Stefania Petrosino

Stefania Petrosino
Italian National Research Council | CNR · Institute of Biomolecular Chemistry ICB

About

129
Publications
33,156
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10,885
Citations
Citations since 2017
13 Research Items
4486 Citations
20172018201920202021202220230200400600800
20172018201920202021202220230200400600800
20172018201920202021202220230200400600800
20172018201920202021202220230200400600800

Publications

Publications (129)
Article
Full-text available
Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a serious inflammatory lung disorder and a complication of SARS-CoV-2 infection. In patients with severe SARS-CoV-2 infection, the transition to ARDS is principally due to the occurrence of a cytokine storm and an exacerbated inflammatory response. The effectiveness of ultra-micronized palmitoylethanola...
Article
High-fat diet (HFD) consumption leads to obesity and a chronic state of low-grade inflammation, named metainflammation. Notably, metainflammation contributes to neuroinflammation due to the increased levels of circulating free fatty acids and cytokines. It indicates a strict interplay between peripheral and central counterparts in the pathogenic me...
Article
Full-text available
There is growing evidence that perturbation of the gut microbiome, known as “dysbiosis”, is associated with the pathogenesis of human and veterinary diseases that are not restricted to the gastrointestinal tract. In this regard, recent studies have demonstrated that dysbiosis is linked to the pathogenesis of central neuroinflammatory disorders, sup...
Article
Full-text available
Palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) is an endogenous anti-inflammatory lipid mediator and a widely used nutraceutical. In this study, we designed, realized, and tested a drug-carrier conjugate between PEA (the active drug) and glucuronic acid (the carrier). The conjugate, named GLUPEA, was characterized for its capability of increasing PEA levels and exert...
Article
Full-text available
Neuroinflammation is a physiological response aimed at maintaining the homodynamic balance and providing the body with the fundamental resource of adaptation to endogenous and exogenous stimuli. Although the response is initiated with protective purposes, the effect may be detrimental when not regulated. The physiological control of neuroinflammati...
Article
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The cellular microenvironment plays a critical role in the maintenance of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) and their subsequent cell lineage differentiation. Recent studies suggested that individuals with adipocyte-related metabolic disorders have altered function and adipogenic potential of adipose stem cell subpopulations, pri...
Article
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Background: Palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) is a pleiotropic endogenous lipid mediator currently used as a "dietary food for special medical purposes" against neuropathic pain and neuro-inflammatory conditions. Several mechanisms underlie PEA actions, among which the "entourage" effect, consisting of PEA potentiation of endocannabinoid signaling at ei...
Article
Aim: Recent studies revealed that pharmacological modulation of NAE-hydrolyzing acid amidase (NAAA) can be achieved with PEA oxazoline (PEA-OXA). Hence, the aim of the present work was to thoroughly evaluate the anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects of PEA-OXA in an experimental model of vascular dementia (VaD) induced by bilateral carotid...
Article
A set of CB2R ligands, based on the thiophene scaffold, was synthesized and evaluated in in vitro assays. Compounds 8c-i, k, l, bearing the 3-carboxylate and 2-(adamantan-1-yl)carboxamido groups together with apolar alkyl/aryl substituents at 5-position or at 4- and 5-positions of the thiophene ring possess high CB2R affinity at low nanomolar conce...
Article
Phytocannabinoids modulate inflammatory responses by regulating the production of cytokines in several experimental models of inflammation. Cannabinoid type-2 (CB2) receptor activation was shown to reduce the production of the monocyte chemotactic protein-2 (MCP-2) chemokine in polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid [poly-(I:C)]-stimulated human keratinoc...
Article
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Palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) is a pleiotropic lipid mediator with established anti-inflammatory and anti-hyperalgesic activity. Ultramicronized PEA (PEA-um) has superior oral efficacy compared to naïve (non-micronized) PEA. The aim of the present study was two-fold: (1) to evaluate whether oral PEA-um has greater absorbability compared to naïve PEA,...
Article
Full-text available
Vascular dementia (VaD), the second most common cause of cognitive impairment in the population, is a disease that results from reduction in regional cerebral blood flow and involves oxidative stress and inflammation. Co-ultramicronized PEALut (co-ultra PEALut) is a new compound with beneficial effects, which include anti-inflammatory and antioxida...
Article
Background Intestinal immune activation is involved in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) pathophysiology. While most dietary approaches in IBS involve food avoidance, there are fewer indications on food supplementation. Palmithoylethanolamide, structurally related to the endocannabinoid anandamide, and polydatin are dietary compounds which act synergi...
Article
In mice, 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB) induces contact allergic dermatitis (CAD), which, in a late phase, is characterized by mast cell (MC) infiltration and angiogenesis. Palmitoylethanolamide (PEA), an endogenous anti-inflammatory molecule, acts by down-modulating MCs following activation of the cannabinoid CB2 receptor and peroxisome prolifera...
