallel (parallel-BS) depth, using large feet-stance (sumo-BS), and enhancing the feet external rotation (external-rotated-sumo-BS) and front-squat (FS) at...
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The present study investigated whether or not verbal instruction affects the electromyographic (EMG) amplitude of back-squat prime movers. Fifteen resistance-trained men performed back-squat at 50%1-RM and 80%1-RM and received external (EF) or internal focus (IF) on lower-limb posterior muscles. EMG amplitude of gluteus maximus, biceps femoris, gas...
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Background: Chronic supplementation with carnosine and β-alanine (Carn-βA) has been proposed to improve muscle contractility and reduce muscle fatigue mainly through an increase in intracellular pH buffering capacity. However, the acute ergogenic effects of Carn-βA supplementation are poorly investigated. This study aimed at evaluating the acute e...
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The present study examined the muscle activation in lateral raise with humerus rotated externally (LR-external), neutrally (LR-neutral), internally (LR-internal), with flexed elbow (LR-flexed) and frontal raise during both the concentric and eccentric phase. Ten competitive bodybuilders performed the exercises. Normalized surface electromyographic...
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This study aimed to investigate the effects of a five-week compound training (with strength and plyometric exercises performed on separate days) on sprint, change of direction, and vertical jump in young soccer players. Eighteen novices in strength and plyometric training were assigned to either a compound training (CMPT) or a control condition (CN...
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Background In youth, the development of change of direction (COD) and sprint performance is a key component for successfully competing in soccer across age. During a COD, the presence of directional asymmetries may be detrimental due to the unpredictable nature of the sport. Therefore, the aims of the study were to investigate asymmetries in COD ab...
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Purpose: The Wingate Anaerobic Test measures the maximum anaerobic capacity of the lower limbs. The energy sources of Wingate test are dominated by anaerobic metabolism (~80%). Chronic high altitude exposure induces adaptations on skeletal muscle function and metabolism. Therefore, the study aim was to investigate possible changes in the energy sys...
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Key points: Vascular function and arterial stiffness are important markers of cardiovascular health and cardiovascular co-morbidity. Transitional phases of hypoemia and hypermia, with consequent fluctuations in shear rate, occuring during repetitive passive stretching adminstration (passive stretching training) may constitute an effective stimulus...
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Purpose: To investigate the time-course of changes in knee-extensors muscle mass, architecture and function in response to plyometric training (PLT). Methods: 8 healthy males (173.6 ± 4.7 cm, 69.7 ± 13.5 kg, 25.3 ± 4.6 years) underwent 6 weeks of bilateral PLT. Knee extensor maximum voluntary torque (MVT) and leg extensors power (LEP), quadriceps f...
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The effect of sleep-wake rhythm disruption on neuromuscular control and muscle fatigue has received little attention. Because nurse shift work is so varied, including overnight duty, rotating shift schedules, early awakening, and interrupted nocturnal sleep, it offers an interesting model to study this paradigm. It has been investigated so far usin...
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Objectives The current study investigated the correlation between quadriceps muscle architecture and the knee extension rate of force development (RFD). Design cross-sectional study. Methods Muscle thickness, pennation angle and fascicle length normalized per the thigh-length were measured via ultrasound in vastus lateralis, rectus femoris, vastu...
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AimIn lead climbing, the ascent of the route can be defined as on-sight or red-point. On-sight is the more challenging style since it demands greater physiological and psychological commitment. The differences between the two modes in advanced climbers have not been studied much. Two essential skills needed to optimize performance, in both on-sight...
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The interplay between chronic constraint and advanced aging on blood flow, shear-rate, vascular function, nitric oxide (NO)-bioavailability, microcirculation, and vascular inflammation factors is still a matter of debate. Ninety-eight individuals (Young, n=28, 23±3yrs; Old, n=36, 85±7yrs; Bedridden, n=34, 88±6yrs) were included in the study. The be...
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Purpose: Whether or not the homologous contralateral muscle (CM) undergoes stretch-induced force reduction as the stretched muscle (SM) is still unclear. The neuromuscular and mechanical factors underlying the force reduction in CM and SM were investigated. Methods: Twenty-one participants underwent unilateral knee-extensors passive stretching....
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Peripheral fatigue results from multiple electrochemical and mechanical events in the cell body and the muscle–tendon complex. Combined force and surface electromyographic signal analysis is among the most widely used approaches to describe the behaviour of a fatigued muscle. Advances in technologies and methodological procedures (e.g. laser diffra...
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Background Electromyographic (EMG), mechanomyographic (MMG) and force (F) signals combined analysis represents an interesting approach to partition the electrochemical and mechanical events contributing to total electromechanical delay, i.e., the time lag existing between the muscle activation and the onset of force generation. Aim The study sough...
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Purpose: The current study investigated the role of quadriceps and gastrocnemii size and vastus lateralis and gastrocnemius medialis muscle architecture in peak-power and time-to-peak-power exerted in an allout Wingate test. Twenty-one amateur cyclists were recruited. Methods: Quadriceps and gastrocnemii anatomical cross-sectional area (ACSA), and...
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An innovative moderate-intensity resistive exercise-training (RT) program was tested in thirty-five sarcopenic elders (SAR). The subjects were randomized into two groups: SAR training (SAR-RT), n = 20, 73.0 ± 5.5 years, or SAR non-training (SAR-NT), n = 15, 71.7 ± 3.4 years. The training consisted of 12-week progressive RT, thrice/week, at 60% one-...
