Stefano Bernasconi

Stefano Bernasconi
ETH Zurich | ETH Zürich · Department of Earth Sciences

About

561
Publications
107,558
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20,164
Citations
Citations since 2017
194 Research Items
9828 Citations
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201720182019202020212022202305001,0001,500
201720182019202020212022202305001,0001,500

Publications

Publications (561)
Preprint
Full-text available
The sealing characteristics of the geological formation located above a CO2 storage reservoir, the so-called caprock, are essential to ensure efficient geological carbon storage. In case CO2 were to leak through the caprock, temporal changes in fluid geochemistry can reveal fundamental information on migration mechanisms and induced fuid-rock inter...
Article
Full-text available
Using biodegradable instead of conventional plastics in agricultural applications promises to help overcome plastic pollution of agricultural soils. However, analytical limitations impede our understanding of plastic biodegradation in soils. Utilizing stable carbon isotope (¹³C-)labelled poly(butylene succinate) (PBS), a synthetic polyester, we her...
Article
Full-text available
The excellent preservation of the waterlogged botanical remains of the multiphase Neolithic pile-dwelling site of Zug-Riedmatt (Central Switzerland) yielded an ideal dataset to delve into the issue of plant economy of a community spanning several decades. The study identified a major change in crops where oil plants played a key role in the site’s...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The Gorno mining district (Northern Italy) is an example of the Alpine subclass of Mississippi Valley-type (MVT) deposits. It consists of stratabound Zn-Pb-Ag-F-Ba deposits hosted in carbonate-rich sediments, extending for over ~600 km2 in the Lombardian Alps. Here, a complex series of dolomitization, silicification, brecciation, dissolution, and c...
Article
Full-text available
Intertidal sands are global hotspots of terrestrial and marine carbon cycling with strong hydrodynamic forcing by waves and tides and high macrofaunal activity. Yet, the relative importance of hydrodynamics and macrofauna in controlling these ecosystems remains unclear. Here we compare geochemical gradients and bacterial, archaeal, and eukaryotic g...
Article
Full-text available
Nitrous oxide (N2O) is an important trace gas contributing to global warming and depletion of ozone in the stratosphere. Its increasing abundance is caused mainly by anthropogenic sources, such as application of fertilizers in agriculture or emissions from industry. To understand the N2O global budget, its sources and sinks need to be well-describe...
Article
Full-text available
Marine sedimentary ikaite is the parent mineral to glendonite, stellate pseudomorphs found throughout the geological record which are most usually composed of calcite. Ikaite is known to be metastable at earth surface temperatures and pressures, readily breaking down to more stable carbonate polymorphs when exposed to warm (ambient) conditions. Yet...
Poster
The Lost City hydrothermal field (LCHF) is a low to moderate temperature, high pH, serpentinite-influenced system where the relationship between serpentinization reactions and the biogeochemical origin of life can be investigated. The field is located on the Atlantis Massif at 30°N, ~15 km west of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR). Vent fluids are warm...
Article
Characterizing past climate states is crucial for understanding the future consequences of ongoing greenhouse gas emissions. Here, we revisit the benchmark time series for deep ocean temperature across the past 65 million years using clumped isotope thermometry. Our temperature estimates from the deep Atlantic Ocean are overall much warmer compared...
Article
Full-text available
Serpentinization-influenced hydrothermal systems, such as the Lost City Hydrothermal Field (LCHF), are considered as potential sites for the origin of life. Despite an abundance of reducing power in this system (H2 and CH4), microbial habitability may be limited by high pH, elevated temperatures, and/or low concentrations of bioavailable carbon. At...
Article
Full-text available
Unlabelled: The abundance and types of reef-bearing carbonate platforms reflect the evolution of Devonian climate, with conspicuous microbial-algal reefs in the warm Early and Late Devonian and sponge-coral reefs in the cooler Middle Devonian. A dolomitized Wenlock-Lower Devonian microbial-algal reef-bearing carbonate platform hosts epigenetic cop...
Article
Full-text available
Multiply substituted isotopic species of nitrous oxide (N2O), referred to as clumped isotopes, represent a promising new tool for distinguishing production pathways of this potent greenhouse gas. This work presents the first determination of enrichment factors of N2O clumped isotopes during bacterial denitrification. Samples of N2O obtained after 1...