Article
The endocannabinoid system (ECS) is composed of two G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), the cannabinoid CB1 and CB2 receptors, and the two main endogenous lipid ligands of such receptors (also known as the “endocannabinoids”), anandamide and 2-arachidonoyl-glycerol. The ECS is a pleiotropic signalling systems involved in all aspects of mammalian p...
Article
This study aimed to investigate potential new target(s)/mechanism(s) for the palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) analogue, adelmidrol, and its role in an in vitro model of contact allergic dermatitis. Freshly isolated canine keratinocytes, human keratinocyte (HaCaT) cells and human embryonic kidney (HEK)-293 cells, wild-type or transfected with cDNA encodi...
Article
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Allergen exposure may induce changes in the brainstem secondary neurons, with neural sensitization of the nucleus solitary tract (NTS), which in turn can be considered one of the causes of the airway hyperresponsiveness, a characteristic feature of asthma. We evaluated neurofunctional, morphological, and biochemical changes in the NTS of naive or s...
Article
Palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) is an endogenous congener of anandamide and an enhancer of its actions at cannabinoid receptors, CB1 and CB2, and transient receptor potential vanilloid type-1 (TRPV1) channels. The other endocannabinoid, 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), was recently suggested to act as a TRPV1 agonist. We investigated if PEA enhances the...
Article
Background and purpose: Palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) acts via several targets, including cannabinoid CB1 and CB2 receptors, transient receptor potential vanilloid type-1 (TRPV1) ion channels, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR α) and orphan G protein-coupled receptor 55 (GRR55), all involved in the control of intestinal inflamma...
Article
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Little is known of the involvement of endocannabinoids and cannabinoid receptors in skeletal muscle cell differentiation. We report that, due to changes in the expression of genes involved in its metabolism, the levels of the endocannabinoid 2‐AG are decreased during both myotube formation in vitro using murine C2C12 myoblasts and mouse muscle g...
Article
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Despite the precise pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis (AD) is still unknown, an immune dysregulation that causes Th2-predominant inflammation and an intrinsic defect in skin barrier function are currently the two major hypotheses, according to the so-called outside-inside-outside model. Mast cells (MCs) are involved in AD both by releasing Th2 pola...
Article
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Objective: To measure the circulating levels of endocannabinoids and related molecules at fasting, after acute hyperinsulinemia and after weight loss in insulin sensitive vs. insulin resistant obese postmenopausal women. Design and methods: The sample consisted of 30 obese postmenopausal women (age: 58.9 ± 5.2 yrs; BMI: 32.9 ± 3.6 kg/m(2) ). Sub...
Article
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Mesenchymal stromal cells are non-hematopoietic, multipotent progenitor cells producing cytokines, chemokines, and extracellular matrix proteins that support hematopoietic stem cell survival and engraftment, influence immune effector cell development, maturation, and function, and inhibit alloreactive T-cell responses. The immunosuppressive propert...
Article
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The anti-obesity medication rimonabant, an antagonist of cannabinoid type-1 (CB(1)) receptor, was withdrawn from the market because of adverse psychiatric side effects, including a negative affective state. We investigated whether rimonabant precipitates a negative emotional state in rats withdrawn from palatable food cycling. The effects of system...
Conference Paper
In the ventrolateral periaqueductal gray (vlPAG) activation of excitatory output neurons projecting monosynaptically to OFF cells in the rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM) causes antinociceptive responses via OFF cell stimulation and ON cell inhibition. We previously demonstrated that the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoyl-glycerol (2-AG) deeply affect...
Article
The anti-obesity medication rimonabant, an antagonist of cannabinoid type-1 (CB1) receptor, was withdrawn from the market because of adverse psychiatric side effects, including a negative affective state. We investigated whether rimonabant precipitates a negative emotional state in rats withdrawn from palatable food cycling. The effects of systemic...
Article
Full-text available
Significance Endocannabinoids act retrogradely at presynaptic sites to activate cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB 1 ) receptors, thereby inhibiting neurotransmitter release and fine-tuning synaptic transmission. In murine models of obesity with leptin deficiency, we report that orexin-A neurons undergo a shift from predominant control by CB 1 -expres...
Article
Full-text available
Neuropathic pain elevates spinal anandamide (AEA) levels in a way further increased when URB597, an inhibitor of AEA hydrolysis by fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), is injected intrathecally. Spinal AEA reduces neuropathic pain by acting at both cannabinoid CB1 receptors and transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 (TRPV1) channels. Yet, intrathec...
Article
The endocannabinoid anandamide (AEA) activates also transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 (TRPV1) channels. However, no data exist on the potential role of spinal TRPV1 activation by AEA in neuropathic pain. We tested the effect of: 1) AEA (5-100 μg), alone or in the presence of an inhibitor of its hydrolysis, and 2) elevated levels of endogenou...
