Stefan L. Luxembourg

Stefan L. Luxembourg
TNO | tno · Energy Transition

PhD

About

37
Publications
5,063
Reads
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1,613
Citations
Citations since 2017
6 Research Items
370 Citations
20172018201920202021202220230204060
20172018201920202021202220230204060
20172018201920202021202220230204060
20172018201920202021202220230204060

Publications

Publications (37)
Conference Paper
This paper models and compares the energy yield to be expected from bifacial 2-terminal (2T) and 4-terminal (4T) hybrid perovskite/crystalline silicon tandem modules. Following the work by Asadpour et al. the comparison includes 2T tandem cells employing a thick perovskite absorber layer with standard band gap, which in monofacial operation have si...
Conference Paper
The combination of a semi-transparent, wide band gap perovskite solar cell (ST PSC) with a crystalline silicon (c-Si) bottom cell in a tandem configuration is considered a promising approach to enhance solar cell efficiencies over the current single junction c-Si cell efficiencies. In this study, we use a simple model based on experimental EQEs and...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper we analyze and model perovskite/c-Si tandem cells with front and rear polySi passivated contacts on the bottom cell. A high-efficiency tandem approach will benefit from the high Voc potential of a c-Si bottom cell with front and rear polySi passivated contacts while the combination with a high band gap, semi-transparent, perovskite to...
Article
We demonstrate photovoltaic modules with a bright green color based on silicon heterojunction solar cells integrated with arrays of light scattering dielectric nanoscatterers. Dense arrays of crystalline silicon nanocylinders, 100–120 nm wide, 240 nm tall, and 325 nm pitch, are made onto module cover slides using substrate-conformal soft-imprint li...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
To reduce cell-to-module (CtM) losses for aesthetically appreciated all-black modules we applied a black powder coating with low infrared absorption to standard back foils used in PV modules. Upon the application of such powder coating the IR reflective properties of the underlying substrate are largely preserved. For Cu foil substrates approximate...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
We present a novel module design to increase the power output of bifacial modules without compromising the increased energy yield due to the bifaciality. This innovation includes a highly reflective interlayer between and around the bifacial solar cells and laminated between the front and rear encapsulant. Although bifacial solar cells in modules w...
Article
Full-text available
One of the important obstacles on the way to application of Si nanocrystals for development of practical devices is their typically low emissivity. In this study we explore the limits of external quantum yield of photoluminescence of solid-state dispersions of Si nanocrystals in SiO2. By making use of a low-temperature hydrogen passivation treatmen...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Silicon nanocrystals (Si NCs) in a matrix of SiO 2 were applied to the front of a p-type c-Si solar cell as down-shifter. The down-shifting action of the Si NCs was confirmed from the analysis of spectral response measurements with the help of ray tracing simulations. Ray tracing simulations were performed to simulate the application of a Si NC lay...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
At present, research in c-Si solar cells is focused on increasing the efficiency while reducing the amount of used materials. Since silicon wafer and metal contribute up to 50% to the cost of a module, it is crucial to reduce the amount of these materials to fabricate cost-effective modules. In particular, for reducing the consumption of metal, the...
Article
A series of multilayer structures consisting of alternating layers of hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) and amorphous silicon nitride (a-SiNx:H) was fabricated using plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. The overall thickness and a-Si:H-to-a-SiNx:H ratio was kept constant for the different multilayer samples fabricated. A blue shift of t...
Article
Microscope mode mass spectrometric imaging is crucially dependent on the availability of a high- resolution, position-resolved time-of-flight detector. Here, a new detection method for microscope mode imaging mass spectrometry is presented. A delay-line detector has been used for the first time as a position-sensitive detector in imaging mass spect...
Article
A concept of a modulated one-dimensional photonic-crystal (PC) structure is introduced as a back reflector for thin-film solar cells. The structure comprises two PC parts, each consisting of layers of different thicknesses. Using layers of amorphous silicon and amorphous silicon nitride a reflectance close to 100% is achieved over a broad wavelengt...
Article
Silicon nitride (SiNx) is a material with many applications and can be deposited with various deposition techniques. Series of SiNx films were deposited with HWCVD, RF PECVD, MW PECVD and LF PECVD. The atomic densities are quantified using RBS and ERD. The influence of the atomic densities on the Si–N and Si–Si bond structure is studied. The densit...
Article
Advanced light management in thin-film solar cells is important in order to improve the photo-current and, thus, to raise up the conversion efficiencies of the solar cells. In this article two types of periodic structures ¡V one-dimensional diffraction gratings and photonic crystals,are analyzed in the direction of showing their potential for impro...
