Stefan E Schulenberg

Stefan E Schulenberg
University of Mississippi | UM · Department of Psychology

PhD

About

109
Publications
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Introduction
Stefan Schulenberg is the Director of the University of Mississippi's Clinical-Disaster Research Center (UM- CDRC), an integrated research, teaching, and training center with emphases in disaster mental health and positive psychology. Dr. Schulenberg's research interests include disaster mental health, perceived meaning/purpose in life, positive psychology, and psychological assessment. He currently oversees the multidisciplinary minor in Disaster Sciences, a joint effort involving many different constituents on campus (https://catalog.olemiss.edu/liberal-arts/ba-distr-sci).

Publications

Publications (109)
Article
The literature suggests that the relationship between posttraumatic growth (PTG) and posttraumatic stress (PTS) is curvilinear, and that type or severity of trauma may affect this relationship. The relationship between depression, anxiety, and PTG is understudied. Participants (N = 541) were emerging adult students at a southeastern United States u...
Article
Full-text available
Significance Communicating in ways that motivate engagement in social distancing remains a critical global public health priority during the COVID-19 pandemic. This study tested motivational qualities of messages about social distancing (those that promoted choice and agency vs. those that were forceful and shaming) in 25,718 people in 89 countries...
Article
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) often presents with comorbidities and can result in functional impairment. Veterans and service members report PTSD at higher rates than civilians, which represents a public health concern among those who have served or are serving in the military. Prior reviews of evidence-based treatments for PTSD demonstrate...
Article
Broadly defined, restorative justice (RJ) is a set of procedures based in Indigenous peacemaking practices that reduces recidivism and guides the effective reparation of harm. RJ practices provide harm-affected parties an opportunity for engagement in the resolution process, which theoretically enhances community well-being. RJ practices overlap si...
Article
Differences between military and civilian culture can impact a veteran's ability to effectively navigate the transition to the civilian setting after separating from military service. However, systems providing psychological services to veterans lack reliable and valid methods of identifying the extent to which the dissonance between military and c...
Preprint
Broadly defined, Restorative Justice (RJ) is a set of procedures based in Indigenous peacemaking practices that reduces recidivism and guides the effective reparation of harm. RJ practices provide harm-affected parties an opportunity for engagement in the resolution process, which theoretically enhances community well-being. RJ practices overlap si...
Article
Values-based interventions encourage engagement in valued living as a means to promote psychological well-being. Valued living is best operationalized as ongoing, reinforcing behavioral patterns consistent with idiographic values that facilitate psychological well-being and improved mental health. Cross-sectional research illustrates positive assoc...
Article
Objective: Smoking and tobacco use co-occur with mental health problems. We examined the relationships between smoker’s identity and positive factors in smokers with mental health problems. We also examined the associations between smoker’s identity and psychopathology. Methods: We distributed an anonymous electronic survey to individuals participa...
Book
Full-text available
This the 2nd Edition of Foundations of Emergency Management published by Kendall Hunt.
Preprint
Individuals who survive natural hazards often develop posttraumatic stress symptoms or other forms of psychological distress. However, some experience psychological growth. Given that the probability that such events will increase in the near future due to global warming, it would probably be helpful to examine predictors of growth across different...
Preprint
Objective: Adverse consequences of binge drinking episodes are well-established, but fewer studies have investigated how incremental changes in daily alcohol use relate to well-being. We examined within- and between-person associations in alcohol use and next-day valued living to enhance our understanding of the impact of alcohol use on following-d...
Article
Objective Adverse consequences of binge drinking episodes are well-established, but fewer studies have investigated how incremental changes in daily alcohol use relate to well-being. We examined within- and between-person associations in alcohol use and next-day valued living to enhance our understanding of the impact of alcohol use on following-da...
Book
Full-text available
This is the 2nd Edition of Foundations of Emergency Management to be released as an E-Book in August 2020 by Kendall-Hunt.
Book
Full-text available
This is an examination of the 25 domestic events that has influenced and shaped emergency management from an operation and policy perspective.
Article
The coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic is a call that psychologists must answer with a dynamic, integrated mental health response that incorporates public education and dissemination, training, research, and service. These areas are central components to our mission at the Clinical-Disaster Research Center, housed in the Department of Psychology at th...
