Stefan Schmidt

Stefan Schmidt
University Medical Center Freiburg · Clinic of Psychosomatic Medicine and Psychotherapy

PhD

About

178
Publications
130,379
Reads
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10,900
Citations
Citations since 2017
58 Research Items
5753 Citations
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201720182019202020212022202302004006008001,000
201720182019202020212022202302004006008001,000
Additional affiliations
October 2010 - September 2016
Europa-Universität Viadrina Frankfurt (Oder)
Position
  • Professor

Publications

Publications (178)
Article
Eine wachsende Anzahl an Studien zeigt, dass achtsamkeitsbasierte Programme sich als vorteilhaft in der Förderung des psychischen Wohlbefindens von Krankenhausmitarbeitenden erweisen. Bei den gängigen Achtsamkeitskursen werden in der Regel jedoch nur wenige Bemühungen unternommen, den Transfer des Erlernten in den Arbeitsalltag zu gewährleisten. Mi...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: Internet use disorder (IUD) is on the rise and is associated with detrimental health consequences. Growing evidence suggests that mindfulness-either as a trait or cultivated in mindfulness-based programmes (MBPs)-is promising in preventing and treating IUD. With this systematic review and meta-analysis, we will examine (1) the associ...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: The use of open-label placebos (OLPs) has been shown to be effective in clinical trials. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to examine whether OLPs are effective in experimental studies with non-clinical populations. Methods: We searched five electronic databases on April 15, 2021. We conducted separate analyses for self...
Article
Full-text available
This study examined the effects of meditative states in experienced meditators on present-moment awareness, subjective time, and self-awareness while assessing meditation-induced changes in heart-rate variability and breathing rate. A sample of 22 experienced meditators who practiced meditation techniques stressing awareness of the present moment (...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives Medical residency is a challenging phase that puts the mental health of resident physicians at risk. This study explores the effects of a tailored mindfulness-based program on the positive mental health of resident physicians. Methods We conducted a longitudinal randomized controlled trial with an active control group. The intervention...
Article
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Objective To estimate the proportion of healthcare interventions tested within Cochrane Reviews that are effective according to high-quality evidence. Study design and setting We selected a random sample of 2428 (35%) of all Cochrane Reviews published between 1 January 2008 and 5 March 2021. We extracted data about interventions within these revie...
Article
Background: The COVID-19 pandemic and the measures to protect the physically vulnerable may disproportionately affect people with mental health vulnerabilities, who receive psychotherapeutic inpatient treatment, as many of these measures impact the (inter)subjective space crucial to psychotherapy. Objective: We investigate how people with pre-ex...
Article
Full-text available
Background Based on promising effects seen in a pilot study evaluating a generic mindfulness-based program for migraine, we developed a migraine-specific adaptation of the Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT) program. The aim of this study was to evaluate this program for feasibility and effectiveness in a randomized controlled trial. Method...
Article
Full-text available
Background Many resident physicians suffer from distress, which endangers their individual health and the quality of care. Objective To examine the impact of a tailored mindfulness-based program (MBP) for resident physicians on distress and the quality of care. Methods A single-centre, two-armed, longitudinal randomised controlled trial. The inte...
Article
Full-text available
Cognitive–behavioural therapy (CBT) with exposure and response prevention is the recommended standard for the treatment of obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD). However, a high proportion of patients refuse this treatment, do not respond or relapse shortly after treatment. Growing evidence suggests that mindfulness-based and acceptance-based program...
Chapter
This chapter focuses on replication and reproducibility. A single observation cannot be trusted. Similarly, findings from a single experimental investigation may reflect some regularity but they may also be due to chance, artefacts, or misinterpretations. Therefore, it is necessary to repeat the respective research procedure in order to validate th...
Article
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Background Chronic low back pain is the most frequent medical problem and the condition with the most years lived with disability in Western countries. The objective of this study was to assess a new treatment, Medi-Taping, which aims at reducing complaints by treating pelvic obliquity with a combination of manual treatment of trigger points and ki...
Article
Die Systemische Therapie hat einen langen Weg hinter sich. Inzwischen kann sie als ambulantes Psychotherapieverfahren durchgeführt werden. Einige Fragen sind allerdings noch offen. Über Innovationen, Reibungsflächen und Stolpersteine bei der Integration der Systemischen Therapie in die ambulante GKV-Versorgung.
Article
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Open-label placebos (OLPs) are placebos without deception in the sense that patients know that they are receiving a placebo. The objective of our study is to systematically review and analyze the effect of OLPs in comparison to no treatment in clinical trials. A systematic literature search was carried out in February 2020. Randomized controlled tr...
Article
Background and purpose: Diminished well-being is prevalent in resident physicians. This qualitative study explored the effects of a tailored mindfulness-based program (MBP) aimed at increasing resident physicians’ well-being. A second goal was to compare the MBP with an active control group. Materials and methods We conducted interviews with 35 re...
