Stefan Peiffer

Stefan Peiffer
University of Bayreuth · Bayreuth Center of Ecology and Environmental Research (BayCEER), Department of Hydrology

About

159
Publications
15,351
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4,155
Citations
Additional affiliations
August 2003 - March 2016
University of Bayreuth
Position
  • Head of Department

Publications

Publications (159)
Article
Full-text available
Microplastic (MP) particles are commonly found in freshwater environments such as rivers and lakes, negatively affecting aquatic organisms and potentially causing water quality issues. Understanding the transport and fate of MP particles in these environments is a key prerequisite to mitigate the problem. For standing water bodies (lakes, ponds) th...
Article
Bioavailability of arsenic (As) is strongly controlled by its partitioning in different soil constituents which alternatively determines its toxicity extent even though total As contents of soils might be comparable. Five soil samples with contrasting crop practices and physico-chemical nature were examined for As contents in different constituents...
Article
Full-text available
Understanding the controls on event-driven dissolved organic carbon (DOC) export is crucial as DOC is an important link between the terrestrial and the aquatic carbon cycles. We hypothesized that topography is a key driver of DOC export in headwater catchments because it influences hydrological connectivity, which can inhibit or facilitate DOC mobi...
Article
Full-text available
Dissolved organic matter (DOM) composition in streams reflects the dynamic interplay between DOM sources, mobilization mechanisms, and biogeochemical transformations within soils and receiving water bodies. The information regarding DOM sources being mobilized during baseflow can improve our ability to predict hydrological and biogeochemical respon...
Article
Full-text available
Schwertmannite (SHM) is a naturally occurring mineral that has been shown to effectively scavenge oxyanions from contaminated water. In this study, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray absorption spectroscopy techniques in combination with wet-chemical techniques were used to study the competitive sorption of Se(IV) and Se(VI) at pH 3....
Article
Oxygen is one of the most crucial elements on earth and equally affects life and inorganic redox processes. After its transition to water with moderate solubility and slow diffusion rates, most aquatic organisms depend on permanent renewal of dissolved oxygen (DO). Recharge of this pivotal aqueous gas may become hampered by anthropogenic and climat...
Article
Full-text available
The increasing use of plastic products and its inevitable decomposition after improper disposal has led to large numbers of nano- and microplastic in aqueous environments. There is currently a critical need to investigate the transport and retention mechanisms of nanoplastic particles in water-saturated porous media (e.g., aquifers or sediments) to...
Article
Laboratory studies on chemolithoautotrophic microbial denitrification coupled to pyrite oxidation at circumneutral pH yielded conflicting results. Some studies indicated that microbial oxidation of pyrite does occur, but several reports have shown that no microbial pyrite oxidation took place in experiments with pyrite as electron donor and nitrate...
Preprint
Full-text available
Understanding the controls on event-driven DOC export is crucial, as DOC is an important link between the terrestrial and the aquatic carbon cycles. We hypothesize that topography is a key driver of DOC export because it influences hydrologic connectivity, which can inhibit or facilitate DOC mobilization. To test this we studied the mechanisms cont...
Article
Unraveling the products of sulfidation of ferric (oxyhydr)oxides is of paramount importance for the understanding of key biogeochemical processes such as cryptic sulfur cycling or rapid formation of pyrite.
Article
Schwertmannite (SHM) is a naturally occurring mineral that has been shown to effectively scavenge oxyanions from contaminated water. In this study, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray absorption spectroscopy techniques in combination with wet-chemical techniques were used to study the competitive sorption of Se(IV) and Se(VI) at pH 3....
Article
Full-text available
Understanding the controls on event-driven dissolved organic carbon (DOC) export is crucial as DOC is an important link between the terrestrial and the aquatic carbon cycles. We hypothesized that topography is a key driver of DOC export in headwater catchments because it influences hydrological connectivity, which can inhibit or facilitate DOC mobi...
Article
Full-text available
The Fe(II) monosulfide mineral mackinawite (FeS) is an important phase in low-temperature iron and sulfur cycles, yet it is challenging to characterize since it often occurs in X-ray amorphous or nanoparticulate forms and is extremely sensitive to oxidation. Moreover, the electronic configuration of iron in mackinawite is still under debate. Mössba...
Article
The Fe(II) monosulfide mineral mackinawite (FeS) is an important phase in low-temperature iron and sulfur cycles, yet it is challenging to characterize since it often occurs in X-ray amorphous or nanoparticulate forms and is extremely sensitive to oxidation. Moreover, the electronic configuration of iron in mackinawite is still under debate. Mössba...