Article
Full-text available
Emerging evidence indicates that astrogliosis is involved in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders. Our previous findings suggested cannabinoids and Autacoid Local Injury Antagonism Amides (ALIAmides) attenuate glial response in models of neurodegeneration. The present study was aimed at exploring palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) ability to mi...
Article
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During neuropathic pain, caspases are activated in the limbic cortex. We investigated the role of TRPV1 channels and glial caspases in the mouse prelimbic and infralimbic (PL-IL) cortex after spared nerve injury (SNI). Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, western blots, and immunfluorescence showed overexpression of several caspases in...
Article
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Obesity is characterized by inflammation, caused by increase in proinflammatory cytokines, a key factor for the development of insulin resistance. SR141716A, a cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) antagonist, shows significant improvement in clinical status of obese/diabetic patients. Therefore, we studied the effect of SR141716A on human adipocyte inflamm...
Data
Central OT infusion does not modify lipid metabolism in skeletal muscle and in the liver. mRNA expression of enzymes related to lipid metabolism in: (A) quadriceps and (B) the liver of saline–infused controls (filled bars) and i.c.v. oxytocin-infused rats (1.6 nmol/d; open bars). Values are mean ± SEM of 6 to 7 animals/group. Intergroup differences...
Data
OEA affects lipid metabolism in cultured adipocytes. (A) PPAR-alpha and PPAR-alpha target gene expression in differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes (24 h vehicle or 0.2 µM OEA). Values are mean ± SEM of three independent experiments. *P<0.05 compared to controls. (TIF)
Data
Effects of peripheral OT infusion on lipid metabolism-related parameters in eWAT. The following analyses were performed on eWAT of s.c. saline–infused controls (filled bars), s.c. OT-infused rats (50 nmol/d; open bars), and s.c. saline-infused PF controls (hatched bars): (A) TG; (B) FFA and (C) glycerol content. Values are mean ± SEM of 7 to 8 rats...
Data
Effects of i.c.v. oxytocin (1.6 nmol/d) infusion on food intake, meal number, meal size, meal duration, feeding rate, intermeal interval (IMI) and satiety ratio. Values are mean ± SEM of 6 animals per group. P = NS for all comparisons. (DOC)
Data
Effects of i.c.v. oxytocin (16 nmol/d) infusion on food intake, meal number, meal size, meal duration, feeding rate, intermeal interval (IMI) and satiety ratio. Values are mean ± SEM of 7 animals per group. * P<0.05, ** P<0.01 versus saline-infused controls. P = NS for all other comparisons. (DOC)
Data
Central OT infusion does not modify OT and OTR mRNA expression in eWAT. The following parameters were measured at the end of 14-day treatments with two doses of i.c.v. OT infusion: (A) Oxytocin (Oxt) and (B) Oxytocin receptor (OxtR) expression in rat eWAT of saline–infused controls (filled bars) and OT-infused rats (1.6 nmol/d, open bars). Values a...
Article
Full-text available
Apart from its role during labor and lactation, oxytocin is involved in several other functions. Interestingly, oxytocin- and oxytocin receptor-deficient mice develop late-onset obesity with normal food intake, suggesting that the hormone might exert a series of beneficial metabolic effects. This was recently confirmed by data showing that central...
Article
Palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) is an endogenous lipid mediator with anti-inflammatory and anti-hyperalgesic properties. The main objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of PEA on the cutaneous allergic inflammatory reaction induced by different immunological and non-immunological stimuli in hypersensitive dogs. Six spontaneously Asc...
Article
Full-text available
Ultraviolet radiation is the major environmental insult to the skin and stimulates the synthesis of melanin in melanocytes, which then distribute it to the neighboring keratinocytes where it confers photo-protection. Skin color results from the paracrine interaction between these two cell types. Recent studies suggest that endocannabinoids are pote...
Article
Cannabidiol (CBD) and Δ(9) -tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) interact with transient receptor potential (TRP) channels and enzymes of the endocannabinoid system. The effects of 11 pure cannabinoids and botanical extracts [botanical drug substance (BDS)] from Cannabis varieties selected to contain a more abundant cannabinoid, on TRPV1, TRPV2, TRPM8, TRPA1...
Article
Full-text available
Prion diseases are neurodegenerative disorders characterized by deposition of the pathological prion protein (PrPsc) within the brain of affected humans and animals. Microglial cell activation is a common feature of prion diseases; alterations of various neurotransmitter systems and neurotransmission have been also reported. Owing to its ability to...
Article
Although its presence in mammalian tissues has been known since the 1960s, N-palmitoyl-ethanolamine (PEA) has emerged only recently among other bioactive N-acylethanolamines as an important local pro-homeostatic mediator which, due to its chemical stability, can be also administered exogenously as the active principle of current anti-inflammatory a...