Article
Full-text available
In individual psychotherapy verbal communication and movement synchronization are closely interrelated. The microanalysis of timing, rhythm and gestalt of movement has established dynamic movement coordination as a systemic property of the dyadic interaction. Movement synchronization supports and enhances the unfolding of linguistic meaning. In ord...
Chapter
Full-text available
Gegenwartsgesellschaften funktionieren über enorm dynamische Zeitlogiken und eröffnen vielfältige Handlungsräume. Das transdisziplinäre Glossar bietet Einblicke in die vielseitigen Erkenntnisse und Perspektiven zum Thema Zeit im Lebensverlauf. Die einzelnen Stichworte beschreiben Aspekte individueller Zeitlichkeit und sozialer Zeitstrukturen in ihr...
Chapter
Full-text available
Gegenwartsgesellschaften funktionieren über enorm dynamische Zeitlogiken und eröffnen vielfältige Handlungsräume. Das transdisziplinäre Glossar bietet Einblicke in die vielseitigen Erkenntnisse und Perspektiven zum Thema Zeit im Lebensverlauf. Die einzelnen Stichworte beschreiben Aspekte individueller Zeitlichkeit und sozialer Zeitstrukturen in ihr...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives: The objective of the study was to determine the change in quality of evidence in updates of Cochrane reviews that were initially published between January 1, 2013 and June 30, 2014. We used the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) system to document evidence quality. Study Design and Setting: We se...
Article
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Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies report impaired functional correlates of cognition and emotion in mental disorders. The validity of preexisting studies needs to be confirmed through replication studies, which there is a lack of. So far, most replication studies have been conducted on non-patients (NP) and primarily investigated...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives Many resident physicians suffer from mental distress. This endangers the individual physician as well as the quality of patient care. This study tested the feasibility of a novel 8-week mindfulness program tailored to improve resident physicians’ personal and work-related well-being.Methods Participants were nine resident physicians from...
Chapter
Do people who are diagnosed with cancer with good chances of recovery still feel close to death? And what does the confrontation with the finitude of life mean for the design of the living environments of these people? The researchers present here parts of the results of their study ‘Perception of time in subjective proximity to death’ and prove pe...
Article
Full-text available
Boredom is an everyday experience during uneventful situations and while waiting. Such situations are typically described as unpleasant since oneself becomes the focus of awareness, and the subjective duration expands. Self-control is an individual trait that helps to cope with unpleasant situations. Hardly any systematic studies exist on real wait...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: Chronic lower back pain is the most frequent medical problem and the condition with the most years lived with disability. A pragmatic RCT was performed to assess a new treatment, Medi-Taping, which aims at reducing complaints by treating pelvic obliquity with a combination of manual treatment of trigger points and kinesio taping. Method...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction Residency is a stressful phase associated with high prevalence of mental distress. Besides impaired personal health, mental distress in residents has an impact on the quality of patient care and produces economic costs. Therefore, there is demand for interventions that improve resident physicians’ mental health. The aim of the present...
Article
Full-text available
The minimal neural correlate of the conscious state, regardless of the neural activity correlated with the ever-changing contents of experience, has still not been identified. Different attempts have been made, mainly by comparing the normal waking state to seemingly unconscious states, such as deep sleep or general anesthesia. A more direct approa...
Chapter
1. Das Experiment von Benjamin Libet Was geschieht im Gehirn, wenn man eine Handlung ausführt? Um dieser Frage, und damit der Frage, ob das menschliche Handeln durch neuro-physiologische Prozesse determiniert ist, nachzugehen, kann man u.a. die elektrischen Aktivitäten der Hirnrinde mittels Elektroenzephalographie (EEG) über dem Schädel ableiten. S...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives Considerable evidence points to stress and health risks among students and teachers in modern schools. In recent years, mindfulness-based interventions have emerged as an answer to this growing strain. The present study implemented and evaluated a dual approach that introduced mindfulness simultaneously to students and teachers in three...
Article
Full-text available
During the observation of an ambiguous figure our perception alternates between mutually exclusive interpretations, although the stimulus itself remains unchanged. The rate of these endogenous reversals has been discussed as reflecting basic aspects of endogenous brain dynamics. Recent evidence indicates that extensive meditation practice evokes lo...
Poster
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Background Providing compassionate care can be challenging for palliative care practitioners (PCPs). An empirically grounded model describing the factors that contribute to preserve the balance between personal closeness and distance in the professional setting is still lacking. Objective To investigate which are the factors that help to regulat...
Article
Aim: We performed a pilot study in order to evaluate the feasibility and to estimate effect sizes of mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) in a sample of patients suffering from migraine. Method: Migraine patients (n = 62, mean age 44 years, 92% female) were randomly allocated to either MBSR or an active control intervention based on progres...