Article
When acidic groundwater flows into an aquatic system the sediment water interface (SWI) acts as a transition zone between the groundwater and lake water, and often exhibits strong physical and biogeochemical gradients. The fate of groundwater-borne solutes, such as Fe(II), is determined by the balance between the exposure time during transport acro...
Article
Full-text available
Biogeochemical reactions occur unevenly in space and time, but this heterogeneity is often simplified as a linear average due to sparse data, especially in subsurface environments where access is limited. For example, little is known about the spatial variability of groundwater denitrification, an important process in removing nitrate originating f...
Article
We compared the response at neutral pH of some denitrifiers to different electron donors such as reduced sulfur (pyrite, S(0), and marcasite) and reduced Fe. Chemolithoautotrophic oxidation of pyrite with nitrate as electron acceptor was not possible when the pyrite was in a pure crystalline form, whereas oxidation of synthesized FeS 2 of low cryst...
Article
Riparian wetlands as both hydrological and biogeochemical hot spots often have a major impact on the release of solutes from headwater catchments. Numerous studies give some evidence of a rather complex interplay of hydrological and biogeochemical processes that is still poorly understood. This study seeks to address this challenge using a multivar...
Article
Full-text available
Agricultural non-point source (NPS) pollution is a major concern for water quality management in the Soyang watershed in South Korea. Nutrients (phosphorus and nitrogen), organic matter, and sediment exports in streams were estimated in an agricultural catchment (Haean catchment) for two years. The stream water samples were taken in dry and rainy s...
Article
The formation of pyrite has been extensively studied because of its abundance in many anoxic environments. Yet, there is no consensus on the underlying pathways and kinetics of its formation. We studied the formation of pyrite during the reaction between reactive ferric hydroxides (goethite and lepidocrocite) and aqueous sulfide in an anoxic glove...
Article
Schwertmannite (SHM) is a powerful scavenger for As(III) leading to As(III)-enriched precipitates around acid mine drainage environments that may become exposed to aqueous Fe(II). In this study we have investigated the stability of pure SHM and SHM containing 0.92 wt% As(III) under Fe(II)aq-rich (0.4–1.0 mM) anoxic conditions using XRD, SEM, Mössba...
Conference Paper
The distribution of groundwater residence time in a catchment provides synoptic information about catchment functioning (e.g. nutrient retention and removal, hydrograph flashiness). In contrast with interpreted model results, which are often not directly comparable between studies, residence time distribution is a general output that could be used...
Article
Sediment processes in lakes may affect water chemistry through the internal loading of phosphorus, ammonia, and sulfides released under anoxic conditions. Lake Soyang is a deep warm monomictic reservoir with a dendritic shape, located in the Asian summer monsoon region, South Korea. During summer, the lake is stratified and receives a large nutrien...
Article
Predicting hydrological catchment behaviour based on measurable (and preferably widely available) catchment characteristics has been one of the main goals of hydrological modelling. Residence time distributions provide synoptic information about catchment functioning and can be useful metrics to predict their behaviours. Moreover, residence time di...
Chapter
Reductive dissolution of ferric (hydr)oxides is a major reaction pathway in anoxic environments and of high relevance in mineral weathering, element cycling, contaminant degradation, and geomicrobiology. Reductive dissolution is regarded the last step in a series of interfacial processes occurring at the surface of ferric minerals preceded by a one...
Article
We investigated the microbial community compositions in two sediment samples from the acidic (pH ∼3) and hypersaline (> 4.5% NaCl) surface waters which are widespread in Western Australia. In West Dalyup River, large amounts of NaCl, Fe(II) and sulfate are brought by the groundwater into the surface runoff. The presence of K-jarosite and schwertman...
Article
The reactivity of natural dissolved organic matter (DOM) towards sulfide and has not been well studied with regard to electron transfer, product formation and kinetics. We thus investigated the abiotic transformation of sulfide upon reaction with reduced and non-reduced Sigma Aldrich humic acid (HA), at pH 6 under anoxic conditions. Sulfide reacted...
Poster
Full-text available
The climate of South Korea is strongly influenced by the East Asian summer monsoon. It is hypothesized that the high precipitation regime of the summer monsoon causes significant changes in the hydrological behaviour of forested catchments, namely in water quantity, quality and flow paths. We conducted high frequency hydrometric, isotopic, hydroche...
Poster
Full-text available
The climate of South Korea is strongly influenced by the East Asian summer monsoon. It is hypothesized that the high precipitation regime of the summer monsoon causes significant changes in the hydrological behaviour of forested catchments, namely in water quantity, quality and flow paths. We conducted high frequency hydrometric, isotopic, hydroche...
Article
The reaction of ferric (hydr)oxides with dissolved sulphide does not lead to the instantaneous production of thermodynamically stable products but can induce a variety of mineral transformations including the formation of metastable intermediates. The importance of the various transformation pathways depends, among other factors, on the characteris...