Book
Full-text available
This is Chapter 1 of our 2nd edition edition of Foundations of Emergency Management published by Kendall Hunt.
Article
Individuals who survive natural hazards often develop posttraumatic stress symptoms or other forms of psychological distress. However, some experience psychological growth. Given that natural hazards will increase in the near future due to global warming, it would be helpful to examine predictors of growth across different kinds of natural hazards....
Article
Full-text available
Engagement in daily valued action is a core component of psychological well-being. Although valued action is a common target of cognitive-behavioral intervention, the degree to which it fluctuates at a daily level—and its predictors—remain relatively untested. Thus, the present daily diary study examined the influence of daily stress and intraperso...
Chapter
With regard to the context of the immediate aftermath of a disaster, adolescence is a developmental age group that is rarely explicitly researched in terms of interventions. Usually, they are either considered along with school-aged youth, or they are treated more along the lines of an adult. Nevertheless, adolescence is a unique developmental time...
Chapter
Natural disasters are on the rise, of growing concern globally, as well as from the perspective of the U.S. and regionally with respect to the state of Mississippi. Mississippi experiences high rates of natural disasters, such as hurricanes, tornadoes, earthquakes, and floods. Technological disasters are also not uncommon. Historical, culturally-ch...
Chapter
This introductory chapter opens the volume on Positive Psychological Approaches to Disaster. The text is a natural extension of the special issue on disaster mental health and positive psychology that appeared in a 2016 issue of the Journal of Clinical Psychology. These areas of applied science have much to offer one another. A rationale and overvi...
Book
Written by prominent proponents of disaster mental health and/or positive psychology, this comprehensive book examines disaster mental health and positive psychology in the context of natural and technological disasters. Chapters in the first section focus on applications of meaning and resilience in the area of disaster mental health, both serving...
Poster
Full-text available
OBJECTIVE: To apply the Extended Parallel Process Model (Witte, 1992) to disaster preparedness behaviors of university students and employees, for tornadoes and active shooter situations. This theory holds that both high threat perception and high self-efficacy are necessary for individuals to take action to prepare. If threat perception is high an...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this study was to explore university student perceptions, attitudes, and behaviors with respect to disaster preparedness, with specific regard for natural hazards (e.g., tornadoes and floods) as well as incidents of violence (e.g., an active shooter on campus) and pandemic (e.g., influenza). A qualitative design was employed using mo...
Preprint
Objective: This study originally sought to replicate the findings of Thoresen et al.’s (2010) development of the Impact of Event Scale-6 (IES-6), a six-item abbreviated measure of the Impact of Event Scale–Revised (IES-R). The IES-R measures symptoms of posttraumatic stress based on the posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) diagnostic criteria outli...
Article
A multitude of relationships have been identified through correlational data between meaning in life, resilience, and posttraumatic growth following natural hazards, such that a cohesive and replicable model is needed across diverse samples. Further, additional research is needed on the link between resilience and disaster preparedness. The objecti...
Article
Expressive writing is beneficial for promoting both positive psychological and physical health outcomes. Unfortunately, inhibiting emotions is related to impairments in psychological and physical health. James Pennebaker and others have used expressive writing as an experimental manipulation to gauge its efficacy in treating a wide variety of physi...
Article
Full-text available
Recent research suggests that meaning in life relates to processes of social judgments and could facilitate relationships between racially diverse individuals. At this time however, there is no study that examines factors that influence the relationship between meaning, racial prejudice, and values. To fill this gap, the present study examined whet...
Chapter
This chapter discusses the Great Atlanta Fire of 1917 and its impact on emergency management.
Chapter
This chapter discusses the 1995 Chicago Heat Wave and its impact on emergency management.
Article
Scales that are psychometrically sound, meaning those that meet established standards regarding reliability and validity when measuring one or more constructs of interest, are customarily evaluated based on a set modality (i.e., computer or paper) and administration (fixed-item order). Deviating from an established administration profile could resu...
Book
Full-text available
This text is an amalgamation of case studies that represent foundational events that influenced the emerging of modern emergency management and homeland security paradigms. The text discusses major events over the last two centuries that were catalysts for change regarding the methods whereby emergency incidents were addressed.
Article
The objective of this study was to examine previous disaster impact, threat perception, self-efficacy, and gender as predictors of university employees’ preparedness for natural hazards and incidents of mass violence. A cross-sectional survey was conducted with faculty and staff members (N = 410) at a medium-sized university located in the southern...