Conference Paper
Carbonate-brucite chimneys are characteristic of low-to moderate temperature, ultramafic-hosted alkaline hydrothermal systems, such as at the Lost City Hydrothermal Field (LCHF) located on the Atlantis Massif at 30°N near the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. These chimneys form as a result of mixing between warm, high pH, serpentinization-derived vent fluids an...
Article
Full-text available
We explore the effects of the Pliensbachian–Toarcian Boundary Event (P–ToBE) on tropical carbonate productivity in the interior to margin and slope of the Venetian Platform (Northern Italy). We document the P–ToBE for the first time in the shallow‐water platform margin, and we bio‐ and chemostratigraphically tie it to transgressive/regressive cycle...
Article
Difficulties in dating Mississippi Valley–type (MVT) mineral deposits and the often closely associated dolomitization have led to controversy regarding their origin. We report the first radiometric ages for the Gorno mining district in northern Italy, an example of the Alpine subclass of MVT deposits. U-Pb ages of hydrothermal carbonates pre- and p...
Preprint
Intertidal sands are global hotspots of terrestrial and marine carbon cycling with strong hydrodynamic forcing by waves and tides and high macrofaunal activity. Yet, the relative importance of hydrodynamics and macrofauna in controlling these ecosystems remains unclear. Here we compare bacterial, archaeal, and eukaryotic communities in upper intert...
Article
Fluid sources and migration pathways can dramatically change during the multiphase tectonic evolution of thrust wedges. We present a multidisciplinary study of syntectonic calcite cements in the Lower Cretaceous carbonates of the external Bornes (SE France), which underwent sub-aerial exposure during flexural bulging, layer-parallel shortening, fol...
Article
We combine structural and microstructural data with stable and clumped isotopes of syntectonic calcite veins or slickenfibers of five thrust and four strike-slip faults to characterize the paleofluid circulation in the Jura fold-and-thrust belt, eastern France. Syn-tectonic fluid circulation occurred along high permeability networks of breccias, fo...
Article
This study integrates field, geochronological and geochemical data to constrain fluid circulation in the damage and core zone of the seismogenic Monte Morrone Fault System (MMFS), central Apennines (Italy). Faulting along the MMFS evolved from a diffuse deformation at the damage zone towards progressive localisation of a narrower fault core and, fi...
Article
Full-text available
Although lake sediments are globally important organic carbon sinks and therefore important habitats for deep microbial life, the deep lacustrine biosphere has thus far been little studied compared to its marine counterpart. To investigate the impact of the underexplored deep lacustrine biosphere on the sediment geochemical environment and vice ver...
Preprint
Full-text available
A better understanding of ENSO dynamics is essential for modelling future climate change and its impacts on the ecosystems and lives of the inhabitants of the tropical Pacific islands, which face considerable environmental risk in the coming decades. This study reconstructs past ENSO dynamics using a multi-proxy approach applied to a stalagmite fro...
Article
Full-text available
Petrographic and major element investigations of carbonates from seven drill cores recovered during IODP Expedition 357 on the Atlantis Massif (AM) provide information on the genesis of carbonate minerals in the oceanic lithosphere. Textural sequences and mineralogical assemblages reveal three distinct types of carbonate occurrences in ultramafic r...
Article
Full-text available
A large part of the hydrated oceanic lithosphere consists of serpentinites exposed in ophiolites. Serpentinites constitute reactive chemical and thermal systems and potentially represent an effective sink for CO2. Understanding carbonation mechanisms within ophiolites are almost exclusively based on studies of outcrops, which can limit the interpre...
Article
Full-text available
Foreland fold-and-thrust belts (FTBs) record long-lived tectono-sedimentary activity, from passive margin sedimentation, flexuring, and further evolution into wedge accretion ahead of an advancing orogen. Therefore, dating fault activity is fundamental for plate movement reconstruction, resource exploration, and earthquake hazard assessment. Here,...
Article
In this study, we present a correlation between δ¹⁸OC values of carbonate in tooth enamel samples from the modern Brazilian population and the available δ¹⁸ODW data for the meteoric water from the Global Network of Isotopes in Precipitation (GNIP). Tooth enamel from 119 Brazilian individuals from five different regions of the country were analyzed....
