Stefan Sütterlin

Stefan Sütterlin
Hochschule Albstadt-Sigmaringen · Faculty of Computer Science

About

127
Publications
37,151
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
1,822
Citations
Additional affiliations
August 2019 - present
Østfold University College
Position
  • Professor
May 2019 - present
Tallinn University of Technology
Position
  • Professor (Associate)
September 2017 - August 2019
Østfold University College
Position
  • Head of Faculty
Education
October 2001 - August 2006
University of Freiburg
Field of study
  • Psychology

Publications

Publications (127)
Conference Paper
Operations in cyberspace are enabled by a digitized battlefield. The ability to control operations in cyberspace has become a central goal for defence forces. As a result, terms like cyber power, cyberspace operations and cyber deterrence have begun to emerge in military literature in an effort to describe and highlight the importance of related ac...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Research on human factors in the cyber domain is lacking. Metacognitive awareness and regulation have been shown to be important factors in performance, but research integrating metacognitive strategies in socio-technical systems is lacking. This study aims to investigate metacognition as a potential index of evaluating individual cognitive perform...
Conference Paper
As cyber is increasingly integrated into military operations, conducting military cyber operations requires the effective coordination of teams. This interdisciplinary contribution discusses teams working in, and in relation to the cyber domain as a part of a larger socio-technical system, and the need for a better understanding of the human factor...
Chapter
Insight into skills that can support agile cognitive maneuver in complex digitized contexts is necessary for improved understanding of human behaviour in contemporary society. A more digitally enabled professional life, encompassing new tools to augment reality, requires we seek further knowledge concerning which competencies make humans operate mo...
Article
Lessons from safety-critical sociotechnical systems, such as aviation and acute medical care, demonstrate the importance of the human factor and highlight the crucial role of efficient communication between human agents. Although a large proportion of fatal incidents in aviation have been linked to failures in communication, cognitive engineering p...
Article
Full-text available
This study examines whether twelve sessions of heart rate variability biofeedback training would improve vagally mediated heart rate variability. If so, it would go some way in explaining why breathing based interventions reduces clinical symptoms and improves non-clinical performance outcomes. Methods: Thirty participants (N = 30, Nfemale = 13) ag...
Article
The cortisol awakening response is a non-invasive biomarker for hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) dysregulation, reflecting accumulated stress over time. In a previous study we reported that a blunted CAR before an inpatient treatment predicted self-reported depressive symptoms six weeks and six months after discharge (XXXXXXXXX et al., 201...
Preprint
Full-text available
Cyber defense decision-making during cyber threat situations is based on human-to-human communication aiming to establish a shared cyber situational awareness. Previous studies suggested that communication inefficiencies were among the biggest problems facing security operation center teams. There is a need for tools that allow for more efficient c...
Article
Humans quickly and effortlessly impose context onto ambiguous stimuli, as demonstrated through psychological projective testing and ambiguous figures. This feature of human cognition may be weaponized as part of an information operation. Such Ambiguous Self-Induced Disinformation (ASID) attacks would employ the following elements: the introduction...
Article
One of the challenges with working from home (WFH) is the question of its effect on health and well-being. The impact of home working on health has so far not been studied extensively.We address this gap by investigating the association between internal recovery, operationalised as rest break frequency (low, medium, high) during the working day, on...
Chapter
Abstract. The emergence of synthetic media such as deep fakes is considered to be a disruptive technology shaping the fight against cybercrime as well as enabling political disinformation. Deep faked material exploits humans’ interpersonal trust and is usually applied where technical solutions of deep fake authentication are not in place, unknown,...
Chapter
Over- and under-confidence in uncertain and volatile conditions often encountered by military personnel may lead to suboptimal high impact decitions. We investigated the relation between the metacognition accuracy of cadets‘ performance in a technical IT subject and their observed and measured behaviour characteristics: learning outcomes, knowledge...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background Accumulated senescent cells are proposed to be one of the main drivers of age-related pathology through disruption of tissue structure and function. We recently proposed the Neuro-Immuno-Senescence Integrative Model (NISIM; Ask et al., 2018) which relates prefrontally modulated vagal tone and subsequent balance between vagal and sympathe...