Article
Self-generated tones elicit smaller brain responses as compared to externally generated tones. This phenomenon known as sensory attenuation has been explained in terms of an internal forward model in which the brain predicts the upcoming events and thereby attenuates the sensory processing. Such prediction processes have been suggested to occur via...
Article
Assistenzärztinnen und Assistenzärzte gehören zu den belastetsten Berufsgruppen im Krankenhaus. Ein neues Kursprogramm, das zurzeit in Freiburg erprobt wird, zielt darauf ab, die Selbstfürsorge der jungen Ärzteschaft zu stärken. Mittels Achtsamkeitspraktiken und dem Zielhorizont der Muße üben sie sich darin, auch unter Zeitdruck nicht aus der Ruhe...
Article
Full-text available
Mind-wandering or daydreaming can be described as spontaneous thoughts that are independent of the task at hand and the current sensory information. Mindfulness, defined as the ability to focus on the present moment with an accepting attitude towards the present experience, is considered to be the opposite of mind-wandering. We aimed at assessing h...
Article
Full-text available
This study is based on the relationship between meditation, the present moment, and psychophysiology. We employed the metronome task to operationalize the extension of the present moment. A pre-post longitudinal study was conducted. The performance in the metronome task was compared before and after the interventions (meditation, story). The aim wa...
Article
Neuronal interactions coupled by phase synchronization have been studied in a wide range of frequency bands, but fluctuations below the delta frequency have often been neglected. In the present study, phase synchrony in slow cortical potentials (SCPs, 0.01–0.1 Hz) was examined during two different mental states; a resting state and a breath-focused...
Article
Full-text available
Mind-wandering or daydreaming can be described as spontaneous thoughts that are independent of the task at hand and the current sensory information. Mindfulness, defined as the ability to focus on the present moment with an accepting attitude towards the present experience, is considered to be the opposite of mind-wandering. We aimed at assessing h...
Article
Background: Distant intention research refers to experiments in which a distant interaction between two persons is assessed that precludes conventional communication. In these experiments the intention of one person is varied systematically while the effect of this variation is assessed in the remote other person. Aims: Our study aimed at improv...
Article
Full-text available
Feldenkrais 'Functional Integration' (FI) is a widely used type of body work with a focus on the continuous integration of body sensations and awareness with movement. The method is, amongst others, known for improving balance in aging populations, but also for its ability to relax muscles. With participants treated in the supine position FI is pot...
Conference Paper
Objective: Trauma therapists are exposed to high emotional stress. A growing number of studies suggest that compassion-oriented practices can foster resilience in healthcare professionals. This study aimed to explore the effects of a psychodynamic, compassion-oriented, trauma therapy program (PITT) on the resilience of trauma therapists. Methods:...
Article
While the contingent negative variation (CNV) has been the subject of extensive research over the last fifty years, the maximum duration during which such cortical negativity can be maintained has, to the best of our knowledge, never been systematically explored. Participants were presented with the classic S1-S2 paradigm task, where a warning stim...
Article
Full-text available
Background Maintaining a sense of self-care while providing patient centered care, can be difficult for practitioners in palliative medicine. We aimed to pilot an “on the job” mindfulness and compassion-oriented meditation training for interdisciplinary teams designed to reduce distress, foster resilience and strengthen a prosocial motivation in t...
Article
Full-text available
Feldenkrais ‘Functional Integration’ (FI) is a widely used type of body work with a focus on the continuous integration of body sensations and awareness with movement. The method is, amongst others, known for improving balance in aging populations, but also for its ability to relax muscles. With participants treated in the supine position FI is pot...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Maintaining a sense of self-care while providing patient centered care, can be difficult for practitioners in palliative medicine. We aimed to pilot an " on the job " mindfulness and compassion-oriented meditation training for interdisciplinary teams designed to reduce distress, foster resilience and strengthen a prosocial motivation in...
Article
Full-text available
Mindfulness meditators often show greater efficiency in resolving response conflicts than non-meditators. However, the neural mechanisms underlying the improved behavioral efficiency are unclear. Here, we investigated frontal theta dynamics—a neural mechanism involved in cognitive control processes—in long-term mindfulness meditators. The dynamics...
Article
Hintergrund: In dieser Anwendungsbeobachtung wird zum ersten Mal die Behandlung des Reizdarmsyndroms (RDS) mit einem homöopathisch-phytotherapeutischen Komplexpräparat beschrieben. Methodik: Ziel der 6-wöchigen Therapie mit dem Magen-Darm-Entoxin N® war die Reduzierung der RDS-Symptomatik sowie die Verbesserung der Lebensqualität. Zielkriterien war...