Article
Full-text available
The middle Miocene climate transition (MMCT), around 14 Ma, was associated with a significant climatic shift, but the mechanisms triggering the event remain enigmatic. We present a clumped isotope (Δ47) bottom-water temperature (BWT) record from 16.0 to 12.2 Ma from Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Site 747 in the Southern Ocean and compare it to exist...
Preprint
Full-text available
Doubly substituted isotopic species of nitrous oxide (N2O), so called clumped isotopes, represent a new promising tool for distinguishing production paths of this potent greenhouse gas. This work presents first measurements of isotopic fractionation for clumped N2O isotopes during denitrification. Samples of N2O were obtained by incubation of a pur...
Preprint
Full-text available
Although lake sediments are globally important organic carbon sinks and therefore important habitats for deep microbial life, the deep lacustrine biosphere has thus far been little studied compared to its marine counterpart. To investigate the impact of the underexplored deep lacustrine biosphere on the sediment geochemical environment and vice ver...
Article
Full-text available
The carbon geochemistry of serpentinized peridotites and gabbroic rocks recovered during IODP Expedition 357 on the Atlantis Massif (AM) was examined to characterize carbon sources and the fate of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) in seawater during long‐lived hydrothermal circulation and serpentinization. Carbon i...
Article
Full-text available
The Valley of Lakes basin (Mongolia) contains a unique continental sedimentary archive, suitable for constraining the influence of tectonics and climate change on the aridification of Central Asia in the Cenozoic. We identify the sedimentary provenance, the (post)depositional environment and the palaeo-climate based on sedimentological, petrographi...
Article
Full-text available
Understanding the Earth’s climate system during past periods of high atmospheric CO2 is crucial for forecasting climate change under anthropogenically-elevated CO2. The Mesozoic Era is believed to have coincided with a long-term Greenhouse climate, and many of our temperature reconstructions come from stable isotopes of marine biotic calcite, in pa...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Hydrothermal dolostones are often associated with Mississippi Valley-type (MVT) ore deposits. Both are of major economic importance and are genetically related to hydrothermal fluid flow through large volumes of rock. The difficulty to constrain the spatio-temporal relationships of dolomitization and mineralization has generated controversy concern...
Article
The Mt. Gorzano Fault (MGF) is a major seismically active extensional fault of the central Apennines, responsible for the destructive Mw 6.0 Amatrice earthquake in 2016. The MGF developed during post-orogenic extensional tectonics, generating a continental basin in the hanging wall. The age of the onset of the MGF and the relationship among faultin...
Article
Full-text available
Temperature and bioavailable energy control the distribution of life on Earth, and interact with each other due to the dependency of biological energy requirements on temperature. Here we analyze how temperature-energy interactions structure sediment microbial communities in two hydrothermally active areas of Guaymas Basin. Sites from one area expe...
Article
Full-text available
Last glacial North Atlantic climate is characterized by abrupt, centennial-millennial scale climate oscillations, called Dansgaard-Oeschger (D-O) events. Understanding the cause and propagation of these D‒O events into Eurasia is hampered by the scarcity of quantitative paleotemperature estimates from continental archives with precise, independent...
Article
Full-text available
Evidence of hydrothermal activity is reported for the Mesozoic pre‐ and syn‐rift successions of the western Adriatic palaeomargin of the Alpine Tethys, preserved in the Western Southalpine Domain (NW Italy). The products of hydrothermal processes are represented by vein and breccia cements, as well as dolomitization and silicification of the host r...
Article
We report a new procedure for the analysis of oxygen and hydrogen isotopes in water that is experimentally produced in high-temperature high-pressure experiments via wavelength-scanned cavity ring down spectroscopy (WS-CRDS). This work builds on a recently developed method by Affolter et al. (2014) for the analysis of fluid inclusions in cave carbo...
Article
The Δ47 (paleo)thermometer has opened a new avenue to determine carbonate formation temperatures independent of the oxygen isotopic composition of the fluid from which the carbonate crystallized. A major limitation of this thermometer is related to kinetic effects if homogeneous isotopic equilibrium is not attained during carbonate precipitation. D...