Article
Full-text available
The emergence of synthetic media such as deep fakes is considered to be a disruptive technology shaping the fight against cybercrime as well as enabling political disinformation. Deep faked material exploits humans’ interpersonal trust and is usually applied where technical solutions of deep fake authentication are not in place, unknown, or unaffor...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: Vagally mediated heart rate variability, a measurement in variations between RR waves is a trait indicator of vagal tone and psychophysiological adaptability. Evidence suggests that, via biofeedback-assisted focused breathing, synchronization of breathing to the frequency at which heart rate variability amplitude is maximized increases...
Article
Full-text available
In stressful situations such as the COVID-19-pandemic, unpleasant emotions are expected to increase while pleasant emotions will likely decrease. Little is known about the role cognitive appraisals, information management, and upregulating pleasant emotions can play to support emotion regulation in a pandemic. In an online survey (N = 1682), we inv...
Preprint
Full-text available
In cyber threat situations, the establishment of a shared situational awareness as a basis for cyber defense decision-making results from adequate communication of a Recognized Cyber Picture (RCP). RCPs consist of actively selected information and have the goal of accurately presenting the severity and potential consequences of the situation. RCPs...
Preprint
Full-text available
AI-generated "deep fakes" are becoming increasingly professional and can be expected to become an essential tool for cybercriminals conducting targeted and tailored social engineering attacks, as well as for others aiming for influencing public opinion in a more general sense. While the technological arms race is resulting in increasingly efficient...
Conference Paper
Rapid technological developments and definition of the cyber domain as a battlefield has challenged the cognitive attributes of its operators. In order to meet these demands, higher education programs in STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) need to recruit suited. Recruitment to STEM studies focuses on increasing the amount of f...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The goal of any military command and control (C2) system, simply put, is ‘to accomplish military missions’ [1, p. 2]. However, when it comes to deciding which approach is best in order to achieve this goal, and the ‘how-tos’, the opinions of the experts have adapted and evolved a lot over the years. According to Brehmer [1], the first and greatest...
Article
Full-text available
In the last decade, there has been an increase in publications on technology-based interventions for autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Virtual reality based assessments and intervention tools are promising and have shown to be acceptable amongst individuals with ASD. This scoping review reports on 49 studies utilizing virtual reality and augmented re...
Chapter
Cyber operations are increasingly automated processes that can occur at computational speed with the intent of reducing, or denying time for good decision making or time to ground communication between human agents. There is a lack of performance measures and metrics in cyber operation settings. One potential setting describing human performance co...
Chapter
In cyber threat situations, decision-making processes within organizations and between the affected organization and external entities are high-stake. They require human communication entailing technical complexity, time pressure, interdisciplinary factors, and often an insufficient information basis. Communication in cyber threat situations can th...
Chapter
Cyber defense is dependent on individual functioning as well as teamwork. Research has identified teamwork factors, such as communication and coordination, that increase performance, while more supporting behaviours, i.e. emotional and team support, have shown to inhibit team performance but currently the understanding of impact workloads have on p...
Article
Full-text available
Cybersecurity (CS) is a contemporary field for research and applied study of a range of aspects from across multiple disciplines. A cybersecurity expert has an in-depth knowledge of technology but is often also recognized for the ability to view technology in a non-standard way. This paper explores how CS specialists are both a combination of profe...
Preprint
Humans quickly and effortlessly impose narrative context onto ambiguous stimuli, as demonstrated through psychological projective testing and ambiguous figures. We suggest that this feature of human cognition may be weaponized as part of an information operation. Such Ambiguous Self-Induced Disinformation (ASID) attacks would employ the following e...
Article
Full-text available
After the first COVID-19 case was diagnosed in Germany, various measures limiting contact between people were introduced across the country. The implementation of these measures varied between jurisdictions and potentially had a negative impact on the psychological well-being of many people. However, the prevalence, severity, and type of symptoms o...
Preprint
In cyber threat situations, decision-making processes within organizations and between the affected organization and external entities are high-stake. They require human communication entailing technical complexity, time pressure , interdisciplinary factors, and often an insufficient information basis. Communication in cyber threat situations can t...
Preprint
Cyber operations are increasingly automated processes that can occur at computational speed with the intent of reducing, or denying time for good decision making or time to ground communication between human agents. There is a lack of performance measures and metrics in cyber operation settings. One potential setting describing human performance co...
Article
Full-text available
Training through simulation has shown to increase relevant and specific skills sets across a wide range of areas in nursing and related professions. Increasing skills has a reciprocal relation to the development of self-efficacy. A study was conducted to assess changes in the development of self-efficacy in simulation training for 2nd year nursing...