Preprint
Full-text available
This is one of the chapters from our Fall 2018 Kendall Hunt release of Disasters that Shaped Emergency Management. This is a book of about 25 case studies that discuss accidents, pandemics and natural disasters that influenced emergency management and homeland security thought.
Article
Full-text available
Objective: There is growing interest in the effectiveness of disaster preparedness at universities. Although several studies have examined student preparedness perceptions, a better understanding of factors that may influence actual preparedness is needed. Participants: Seven hundred sixty-five undergraduate and graduate students at a southeaste...
Preprint
Emotional expression has been shown to be benficial for promoting both positive psychological and physical health outcomes. Unfortunately, inhibiting emotions can lead to impairments in physical and psychological health. James Pennebaker showed that expressive writing is an effective form of emotional expression, and he and others have used express...
Preprint
Scales that are psychometrically sound, meaning those that meet established standards regarding reliability and validity when measuring one or more constructs of interest, are customarily evaluated based on a set modality (i.e., computer or paper) and administration (fixed-item order). Deviating from an established administration profile could resu...
Poster
Since the year 2000, FEMA has recorded over 2,056 natural disasters in the United States, 28% of which were classified as floods (FEMA; Federal Emergency Management Agency, 2016). Natural disasters, such as floods, are potentially traumatic events that can drastically impact communities along with the physical and psychological well-being of member...
Chapter
Full-text available
The will to meaning is a fundamental and basic need relevant to all people. With respect to the mental health professions, therapists, clinicians, and scholars are constantly confronted with existential questions, about which existing textbooks and diagnostic manuals carry little, if any, information. Despite the mounting research findings undersco...
Book
This unique theory-to-practice volume presents far-reaching advances in positive and existential therapy, with emphasis on meaning-making as central to coping and resilience, growth and positive change. Innovative meaning-based strategies are presented with clients facing medical and mental health challenges such as spinal cord injury, depression,...
Chapter
The primary goal of this chapter is to demonstrate that the key factors that promote resilience and posttraumatic growth are related to the perception of meaning in life. According to Viktor Frankl, founder of logotherapy, a forerunner to today’s positive psychology movement, life has meaning under all circumstances—even those that involve unavoida...
Article
This article serves as an introduction to the Journal of Clinical Psychology’s special issue on disaster mental health and positive psychology. The special issue comprises two sections. The first section presents a series of data-driven articles and research-informed reviews examining meaning and resilience in the context of natural and technologic...
Chapter
This article serves as an introduction to this text on existential psychotherapy, which originated as a special issue of the Journal of Contemporary Psychotherapy (2015, Volume 45, No. 1). This book clarifies and furthers existential psychotherapy for those who may not be familiar with the merits of these approaches. There is value in them, but the...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: To evaluate the metric properties of distinct measures of psychological personal factors comprising feelings, beliefs, motives, and patterns of experience and behaviour assessed in the Swiss Spinal Cord Injury Cohort Study (SwiSCI), using Rasch methodology. Methods: SwiSCI Pathway 2 is a community-based, nationwide, cross-sectional su...
Chapter
Perceived meaning in life positively and significantly correlates with adaptive characteristics such as cognitive flexibility, altruism, self-transcendence, social relatedness, and values-directed behavior. Furthermore, one recent study has evidenced that perceived meaning in life is related to automatic stereotyping—the spontaneous activation of o...
Article
Objectives: This study's purpose was to assess perceived meaning in adolescents. Specifically, our goals were to examine the psychometric properties of the Purpose in Life test-Short Form (PIL-SF) and its ability to predict psychological outcomes in an adolescent sample. Method: Aspects of well-being (self-efficacy, life satisfaction, and resili...
Article
The present study examines the relationship between resilience, perceived meaning in life, and traumatic stress symptoms among coastal residents of Mississippi directly affected by the Deepwater Horizon oil spill (also known as the Gulf oil spill). The study was conducted as part of a larger project that assessed the spill's effect on the mental he...
Article
Research and assessment skills are important competencies for psychologists to possess regardless of their professional role. Participating in collaborative research during graduate training is an effective way for graduate students to gain a diversity of experiences in these areas. The current work describes the training opportunities in a collabo...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this study was to systematically examine the psychometric properties of the 14-item Resilience Scale (RS-14; Wagnild, 2009a). Exploratory and confirmatory factor-analytic methods were employed, including an analysis of measurement invariance models by sex and race/ethnicity. Descriptive statistics, reliability, and validity data were...
