Stefan Leis

Stefan Leis
Paracelsus Medical University Salzburg · University Clinic of Neurology

About

49
Publications
5,046
Reads
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835
Citations
Citations since 2016
17 Research Items
334 Citations
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20162017201820192020202120220204060
20162017201820192020202120220204060
20162017201820192020202120220204060

Publications

Publications (49)
Article
Full-text available
In this narrative review, we focus on the role of quantitative EEG technology in the diagnosis and prognosis of patients with unresponsive wakefulness syndrome and minimally conscious state. This paper is divided into two main parts, i.e., diagnosis and prognosis, each consisting of three subsections, namely, (i) resting-state EEG, including spectr...
Article
Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) is a cytokine used in pharmaceutical preparations for the treatment of chemotherapy-induced neutropenia. Evidence from experimental studies indicates that G-CSF exerts relevant activities in the central nervous system (CNS) in particular after lesions. In acute, subacute, and chronic CNS lesions, G-CSF...
Article
Full-text available
Dysphagia after stroke impacts quality of life and is a risk factor for respiratory infections. Patients frequently require prophylactic measures including nasogastric tube or percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy. Until recently, therapy for dysphagia was limited to training with a speech and language specialist. Intraluminal pharyngeal electrical s...
Article
Full-text available
Zusammenfassung Migräne ist eine weltweit sehr häufige Erkrankung, die zu einer erheblichen Beeinträchtigung der Lebensqualität Betroffener führen kann. Bereits zu Beginn der Migräneattacke konnte eine Aktivierung des Hypothalamus gezeigt werden. Ein wesentlicher Aspekt ist dann die nachfolgende Aktivierung des trigeminovaskulären Systems. Hier spi...
Article
Full-text available
Background: The increasing significance of didactic aspects in medical education has also led to the development of special postgraduate programs. Completion rates represent an important outcome criterion for these programs of study. Up to today, detailed studies on what factors influence these completion rates have been lacking. Methods: Within th...
Article
Full-text available
Aim: Prevalence and incidence of spinal cord injury (SCI) are low. However, sample sizes have not been systematically examined yet, although this might represent useful information for study planning and power considerations. Therefore, our objective was to determine the median sample size in clinical trials on SCI individuals. Moreover, within sma...
Article
Full-text available
Brain computer interfaces (BCIs) are thought to revolutionize rehabilitation after SCI, e.g., by controlling neuroprostheses, exoskeletons, functional electrical stimulation, or a combination of these components. However, most BCI research was performed in healthy volunteers and it is unknown whether these results can be translated to patients with...
Poster
Full-text available
The literature search identified 57 studies, 39 explicitly for pain conditions listed in Table 1. The clinical trials observed a moderate evidence that the therapeutically use of left/right judgement and facial recognition leads to a reduction of pain and an increase in activity. This was shown in different chronic pain conditions like complex regi...
Article
Antibodies are an integral biomedical tool, not only for research but also as therapeutic agents. However, progress can only be made with sensitive and specific antibodies. The regulatory (neuro)peptide galanin and its three endogenous receptors (GAL1-3-R) are widely distributed in the central and peripheral nervous systems, and in peripheral non-n...
Article
Full-text available
Spinal cord injury (SCI) leads to severe chronic disability, but also to secondary adaptive changes upstream to the injury in the brain which are most likely induced due to the lack of afferent information. These neuroplastic changes are a potential target for innovative therapies such as neuroprostheses, e.g., by stimulation in order to evoke sens...
Article
Full-text available
In rehabilitation of patients with spinal cord injury (SCI), imagination of movement is a candidate tool to promote long-term recovery or to control futuristic neuroprostheses. However, little is known about the ability of patients with spinal cord injury to perform this task. It is likely that without the ability to effectively perform the movemen...
Article
Full-text available
Recent advances in neuroprostheses provide us with promising ideas of how to improve the quality of life in people suffering from impaired motor functioning of upper and lower limbs. Especially for patients after spinal cord injury (SCI), futuristic devices that are controlled by thought via brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) might be of tremendous h...
Article
Full-text available
Background Lack of timely recognition and neuroimaging may be a barrier to reperfusion efforts in acute spinal cord infarction. Methods We performed a retrospective study of patients diagnosed with acute non-surgical spinal cord infarction at our tertiary academic center from 2001 to 2015. We studied parameters associated with time from symptom on...
Article
Spinal cord infarction (SCI) is a rare but disabling disorder caused by a wide spectrum of conditions. Given the lack of randomized-controlled trials, contemporary treatment concepts are adapted from guidelines for cerebral ischemia, atherosclerotic vascular disease, and acute traumatic spinal cord injury. In addition, patients with SCI are at risk...
Article
Study design: Topical review of the literature. Objective: The objective of this review article was to assess indications and usefulness of various neurophysiological techniques in diagnosis and management of cervical spondylogenic myelopathy (CSM). Methods: The MEDLINE, accessed by Pubmed and EMBASE electronic databases, was searched using th...
Article
Background Crohn's disease (CD) is a painful chronic inflammatory bowel disease. It primarily affects terminal ileum, but the involvement of large and small intestines or extraintestinal manifestations is very common. CD may go along with neurogenic inflammation, mediated by substance P and CGRP, which are also key players in pain transmission. Thi...
Article
Full-text available
Study design: Case report. Objective: Reveal the evolution of the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) pattern in a patient with a posterior spinal artery infarction, which belongs to a subgroup of spinal cord ischemia syndromes and presents a rare cause of spinal cord injury. Our report underlines that diagnosis of spinal cord ischemia and thus cli...
Article
Full-text available