Chapter
In response to the existing and predicted skills gap in cybersecurity, educational institutions establish an increased number of studies. Admission boards need to screen large numbers of applicants to identify those with the highest probability of successful completion. To address the current lack of scalable and validated admission procedures with...
Chapter
Full-text available
Various courses and trainings aim to teach cybersecurity with only few measures for learning outcomes. Existing metrics such as general grades do not reflect the various competencies and specific outcomes that make up a course. More specific measures targeting competencies are needed: this differentiated approach must reflect course specificities,...
Article
Full-text available
Student surveys are an integral part of quality assessment in the education sector and play a vital role in the justification of policies and decisions on governmental, institutional and individual levels. Each year in Norway a governmental agency for quality assurance in education conducts a national survey inviting all registered second year bach...
Article
Full-text available
Vagally mediated heart rate variability (HRV) is a psychophysiological indicator of mental and physical health. Research indicates a reduced vagal activity and resulting lower HRV in patients with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). There is limited research concerning whether HRV correlates with symptoms of depression and whether it mirrors symptom i...
Article
Full-text available
Background Naturalistic Developmental Behavioral Interventions (NDBI) have been evaluated as the most promising interventions for children with autism spectrum disorder. In recent years, a growing body of literature suggests that technological advancements such as Virtual Reality (VR) are promising intervention tools. However, to the best of our kn...
Chapter
Full-text available
Governance of cyberpower from a military perspective are focused on the efforts to control and influence events occurring in cyberspace. For the Norwegian Defence, this means educating cyber engineers, responsible for governing cyberpower effects, beyond technical skills and competencies. To match the complexity of modern warfighting necessitates a...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Objectives: Children and adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) have deficits in social and emotional skills. Virtual Reality (VR) represents a technological tool that can be used to train different social and emotional skills in an environment that mimics real-life situations and that, at the same time, is safe and comfortable. Research...
Article
Full-text available
Background Fibromyalgia is characterized by widespread musculoskeletal pain and often accompanied by cognitive and emotional problems. Adaptation to fibromyalgia may therefore also rely on one’s ability to regulate emotional problems. In this study, we examined two indices of emotion regulation, i.e., (1) affective instability, involving frequent l...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Heart rate variability (HRV) is a widely used non-invasive index of emotion regulation ability. The main aim of our study was to investigate the relationship between HRV and level of personality functioning in a clinical sample, most of whom had a personality disorder. Our secondary aim was to examine the test-retest reliability of HRV...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In response to the existing and predicted skills gap in cy-bersecurity, educational institutions establish an increased number of studies. Admission boards need to screen large numbers of applicants to identify those with the highest probability of successful completion. To address the current lack of scalable and validated admission procedures wit...
Article
Full-text available
Natural environments have been shown to trigger psychological and physiological restoration in humans. A new framework regarding natural environments restorative properties is proposed. Conditioned restoration theory builds on a classical conditioning paradigm, postulating the occurrence of four stages: (i) unconditioned restoration, unconditioned...
Article
Somatic symptoms are a central feature of most mental and physical disorders. According to Bayesian predictive coding, symptom perceptions result from integrating expectations and current sensory input. Imprecise sensory input should be more vulnerable to top down influence than precise sensory input. The thermal grill illusion (TGI) provides an am...
Preprint
Full-text available
Since the first COVID-19 case was diagnosed in Germany, various lockdown measures were imposed across the country that likely had a large impact on psychological well-being. In the current study, we investigate depressive symptoms as depression is a leading contributor to the global burden of disease and potentially life-threatening. This study rep...
Chapter
In this overview of the two neurodevelopmental disorders, intellectual disabilities and autism spectrum disorders we systematically searched the literature for scientific publications of group-based designs that tested various interventions through the use of Virtual Reality technology. After screening of a total of n = 366 publications, n = 13 stu...
Chapter
The number of publications on Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) and Virtual Reality (VR) has increased considerably the past few years. Interventions using VR show promising effect in improving social skills and other daily living activities for persons with ASD. Researchers have expressed concerns regarding the acceptability among people with ASD to...
Chapter
Training and development of skills gives individuals the knowledge and procedures required to perform their tasks. Training also requires individuals to develop reflective skills that help consolidate and transfer knowledge to long-term memory, where it then can be recalled in appropriate situations. But to develop reflective skills, one must first...