Conference Paper
https://doi.org/10.7185/gold2021.5802 Magnesium isotope compositions (δ26Mg) from suitable seawater-derived archives have recently found use as a tracer of Earth surface processes, such as weathering and hydrothermal activity. Dolomite, CaMg(CO3)2, is a major host of Mg sourced primarily from seawater, and the isotope fractionation factor for inco...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The Δ47 (paleo)thermometer has opened a new avenue to determine carbonate formation temperatures independent of the oxygen isotopic composition of the fluid the carbonate crystallized from. A major limitation of this thermometer is introduced by kinetic effects, i.e if homogeneous isotopic equilibrium is not attained within the precipitated carbona...
Article
Eggshells represent an important part of the fossil record of Titanosauria (Dinosauria – Neosauropoda) and their stable isotope compositions are valuable palaeoenvironmental proxies. A new set of conventional (δ¹⁸O and δ¹³C) and clumped (Δ47) stable isotope compositions of titanosaurian eggshells is presented, together with that of a bone and a sin...
Article
Full-text available
In the Maritime Alps (NW Italy - SE France), the Middle Triassic-Berriasian platform carbonates of the Provençal Domain are locally affected by an intense hydrothermal dolomitization. This dolomitization resulted from a large-scale hydrothermal circulation related to deep-rooted faults, and is indirect evidence of a significant earliest Cretaceous...
Article
Full-text available
Mountains are among the most sensitive ecosystems to climate change, and one of the most evident signs of climate-related effect is the continuous net loss of ice from the cryosphere. Several studies showed that meltwater from glaciated and perennially frozen areas can profoundly affect alpine aquatic ecosystems. Here, we present the impressive tem...
Article
Full-text available
Breath and diet samples were collected from 29 taxa of animals at the Zurich and Basel Zoos to characterize the carbon isotope enrichment between breath and diet. Diet samples were measured for δ ¹³ C and breath samples for CH 4 /CO 2 ratios and for the respired component of δ ¹³ C using the Keeling plot approach. Different digestive physiologies i...
Article
Full-text available
Plain Language Summary Carbonate clumped isotope thermometry is a geochemical tool used to determine the formation temperature of carbonate minerals. In contrast to previous carbonate thermometers, clumped isotope thermometry requires no assumptions about the isotopic composition of the fluid from which the carbonate precipitated. By measuring the...
Article
Full-text available
Increased use and improved methodology of carbonate clumped isotope thermometry has greatly enhanced our ability to interrogate a suite of Earth‐system processes. However, inter‐laboratory discrepancies in quantifying carbonate clumped isotope (Δ₄₇) measurements persist, and their specific sources remain unclear. To address inter‐laboratory differe...
Preprint
Full-text available
The Valley of Lakes basin (Mongolia) contains a unique continental sedimentary archive, suitable for constraining the influence of tectonics and climate change on the aridification of Central Asia in the Cenozoic. We identify the sedimentary provenance, the (post)depositional environment and the palaeo-climate based on sedimentological, petrographi...
Article
Full-text available
Continental margins play a fundamental role in the carbon cycle as primary oceanic locations of organic carbon (OC) burial. However, gaps remain in our understanding of factors controlling the distribution and preservation of organic matter (OM) in these heterogeneous and dynamic systems. In particular, the impact of hydrodynamic processes on the a...
Article
Full-text available
During its late‐stage evolution, the European Alpine orogen witnessed a northwest‐directed propagation of its deformation front along an evaporitic basal décollement into the foreland. This resulted in the decoupling of the northern Alpine Molasse Basin from its basement and the formation of the Jura fold‐and‐thrust belt. Here, we present the first...
Article
Full-text available
The success of geological carbon storage depends on the assurance of permanent containment for injected carbon dioxide (CO2) in the storage formation at depth. One of the critical elements of the safekeeping of CO2 is the sealing capacity of the caprock overlying the storage formation despite faults and/or fractures, which may occur in it. In this...
Preprint
Full-text available
Foreland fold-and-thrust belts record long-lived tectonic-sedimentary activity, from passive margin sedimentation, flexuring, and further involvement into wedge accretion ahead of an advancing orogen. Therefore, dating fault activity is fundamental for plate movement reconstruction, resource exploration, or earthquake hazard assessment. Here, we re...
Article
Full-text available
During the Early Toarcian, deposition of organic carbon-rich-shales occurred throughout the epicontinental sea across Europe. Climate instability and high extinction rates in the marine realm were associated with profound environmental changes. The Toarcian Oceanic Anoxic Event (T-OAE) has been linked to the injection of greenhouse gases (e.g. ocea...