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The current study compared the muscle excitation in free-weight bench press variations and chest press machine. Ten competitive bodybuilders were recruited. The EMG-RMS amplitude of clavicular and sternocostal head of pectoralis major, long head of triceps brachii and anterior and lateral deltoid was recorded while performing horizontal (BP), incli...
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Trecroci, A, Porcelli, S, Perri, E, Pedrali, M, Rasica, L, Alberti, G, Longo, S, and Iaia, FM. Effects of different training interventions on the recovery of physical and neuromuscular performance after a soccer match. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2019-In competitive soccer, players are frequently required to play in periods with congested f...
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The endothelial function is a strong marker of cardiovascular health and it refers to the ability of the body to maintain the homeostasis of vascular tone. The endothelial cells react to mechanical and chemical stimuli modulating the smooth muscle cells relaxation. The extent of the induced vasodilation depends on the magnitude of the stimulus. Dur...
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Thigh muscles indirect injuries are common finding in soccer and represent a critical challenge for teams medical staffs. Indirect injuries are classified on the basis of their site and their clinical and radiological findings, but the assessment of a precise prognosis remains a crucial point. Both ultrasound (US) and magnetic resonance (MR) repres...
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The aim of the current study was to evaluate field-based physical performance of under 16 years (U16) elite and sub-elite soccer players. Forty elite (n = 20) and sub-elite (n = 20) soccer players were enrolled and tested for countermovement jump (CMJ), 10-m sprint and agility, in terms of sprint with 90° turns (S90), S90 with ball, Slalom, Slalom...
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Skeletal muscle structural assembly (and its remodeling in response to loading-unloading states) can be investigated macroscopically by assessing muscle architecture, described as fascicle geometric disposition within the muscle. Over recent decades, various medical imaging techniques have been developed to facilitate the in vivo assessment of musc...
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Purpose: The present study aimed to investigate whether or not eccentric-only training induced different sex-related adaptations in vastus lateralis muscle architecture and knee extensors strength. Methods: Thirteen healthy women and 13 healthy men were recruited. Vastus lateralis pennation angle, fascicle length, and muscle thickness, as well a...
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Purpose The aim of the current study was to investigate the effects of a running fatiguing protocol on the peak torque joint angle and the peak torque in hamstrings vs. quadriceps. Methods Twenty-one male runners underwent a running fatiguing protocol consisting of 40 min at a speed corresponding at first ventilatory threshold. Before and after th...
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The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of weighted jump squat (WJST) vs body mass squat jump training (BMSJT) on quadriceps muscle architecture, lower-limb lean-mass (LM) and muscle strength, performance in change of direction (COD), sprint and jump in recreational soccer-players. Forty-eight healthy soccer-players participated in...
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Background: This study investigated the differences in strength, technique and time performance in in-line skaters of three age categories during a 300 m trial. Possible correlations among these variables were also assessed. Methods: Thirty-six elite in-line skaters (Cadets, Juniors and Seniors, n=12 each; 14±1, 16±1, and 24±6 years of age, resp...
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The Endocrine-metabolic system and anxiety responses were assessed in 10 international level karatekas performing a novel form of kumite training (integrated approach training, IAT). METHODS: Six females and 4 males (16-25 yrs) performed two series of 4 matches each at two Self-perceived effort levels (low and high). IAT provides continuous and dyn...
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Force (F) reduction is reported with myotendinous junction (MTJ) manipulation. Autogenic inhibition reflex (AIR) activation is supposed to be the main mechanism. Still, its role remains unclear. The study aimed at assessing the effects of MTJ direct inhibitory pressure (DIP) on neuromuscular activation and F in the elbow flexor (agonist) and extens...
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AIM To determine diagnostic performance of magnetic resonance arthrography (MRA) in evaluating rotator cuff tears (RCTs) using Snyder’s classification for reporting. METHODS One hundred and twenty-six patients (64 males, 62 females; median age 55 years) underwent shoulder MRA and arthroscopy, which represented our reference standard. Surgical arth...
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PurposeBy combining electromyographic (EMG), mechanomyographic (MMG) and force analysis, the electromechanical delay during muscle relaxation (R-DelayTOT) was partitioned into electrochemical and mechanical components. The study aimed to evaluate the effects of changes in joint angle on R-DelayTOT components during relaxation after electrically evo...
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Background Neck injuries are the most frequent traumatism in rugby at all levels of the game. Strengthening and mobilizing the neck musculature has often been indicated as a possible strategy to reduce the perceived level of muscle soreness and number of neck injuries. Still, the efficacy of such intervention is under debate. PurposeThis study asse...
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Older institutionalized individuals with reduced residual abilities are going to growth in number in the next years. Monitoring the daily energy expenditure may allow a correct dietary intake and an effective physical activity program, thus improving their life quality. Wearable multisensors (WMS) have been developed to estimate energy expenditure...
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PurposeFalls are common events in institutionalized elderly. Recent evidence suggests that several risk factors (FRFs) may be related to these falls. The aim of this study was to elucidate if some demographic and clinical factors are associated with the risk of falls in institutionalized elderly. The role of adapted physical activity (APA) in the r...
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This study aimed to assess acute changes of vastus lateralis (VL) muscle architecture following an alpine snowboarding simulated race and to compare architecture characteristics between the front and rear leg on elite alpine snowboarders. Using ultrasonography, VL muscle thickness (MT), pennation angles (θ) and fascicle lengths (Lf) were assessed i...
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-"Small sided games," used effectively in many team sports as a form of training, can be mimicked in combat sports by fighting at different subjective intensities, based on adjectives proposed by coaches. This approach could aim at improving aerobic performance by using specific techniques. Nevertheless, an adequate perception of intensity is cruci...