Article
Full-text available
The study investigated whether typical psychological, physiological, and neurophysiological changes from a single exercise are affected by one’s beliefs and expectations. Seventy-six participants were randomly assigned to four groups and saw different multimedia presentations suggesting that the subsequent exercise (moderate 30 min cycling) would r...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Research has demonstrated that short meditation training may yield higher pain tolerance in acute experimental pain. Our study aimed at examining underlying mechanisms of this alleged effect. In addition, placebo research has shown that higher pain tolerance is mediated via endogenous neuromodulators: experimental inhibition of opioid r...
Article
Full-text available
Research in social neuroscience provides increasing evidence that self and other are interconnected, both on a conceptual and on an affective representational level. Moreover, the ability to recognize the other as " like the self " is thought to be essential for social phenomena like empathy and compassion. Meditation practices such as loving-kindn...
Article
Full-text available
In this contribution it is shown that the practice of mindfulness, which becomes more and more popular, and the systemic approach share many similarities. Here a fruitful dialogue between these two worldviews will be presented that might in turn inspire each of the respective fields. Mindfulness is understood as an attitude with orientation towards...
Article
Hintergrund: Erkrankungen der Atemorgane treten mit steigendem Alter öfter auf, nehmen weltweit zu und sind häufige Ursachen für Morbidität und Mortalität. In dieser Pilotstudie wurde der Frage nachgegangen, ob eine einmalige 10-minütige Behandlung mit einer Körpertambura eine signifikante und effektive Verbesserung der Lungenfunktion von Patienten...
Chapter
The objective of this contribution is to conceptualize self-healing processes in a biosemiotic model. Thereby the main question is how beliefs, expectations, attributions, and meaning creating processes can result in physiological changes. In order to address these issues, we have to go beyond the predominant biophysical model of the medical scienc...
Article
Objectives: Fibromyalgia (FM) is a syndrome characterized by severe pain, fatigue and sleep disturbance. There is evidence of central hyper-responsiveness to sensory stimulation and impaired cardiovascular autonomic control. Laboratory investigations suggest that mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) may improve autonomic functioning in FM. Ho...
Article
Full-text available
Background Cardiovascular diseases are a main cause of mortality worldwide. Spa bathing and immersion in thermoneutral water (ITW) have a long history in the treatment of cardiovascular risk factors. Methods We conducted a three-arm parallel-group, randomized controlled study to investigate the effects of frequent ITW on moderately elevated bloo...
Article
The readiness potential is an ongoing negativity in the EEG preceding a self-initiated movement by approximately 1.5seconds. So far it has predominantly been interpreted as a preparatory signal with a causal link to the upcoming movement. Here a different hypothesis is suggested which we call the selective slow cortical potential sampling hypothesi...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: There is a research gap in studies that evaluate the effectiveness of a school-embedded mindfulness-based intervention for both students and teachers. To address this gap, the present pilot study reviews relevant literature and investigates whether students and teachers who participate in separate Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR...
Article
Full-text available
Background/objectives: ThetaHealing® (Vianna Stibal, Kalispell, MT) is a spiritual healing method in which the practitioner and client engage in joint meditations during several healing sessions. It is claimed that these meditation periods are characterized by a "theta state" in which the presence of theta-waves in the electroencephalograph (EEG)...
Article
Full-text available
Background: A pilot study of an 8-week mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) program on a sample of low back pain patients was conducted in order to assess the feasibility and effectiveness of the intervention as well as changes in an EEG pattern called thalamocortical dysrhythmia which is associated with chronic pain. Patients and methods:...
Article
Only a few studies have investigated the sense of time in experienced meditators. In the current case–control study, we investigated whether 20 practitioners in transcendental meditation (TM) showed differences in the perception of time as compared to 20 matched controls. Perception of time was assessed with a battery of psychophysical tasks includ...
Article
Full-text available
Recent research suggests that bodily signals and interoception are strongly related to our sense of time. Mindfulness meditators train to be aware of their body states and therefore could be more accurate at interval timing. In this study, n = 22 experienced mindfulness meditators and n = 22 matched controls performed both, an acoustic and a visual...
Article
Full-text available
Experienced meditators typically report that they experience time slowing down in meditation practice as well as in everyday life. Conceptually this phenomenon may be understood through functional states of mindfulness, i.e., by attention regulation, body awareness, emotion regulation, and enhanced memory. However, hardly any systematic empirical w...
Article
Full-text available
Wir berichten von einer Serie von Experimenten mit dem berühmten Libet-Paradigma zur Frage des freien Willens. Die klassischen, oft replizierten Befunde dieses experimentellen Paradigmas zeigen, wie das aus dem EEG-Signal extrahierte Bereitschaftspotential deutlich vor der bewussten Entscheidung, zu handeln, beginnt. Dies wird häufig als Beleg dafü...