Article
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Endocannabinoids (eCBs) are ubiquitous lipid mediators that act on specific (CB1, CB2) and non-specific (TRPV1, PPAR) receptors. Despite many experimental animal studies proved eCB involvement in the pathogenesis of stroke, such evidence is still lacking in human patients. Our aim was to determine eCB peripheral levels in acute stroke patients and...
Article
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The endocannabinoids, anandamide and 2-AG, are produced by adipocytes, where they stimulate lipogenesis via cannabinoid CB1 receptors and are under the negative control of leptin and insulin. Endocannabinoid levels are elevated in the blood of obese individuals and nonobese type 2 diabetes patients. To date, no study has evaluated endocannabinoid l...
Article
Full-text available
The endocannabinoid system plays protective roles against the growth and the spreading of several types of carcinomas. Because estrogens regulate this system both in physiological states and cancer, in this paperweevaluated its involvement in endometrial carcinoma, a well-known estrogen-dependant tumor. To test whether the endocannabinoid system is...
Article
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Clinical and laboratory studies suggest that the endocannabinoid system is involved in schizophrenia disorders. Recent evidence indicates that cannabinoid receptor (CB1) antagonists have a pharmacological profile similar to antipsychotic drugs. We investigated the behavioural and biochemical effects of the CB1 antagonist AM251 in a phencyclidine (P...
Article
Given that the pharmacological or genetic inactivation of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) counteracts pain and inflammation, and on the basis of the established involvement of transient receptor potential vanilloid type-1 (TRPV1) channels in inflammatory pain, we tested the capability of a dual FAAH/TRPV1 blocker, N-arachidonoyl-serotonin (AA-5-H...
Article
The aim of this study was to evaluate how endocannabinoids interact with excitotoxic processes both in vitro, using primary neural cell cultures, and in vivo, in the TMEV-IDD model of multiple sclerosis. First, we observed that neuronal cells respond to excitotoxic challenges by the production of endocannabinoid molecules which in turn exerted neur...
Chapter
Fatty acid ethanolamides, also known as N-acylethanolamines or acylethanolamides (AEs), have been known as naturally occurring lipids in animals and plants since the 1950s. Interest in their biological function and pharmacology in the central nervous system was revived after the identification of one of them, arachidonoylethanolamide (anandamide, A...
Article
N-oleoylethanolamine (OEA) and N-palmitoylethanolamine (PEA) are endogenous lipids that activate peroxisome proliferator–activated receptor-α with high and intermediate potency, and exert anorectic and anti-inflammatory actions in rats, respectively. We investigated OEA and PEA tissue level regulation by the nutritional status in lean and obese rat...
Article
Apart from their widespread recreational abuse, the psychoactive preparations of the plant Cannabis sativa and its major psychotropic component, Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), are also known for their medicinal properties. Following the identification of receptors for THC - the cannabinoid CB1 and CB2 receptors - in mammals, various pharmaceuti...
Article
N-Acylethanolamines, including N-palmitoyl-ethanolamine (PEA), are hydrolyzed to the corresponding fatty acids and ethanolamine by fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH). Recently, N-acylethanolamine-hydrolyzing acid amidase (NAAA) was identified as being able to specifically hydrolyze PEA. In order to find selective and effective inhibitors of this enz...
Article
Full-text available
Palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) is an anti-inflammatory mediator that enhances the activation by anandamide (AEA) of cannabinoid receptors and transient receptor potential vanilloid type-1 (TRPV1) channels, and directly activates peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPAR-alpha). In mice, 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB)-induced contact alle...
Article
Dysregulation of the endocannabinoid system in the visceral adipose tissue (VAT) is associated with metabolic and cardiovascular complications of obesity. We studied perirenal VAT CB1 receptor expression in relation to anthropometry, VAT area and endocannabinoid levels, kidney microvascular damage (MVDa), and the presence of the CB1 gene A3813G var...
Article
The endocannabinoids anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol, and the anandamide-congener, palmitoylethanolamide, are all substrates for the enzyme fatty acid amide hydrolase, and are endowed with anti-inflammatory actions exerted via cannabinoid receptors or, in the case of palmitoylethanolamide, also via other targets. We investigated the role of t...
Article
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Endocannabinoids (ECs) control metabolism via cannabinoid receptors type 1 (CB1). Their plasma levels are elevated in overweight type 2 diabetes (T2D) and in obese patients, and decrease postprandially in normoweight individuals. We investigated in two different cohorts of nonobese or obese volunteers whether oral glucose in glucose tolerance tests...
Article
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During transit through the epididymis, spermatozoa are normally kept immotile and do not attain the ability to become motile until they reach the caudal epididymis. This study was undertaken to determine whether endocannabinoids play a role in the epididymis and in particular in suppressing the ability of spermatozoa to become motile. We show that...