Conference Paper
Observed sulfate reduction rates in freshwater wetlands or sediments were often too high to be sustained considering only inorganic sulfate pools. A sulfur recycling process involving the reaction of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) with organic matter has thus been suggested to replenish the oxidized sulfur pool. Nevertheless, studies on the kinetics and th...
Poster
The export of organic carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) from terrestrial to aquatic systems can occur in the form of dissolved organic C and N (DOC, DON) but also in the form of particulate organic C and N (POC, PON). High precipitation events induced by the monsoon can change the concentration of DOM and POM in runoff of forested catchments by soil eros...
Article
Effect of dissolved ferrous iron [Fe(II)aq = 0–1.0 mM] on stability of schwertmannite containing ≈40 wt% Fe(III) and 15 wt% SO4 2− [with and without 0.92 wt% sorbed As(III)] was investigated in anoxic alkaline conditions at pH 8 for 154 h. New product formation, sulfate, iron, and arsenic release kinetics were examined using diffractogram, microsco...
Article
Polysulphides are often referred to as key reactants in the sulphur cycle, especially during the interaction of ferric (hydr)oxides and sulphide, forming ferrous-sulphide minerals. Despite their potential relevance, the extent of polysulphide formation and its relevance for product formation pathways remains enigmatic. We applied cryogenic X-ray Ph...
Poster
In South Korea, water yield is an important aspect of the ecosystem services provided by the Soyang Reservoir to the population. Water yield of the Soyang Reservoir is tightly linked to water discharge of the forested catchments covering 85 per cent of the Soyang Watershed area. There is a lack of knowledge on the sources, paths and timing of water...
Article
Full-text available
Watershed-scale modeling can be a valuable tool to aid in quantification of water quality and yield; however, several challenges remain. In many watersheds, it is difficult to adequately quantify hydrologic partitioning. Data scarcity is prevalent, accuracy of spatially distributed meteorology is difficult to quantify, forest encroachment and land...
Article
As(III)-enriched mine discharge often drains through Fe(III)-mineral abundant land covers which makes the understanding of its fate and redox behaviour extremely important. We therefore conducted batch kinetic and equilibrium studies at pH 3.0±0.05 in anoxic media coupled with spectroscopic and microscopic examinations at variable conditions to und...
Article
Significant correlations between arsenic concentrations and those of iron and natural organic matter (NOM) have been found in run-off from wetlands. This has been suggested to be a result of mobilization of arsenic-NOM colloids. The aim of this study was therefore to elucidate the possible association of iron and arsenic with colloids in surface wa...
Article
Full-text available
Land use and climate change have long been implicated in modifying ecosystem services, such as water quality and water yield, biodiversity, and agricultural production. To account for future effects on ecosystem services, the integration of physical, biological, economic, and social data over several scales must be implemented to assess the effects...
Article
Full-text available
We present a novel approach for storing CO2 not only by hydrodynamic trapping within a reservoir but for converting it into the geochemically more stable form of calcite. The combination of CO2 storage and geothermal energy production is generally feasible because candidate sites are available, anhydrite is transformable into calcite and alkalinity...
Article
Full-text available
Assessing the potential for transfer of pollutants and nutrients across catchments is of primary importance under changing land use and climate. Over the past decade the connectivity/disconnectivity dynamic of a catchment has been related to its potential to export material; however, we continue to use multiple definitions of connectivity, and most...
Article
Exchange of groundwater and lake water with typically quite different chemical composition is an important driver for biogeochemical processes at the groundwater-lake interface, which can affect the water quality of lakes. This is of particular relevance in mine lakes where anoxic and slightly acidic groundwater mixes with oxic and acidic lake wate...
Article
Full-text available
Concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in runoff from catchments are often subject to substantial short-term variations. The aim of this study was to identify the compartmental sources of DOC in a forested catchment and the causes for short-term variations in runoff. Furthermore, we investigated the implication of short-term variations fo...
Poster
Water discharge is an important aspect of the ecosystem services provided by the Soyang Lake to the South Korean population. The water discharge of the lake is tightly linked to the water discharge of the forested catchments covering 85% of the Soyang Watershed area. The general objective of this project is to quantify the annual variability of wat...
Poster
The provision of water from the Soyang Reservoir is a highly valued ecosystem service by a significant percentage of the South Korean population. In order to maintain the benefits obtained from this service, sufficient levels of water quality and water yield must be sustained. Nutrient elements have a strong influence on the Reservoir water quality...
Article
Full-text available
[1] Wetlands provide important ecohydrological services by regulating fluxes of nutrients and pollutants to receiving waters, which can in turn mitigate adverse effects on water quality. Turnover of redox-sensitive solutes in wetlands has been shown to take place in distinct spatial and temporal patterns, commonly referred to as hot spots and hot m...