Chapter
Disaster mental health, also known as clinical-disaster psychology, is an emerging area of interest among researchers and clinicians as it is important to understand the impact disaster events have on an individual’s mental health. Research within disaster events is necessary to allow researchers and clinicians to be better prepared for future disa...
Article
Full-text available
A significant percentage of disaster survivors experience negative psychological, physical, and social outcomes after a disaster. The current study advances the literature concerning the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill (the Gulf Oil Spill) while addressing weaknesses of previous research. The current study includes a clinical sample of 1,119 adults rec...
Article
This article serves as an introduction to the special issue on existential psychotherapy. The special issue clarifies the nature of existential psychotherapy for those who may not be familiar with the merits of these approaches. There is value in them, but they are often misunderstood. Contributions to this special issue represent a range of intern...
Article
Survivors of childhood brain tumors are at increased risk for neurocognitive impairments, including deficits in abilities supported by frontal brain regions. Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) metabolizes dopamine in the prefrontal cortex, with the Met allele resulting in greater dopamine availability and better performance on frontally mediated t...
Chapter
Full-text available
This article discusses the development of a short form of the Purpose in Life test (PIL) by using exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis. We describe why the creation of a useful, separate scale for measuring only meaning in life was desirable. The analyses used here, while normally complex, are broken down into manageable research questions...
Article
Full-text available
The current study examined the impact of the Gulf Oil Spill and Hurricane Katrina, environmental attitudes, and environmental action among residents of the Mississippi Gulf Coast. The authors sought to determine if disaster impact, worry about the environment, or connection to nature was associated with environmental action following the oil spill...
Article
Full-text available
Excessive alcohol consumption is a chronic issue on college campuses nationwide and presents a significant public health concern. Compared with non-college peers, college students consume alcohol at substantially higher rates and encounter more negative consequences resulting from drinking. This study aimed to examine the role of depression and per...
Article
Full-text available
This study’s primary purpose was to examine the factor structure of the 20-item Seeking of Noetic Goals (SONG) test via exploratory and confirmatory factor-analytic procedures. An additional objective was to report on the measure’s incremental validity in comparison to the Search scale of the Meaning in Life Questionnaire (MLQ), an alternative meas...
Article
This study examined the equivalence of a graphics tablet-based computer administration of the Rey Complex Figure Test (RCF) with a traditional paper-and-pencil administration of the RCF. Participants were also assessed for computer anxiety, attitudes, and familiarity, as well as comfort with the computer equipment used in the study. Sixty-two under...
Article
Full-text available
On April 20, 2010, the Deepwater Horizon oil platform exploded, releasing five billion barrels of oil into the Gulf of Mexico over five months (referred to as the Gulf Oil Spill). This oil spill affected Gulf Coast communities, harming both sea and land wildlife, damaging the fishing industry, and destroying natural resources. In the wake of such a...
Article
Full-text available
Positive intercultural attitudes and civic action are increasingly important for youth around the world given the economic, social justice, and environmental challenges they face. Among U.S. youth and emerging adults, ethnic identity and self-efficacy are related to positive intercultural attitudes and may prompt civic engagement. Youth’s efficacy...
Article
This study examined the psychometric properties of the Meaning in Life Questionnaire (MLQ) with individuals with serious mental illness (SMI) in an inpatient setting (N = 96). The 10-item MLQ comprises Presence (perceived meaning) and Search (motivation to discover meaning) scales. This study focused on the reliability and validity of the MLQ, repo...
Article
Full-text available
This study’s purpose was to examine the psychometric properties for a brief, four-item form of the 20-item Purpose in Life test (PIL-SF). Confirmatory factor-analytic procedures were used to demonstrate how well the items (3, 4, 8, and 20) fit together. Reliability and descriptive data for the PIL-SF are provided, as well as correlations with other...
Article
The Barkley Current Symptoms Scale (BCSS)–Self-Report Form was designed to assess attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. The purpose of the current study was to add to BCSS psychometric literature in a sample of university students. Comparisons with normative data are provided, and implications for these findings are offered.