Past evidence has shown that invasive and non-invasive brain stimulation may be effective for relieving central pain. To perform a topical review of the literature on brain neurostimulation techniques in patients with chronic neuropathic pain due to traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) and to assess the current evidence for their therapeutic efficacy...
Article
Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a condition that is characterized by severe pain and exaggerated neurogenic inflammation, which may develop after injury or surgery. Neurogenic inflammation is mediated by neuropeptides, such as calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and substance P (SP) that are released from nociceptors. Genetic factors ma...
Article
The endogenous peptide bradykinin (BK) is an inflammatory mediator that induces nociceptor activation and sensitization as well as protein extravasation and vasodilation. To test the hypothesis if sympathectomy affects BK-induced inflammation in humans. Dermal microdialysis was employed on the volar forearm in 10 patients (21-41 years) with regiona...
Article
Fragestellung: Der M. Crohn ist eine schmerzhafte entzundliche Darmerkrankung. Es handelt sich um eine komplexe multifaktorielle Erkrankung, fur die eine genetische Pradisposition gesichert ist. Verglichen mit Patienten, die sich einem ahnlich schweren abdominellen Eingriff unterzogen, konnte bei Crohn Patienten ein erhohter intraoperativer Analget...
Article
Crohn's disease (CD) is a painful inflammatory bowel disease with complex multigenic inheritance. Suggested on the basis of a few isolated reports CD patients require significantly higher post operative opioid doses than patients undergoing comparable severe abdominal surgery. Crohn's disease therefore may be a suitable model for the identification...
Article
In a pilot study we found a correlation of the clinical outcome with adhesion molecule (AM) concentrations in ventricular cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) but not in serum in patients with intracerebral haemorrhage. We now determined the time course of AM concentration in CSF and serum after basal ganglia haemorrhage (BGH) in order to further uncover path...
Article
colon; Corticosteroid myopathy is a severe side effect of corticosteroid application. Although the risk usually increases with drug dosage, even a single dose can lead to substantial muscular damage. Usually the tissue recovers over time after discontinuation of the responsible drug. We report local corticosteroid myopathy in a patient who had been...
Article
The neutral endopeptidase (NEP) is important for calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP) degradation, while the role of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) remains unclear. By using dermal microdialysis we explored the effect of phosphoramidon (NEP blocker), captopril (ACE blocker) and a mixture of both drugs on the intensity of electrically-induced...
Article
Neutral endopeptidase (NEP) and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) are involved in neuropeptide degradation and may modulate neurogenic inflammation. We therefore explored the effect of specific blockers of NEP and ACE on the intensity of neurogenic inflammation. We investigated eight subjects on three occasions. Two pairs of microdialysis fibers...
Article
Dermal microdialysis might be a promising tool to investigate properties of sympathetic neurons in the skin as investigation of peripheral noradrenergic neurons in humans usually relies on highly variable vasoconstrictor reflexes or on indirect measurements like skin temperature recordings. To evaluate this technique, 21 experiments were performed...
Article
Exaggerated neurogenic inflammation has been recognized to be one reason for many CRPS symptoms. Since angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) is a key enzyme for the termination of neurogenic inflammation, it has been selected as a candidate gene for CRPS predisposition. A previous report of an insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism in intron 16 within...
Article
Full-text available
In healthy volunteers, flare responses induced by norepinephrine (NE) iontophoresis have been observed. However, as NE iontophoresis is a combined electrical and chemical stimulus axon, reflexes cannot be directly linked to pharmocological activity of NE. Different concentrations of NE, clonidine (CL), and phenylephrine (PE) (NE: 10(-10)-10(-3) M;...
Article
Pain, edema, increased skin temperature, reddening and trophic changes characterize complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS). Recently, we have been able to show facilitated neurogenic inflammation on the affected limb. In the current study unaffected limbs were examined after resolution of the CRPS symptoms to assess possible generalized changes pred...
Article
Pain, mechanical hyperalgesia, edema, increased skin temperature, and skin reddening are characteristic symptoms of acute complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS). We have recently demonstrated facilitated neurogenic inflammation on the affected limb. To further elucidate the underlying mechanisms, exogenous substance P (SP) in ascending concentration...
Article
Untreated complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) may progress from acute stages with increased hair and nail growth in the affected limb to chronic stages with atrophy of the skin, muscles and bones. The aim of this study was to investigate whether tissue hypoxia could be one mechanism responsible for this late CRPS symptoms. Nineteen patients with...
Article
Full-text available
Intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH) accounts for approximately 10% of strokes and is a life threatening condition with a 30 day mortality rate of about 45%.1 The adhesion molecules intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) are proinflammatory parameters for the activation of the immune system.2,3 They hav...
Article
Hintergrund: Die nichtinvasive positive Druckbeatmung (NPPV) stellt eine Alternative sowohl zur primären endotrachealen Intubation bei chronischen Lungenerkrankungen und bei neuromuskulären Erkrankungen als auch zur Beatmungsentwöhnung (Weaning) dar. Bislang liegen wenige Erfahrungen über die Anwendung in der neurologischen Intensivmedizin vor. Pat...
Article
Background: NPPV is an alternative to endotracheal intubation in patients with neuromuscular disorders, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and weaning failure. So far there is only limited experience of NPPV in neurological intensive care units (NICUs). Patients and method: We retrospectively analysed the frequency and the efficacy of NPPV on ou...
Article
Monitoring of the basilar artery (BA) is difficult and has been sparsely performed. The aim of this study was to present physiological data of functional transcranial Doppler sonography (TCD) of the BA during caloric vestibular stimulation in healthy volunteers. TCD of the BA was performed in 26 healthy volunteers (14 women, 12 men, age 25.1+/-3 ye...

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Project (1)
Project
Laterality and facial emotion recognition in chronic headache sufferers