Article
Full-text available
Assessing the potential for transfer or export of biogeochemicals or pollutants from catchments is of primary importance under changing land use and climatic conditions. Over the past decade the connectivity/disconnectivity dynamic of a catchment has been related to its potential to export material, however we continue to use multiple definitions o...
Article
Full-text available
Concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in runoff from catchments are often subject to substantial short-term variations. The aim of this study was to identify the compartmental sources of DOC in a forested catchment and the causes for short-term variations in runoff. Furthermore, we investigated the implication of short-term variations fo...
Article
Arsenic mobility around mining districts is primarily controlled by distribution and abundance of iron minerals. Arsenite-rich mine waters although frequently reported, the interaction of which with schwertmannite is poorly understood despite its high toxicity and mobility. We examined three synthetic schwertmannite types distinguished by surface a...
Conference Paper
Mössbauer spectroscopy has been applied to study mineral transformation during the interaction between lepidocrocite and dissolved sulphide with two different initial concentration ratios. Synthetic lepidocrocite enriched with the Mössbauer sensitive isotope Fe-57 was reacted with dissolved sulphide at neutral pH in an anoxic glove box, the initial...
Article
Ecosystem management with respect to sufficient water yield, a quality water supply, habitat and biodiversity conservation, and climate change effects requires substantial observational data at a range of scales. Complex interactions of local physical processes oftentimes vary over space and time, particularly in locations with extreme meteorologica...
Article
The interaction between S(-II) and ferric oxides exerts a major control for the sulphur and iron cycle and in particular for the carbon and electron flow in many aquatic systems. It is regarded to be a key reaction leading ultimately to pyrite formation, the pathways still remaining unresolved. We have studied the reaction between lepidocrocite (γ-...
Article
Schwertmannite (SHM) precipitated from acid mine drainage often contains high levels of As(III). The present study is aimed at understanding the fate of As(III) preadsorbed to bio-synthesized schwertmannite (0.92 wt% As(III)) during transformation, compared with SHM devoid of As(III). Ageing experiments were conducted at room temperature in control...
Conference Paper
Ecosystem management with respect to sufficient water yield, a quality water supply, habitat and biodiversity conservation, and climate change effects requires substantial observational data at a range of scales. Complex interactions of local physical processes oftentimes vary over space and time, particularly in locations with extreme meteorologic...
Article
Full-text available
Wetlands provide important ecohydrological services by regulating fluxes of nutrients and pollutants to receiving waters, which can in turn mitigate adverse effects on water quality. Turnover of redox-sensitive solutes in wetlands has been shown to take place in distinct spatial and temporal patterns, commonly referred to as hot spots and hot momen...
Article
High As(III) enrichment in schwertmannite precipitated acid mine impacted areas is a major concern considering its acute toxicity and mobility where the current knowledge of their interaction, redox conditions and schwertmannite metastability is inadequate. In this study we have investigated such aspects through batch isotherm, microscopic and spec...
Article
Land use and climate change have been implicated in reduced ecosystem services (ie: high quality water yield, biodiversity, and agricultural yield. The prediction of ecosystem services expected under future land use decisions and changing climate conditions has become increasingly important. Complex policy and management decisions require the integ...
Article
Hydrogeochemistry and distribution of Pb, As, Cd, Sn and Hg in soils (n=53), sediments (n=42) and surface waters (n=51) of the tropical Terengganu River basin, northeast coast of Peninsular Malaysia, were investigated. The order of abundance of the elements in soils followed granite>metasedimentary>Quaternary deposit≫volcanic with slight enrichment...
Article
The global rise in atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations calls for practicable solutions to capture CO2. In this study, a mineral carbonation process was applied in which CO2 reacts with alkaline lignite ash and forms stable carbonate solids. In comparison to previous studies, the assays were conducted at low temperatures and pressures and unde...
Article
The uptake of CO2 by CaO and MgO in aqueous solution has been studied in batch experiments at different temperatures (15–75 °C), stirring rates (300–600 rpm) and solid liquid ratios (0.0125–0.125 mol L⁻¹) in order to identify the kinetic controls and limitations. Both minerals are constituents in many combustion residues and their carbonation is co...
Conference Paper
Land use and climate change have recently been implicated in reduced ecosystem services (ie: high quality water yield, biodiversity, agricultural and forest products). Therefore, the prediction of ecosystem services expected under future land use decisions and changing climate conditions has become increasingly important. Complex policy and managem...
Conference Paper
Monsoon-driven Total Head and Temperature Variations at the Groundwater-Surface Water Interface – Implications for Biogeochemical Processes