Article
Full-text available
The portrayal of death is one of the most common themes in movies and is often unrealistic, promoting misconceptions to the public. However, there are also many films that portray death acceptance in an instructive way. Such films depict the development of character strengths useful in embracing life and lessening death anxiety, namely zest, curios...
Article
Full-text available
Viktor Frankl’s logotherapy posits that human life has purpose and that human beings are motivated to discover meaning in their lives. This paper’s objective is to present a case for incorporating meaning into couples therapy as a way of enhancing a clinician’s existing approach. Logotherapy is a potentially useful modality, regardless of the clini...
Article
One measure commonly used to assess posttraumatic stress disorder is the PTSD Checklist (PCL). Lang and Stein (2005) extracted 4 subsets of PCL items, validating 2 of them for possible use in screening in primary care settings. The viability of the 4 item subsets was evaluated psychometrically in the present study with a sample of Hurricane Katrina...
Article
Hurricane Katrina survivors ( N = 399) on the Mississippi Gulf Coast were surveyed to examine the relationship between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and general self-efficacy. As hypothesized, general self-efficacy was found to be inversely correlated with PTSD severity and prevalence, women reported greater PTSD severity and lower general s...
Article
This study investigated the relationship among the variables of perceived coercion, psychiatric symptoms, empowerment, and meaning in an inpatient sample of individuals with serious mental illness (N=94). It was hypothesized that empowerment would be strongly related to the level of psychiatric symptoms and meaning, but not significantly related to...
Article
Researchers have extensively investigated the factor structure of the Boredom Proneness Scale (BPS; R. Farmer & N. D. Sundberg, 1986) using exploratory factor analyses (EFAs), with inconsistent methodology and results. Thus, the purpose of the present study was to perform confirmatory factor analyses on the BPS to better determine the nature and ex...
Article
Full-text available
Upon review of the clinical supervision literature, the case is made for implementation of logotherapeutic principles within the context of the supervisory relationship. Logotherapy is a meaning-centered approach that may enhance existing supervision styles and models, especially their tendency to de-emphasize the supervisor-supervisee relationship...
Article
Full-text available
Logotherapy is based on the meaning-focused existential philosophy of Viktor E. Frankl (1905-1997). Numerous mental health professionals have been inspired by his most popular book, Man's Search for Meaning; however, many are unfamiliar with the depth of Frankl's work. The purpose of this article is to discuss the tenets of logotherapy, including f...
Article
This study’s purpose was to provide additional psychometric data on the Computer Aversion, Attitudes, and Familiarity Index (CAAFI). The CAAFI is comprised of 40 items, yielding a total score and four factor scores with 10 items each (one familiarity, one attitudes, two aversion). The measure was administered to a sample of undergraduate psychology...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this article was to describe a model of clinical/disaster psychology and illustrate how one psychologist applied training in the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina. The primary focus of the article relates to training graduate students of clinical psychology and assisting evacuees, public education and dissemination, and research. Psycho...
Article
This study’s purpose was to use confirmatory factor analysis to compare published factor-analytic models of the 20-item Purpose in Life test (PIL) to identify the one that provides the best fit to the data. To date many different models have been described, with limited evidence to support whether they are replicable. This study utilized data from...
Article
Full-text available
Meaningful living is a central focus of several humanistic theories and therapies. Measurement of life meaning meets many obstacles, including pragmatic concerns, such as measuring subjective experiences, and theoretical objections often offered by humanistic psychologists. The purpose of this article is to summarize empirical efforts related to lo...
Article
Logotherapy, developed by Viktor Frankl, posits that when one lacks meaning in life, boredom can result. Thus, the two constructs should be inversely related. To examine this relationship, 279 students (M = 19.8 yr., SD = 2.6; 179 women, 98 men) from a university in the southern United States were administered the Purpose of Life test and the Bored...
Article
Reviews the film, Superman Returns directed by Bryan Singer (2006). This movie chronicles the return of Superman to Earth after five years of being away. It is more closely tied to the Superman movies made in 1978 and 1980 than the Superman movies made later in the 1980s. The movie stands on its own, however, and is an enjoyable film for a variety...
Article
The two-factor structure (Technical Competence, General Competence) of the Computer Understanding and Experience Scale was examined through confirmatory factor analysis with a sample of 293 undergraduates from a medium-sized university located in the southern USA. Analysis indicated that the two-factor subscale structure of the Computer Understandi...