Article
Full-text available
Mass spectrometry based proteomics is one of the scientific domains in which experiments produce a large amount of data that need special environments to interpret the results. Without the use of suitable tools and strategies, the transformation of the large data sets into information is not easily achievable. Therefore, in the context of the virtu...
Article
Full-text available
Imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) allows the direct investigation of both the identity and the spatial distribution of the molecular content directly in tissue sections, single cells and many other biological surfaces. In this protocol, we present the steps required to retrieve the molecular information from tissue sections using matrix-enhanced (ME)...
Article
The combination of microscope mode matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) with protein identification methodology: the molecular scanner, was explored. The molecular scanner approach provides improvement of sensitivity of detection and identification of high-mass proteins in microscope mode IMS. The meth...
Article
Secondary ion mass spectrometry is commonly used to study many different types of complex surfaces. Yet, compared with MALDI and ESI–MS, SIMS has not made a significant impact in biological or biomedical research. The key features of the technique, namely high spatial resolution, high detection efficiency of ions spanning a wide m/z range, surface...
Article
Matrix-enhanced SIMS and metal-assisted SIMS are successfully employed to increase the organic ion yield in SIMS. In this study we compare kinetic energy distributions obtained for the SIMS, ME-SIMS and MetA-SIMS sputtering of molecular ions. In comparison to the SIMS kinetic energy distributions, those obtained for ME-SIMS display larger energy de...
Article
Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS)1 is an established technique for the analysis of biological macromolecules. Its relative insensitivity to pollutants makes MALDI-MS very suitable for the direct analysis of biological samples. As such, it has facilitated great advances in the field of biomolecular imaging mass...
Article
Imaging mass spectrometry provides both chemical information and the spatial distribution of each analyte detected. Here it is demonstrated how imaging mass spectrometry of tissue at subcellular resolution can be achieved by combining the high spatial resolution of secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) with the sample preparation protocols of matr...
Article
For the first time macromolecular ion microscope images have been recorded using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS). Single-shot, mass-resolved images of the spatial distributions of intact peptide and protein ions over an area of 200 microm in diameter were obtained in less than 1 ms at a repetition rate of 12...
Article
It is well known in secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) that sample topography leads to decreased mass resolution. Specifically, the ion's time of flight is dependent on where it was generated. Here, using matrix-enhanced SIMS, it is demonstrated that, in addition to increasing the yield of intact pseudomolecular ions, the matrix allows the user...
Article
Intense intact molecular ion signals have been obtained from phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, and phosphatidyiinositol using matrix-enhanced secondary ion mass spectrometry (ME-SIMS). It was found that the high-mass (m/z >500) regions of the ME-SIMS spectra closely resembled those obtained using matrix-assisted l...
Article
There is interest in and significant uncertainty about the emissions of oxygenated volatile organic compounds (oxVOCs) from vegetation to the atmosphere. Here, we measured the fluxes of selected oxVOCs from an alfalfa field, before, during, and after cutting, using a combination of disjunct eddy covariance and proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrom...
Article
Full-text available
A new approach for eddy covariance flux measurements is developed and applied for trace gas fluxes in the atmospheric surface layer. In disjunct eddy covariance technique, quick samples with a relatively long time interval between them are taken instead of continuously sampling air. This subset of the time series together with vertical wind velocit...
Article
PTR-MS (proton transfer reaction–mass spectrometry) is a chemical ionization mass spectrometry technique that uses proton transfer reactions with H3O+ ions for on-line measurements of organic trace gases in air. The instrument is calibrated for benzene and toluene, and the humidity dependence is investigated. The observed humidity dependence is exp...
Article
It is well known in secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) that sample topography leads to decreased mass resolution. Specifically, the ion's time of flight is dependent on where it was generated. Here, using matrix-enhanced SIMS, it is demonstrated that, in addition to increasing the yield of intact pseudomolecular ions, the matrix allows the user...
Article
Full-text available
Now, that mass spectrometry (MS) has been established as the analytical tool for the analysis of proteins a new challenge awaits: the development of spatial resolved mass spectrometry directly on biological tissue and cells at single cell level or beyond. The desire to study the complexity of biological systems and their diseased states requires hi...

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