Poster
Full-text available
Team-based cybersecurity exercises are popular learning methods to reduce the skill gap in digital security. However, assessing team learning remains an unsolved research question. Our ongoing research focuses on unobtrusive team learning measurements in exercises using existing reporting mechanisms. We apply text mining techniques to the situation...
Preprint
Training and development of skills gives individuals the knowledge and procedures required to perform their tasks. Training also requires individuals to develop reflective skills that help consolidate and transfer knowledge to long-term memory, where it then can be recalled in appropriate situations. But to develop reflective skills, one must first...
Poster
Virtual Reality (VR) may be a more cost-effective and tolerable way of conducting behavior analytic training for people with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). Technological devices, e.g., Head Mounted Displays (HMD) and tablets, are used within education. Since children and adolescents with ASD require a high amount of training hours per week to dev...
Article
Full-text available
Cyber Defence Exercises (CDX) are common training and learning tools. A recently discussed challenge in cyber defence teaching and training is the gap between the fast technological advancement accompanied by rapidly changing demands on future cyber defence operators, and the lack of science-based teaching and training methods. A growing body of ev...
Article
Full-text available
Cybersecurity is a fast growing domain. The supply of workforce entering the labour market can not match the current demands. Due to this currently existing and predicted future skills gap in the labour market, educational institutions attempt to minimize dropouts and study times. As a direct consequence, the relevance of valid admission and select...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: This study seeks to understand the mediating effects of mindfulness on self-efficacy, academic performance and ability to cope with pain. It further examines the effect of mindfulness on the capacity to cope with pain-induced stress. Whilst there are physiological changes which occur due to mindfulness, it is still not clearly understood...
Chapter
Rapid technological developments and definition of the cyber domain as a battlefield has challenged the cognitive attributes of its operators. In order to meet these demands, higher education programs in STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) need to recruit suited. Recruitment to STEM studies focuses on increasing the amount of f...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract: Improving academic grades within the core areas of English, science and mathematics has had a lot of previous research interest, but research has tended to mostly focus on students who are failing, non-athletically talented students or student athletes at collegiate level. The particular needs of athletically talented secondary school stu...
Article
Full-text available
Reliance upon data networks to conduct military operations presents new challenges to the competence profiles of military personnel. Specifically the increased demand for the new category of military cyber personnel is a direct consequence of the utility of the cyber domain in contemporary military operations, both to support leadership processes a...
Article
Full-text available
Background Many young children in developing countries do not reach their developmental potential. Traditional methods for assessing developmental outcome are time consuming, thus, physiological measures that can contribute to the prediction of developmental outcomes in high risk groups have been suggested. Vagally mediated heart rate variability (...
Article
Full-text available
The Multiple Arousal Theory (Picard et al., 2016) was proposed to explain retrospective observations of bilateral differences in electrodermal activities occurring in threat-related high-stake situations. The theory proposes different cortical and subcortical structures to be involved in the processing of various facets of emotional states. Systema...
Article
Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) is associated with hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) dysregulation and altered cortisol awakening response (CAR), a non-invasive biomarker for HPA axis reactivity. We theorized that the CAR resembles the accumulated effects of depression over time, and may therefore predict depressive symptom severity once pa...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Background: There has been an increase of interventions using Head Mounted Display (HMD) through Virtual Reality (VR) technology in training with people with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). VR-technology through the use of HMDs can be suitable for persons with ASD as, for instance, a simulated social environment can be perceived as less stressful...
Article
Full-text available
Personal resiliency refers to individual attributes that are related to the process of successfully adapting to the environment in the face of adverse conditions, also known as resilience. Emotion regulation is increasingly found as a core component in mental health and found to modulate individual differences in the management of emotional respons...
Article
Governance of cyberpower from a military perspective are focused on the efforts to control and influence events occurring in cyberspace. For the Norwegian Defence, this means educating cyber engineers, responsible for governing cyberpower effects, beyond technical skills and competencies. To match the complexity of modern warfighting necessitates a...
Article
The present study investigated the moderating role of parental pain-related attention-set shifting and heart rate variability (HRV) for parental distress and pain control behaviour when faced with their child's pain. Participants were 54 school children and one of their parents. Parental HRV was assessed at study commencement followed by a cued swi...
Article
Full-text available
There is evidence that accumulated senescent cells drive age-related pathologies, but the antecedents to the cellular stressors that induce senescence remain poorly understood. Previous research suggests that there is a relationship between shorter telomere length, an antecedent to cellular senescence, and psychological stress. Existing models do n...