Stefan Krakowiak

Stefan Krakowiak
Gdansk University of Technology · Department of Electrochemistry, Corrosion and Materials Engineering

Professor

About

46
Publications
30,771
Reads
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689
Citations
Additional affiliations
January 1988 - present
Gdansk University of Technology
Position
  • Professor (Associate)
Description
  • Corrosion, corrosion inhibitors, coatings, stainless steel, corrosion monitoring, electrochemical methods of corrosion evaluation;

Publications

Publications (46)
Article
Full-text available
A study was carried out to select the appropriate coatings for corrosion protection of the spiral classifier working at KGHM Polska Miedź S.A. Ore Concentration Plant. The abrasion resistance of selected protective coatings and wear-resistant linings was investigated using a DT-523 rotary abrasion tester with Taber CS-10 rubber abrasive discs. The...
Article
Various bee products were found to be efficient corrosion inhibitors of aluminium in different environments. In particular, bee pollen was found to be highly effective in alkaline electrolytes, yet its highly complex composition and possible synergistic interactions hinder determination of the compounds acting as active corrosion inhibitors. The ma...
Article
Full-text available
The efficiency of AA5754 aluminium alloy corrosion inhibition achieved with maleic, malic, succinic, tartaric, citric, tricarballylic acids and serine in alkaline environment (pH 11) was examined. Selected corrosion inhibitors are characterized by different numbers and distribution of carbonyl and hydroxyl groups within their molecules. We have pro...
Article
This paper presents problems associated with corrosion of steel stacks and changes in philosophy of corrosion protection when implemented into flue gas desulphurization systems. In-situ tests were taken by means of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy at the stack which discharges flue gas before wet lime/limestone desulphurization. A very quick...
Article
A novel approach is proposed for constructing the adsorption isotherm in corrosion studies, based on a well-known interaction between citric acid and aluminium in alkaline electrolytes. Our approach utilizes the instantaneous impedance measurements via Dynamic Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy in galvanostatic mode (g-DEIS). Unlike other commo...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
System presentation and examples of utilization of XPS analysis in corrosion studies
Article
Full-text available
The microstructure and corrosion behavior of carbon steel (CSA516) and ferritic (SS410) and austenitic (SS304L) stainless steels were studied and compared. Corrosion tests were carried out in 0.5M NaCl solutions. Rates of corrosion were monitored based on weight loss, Tafel extrapolation and linear polarization resistance (LPR) methods. Rates of co...
Poster
Full-text available
Aluminium has a wide application potential and a major restriction to use it in alkaline environments is its accelerated corrosion, where harmful effect of hydroxyl ions cause dissolution of the protective passive film. Aluminum corrosion in aqueous alkaline environments depends on OH¯ and Al(OH)4¯ ion concentration in the outer Helmholtz layer. Co...
Article
The purpose of this investigation was to conduct the failure analysis of a water-supply system made from zinc-coated steel. The observed corrosion process had an intense and complex character. The brownish deposits and perforations were present after 2-3 years of exploitation. The electrochemical study based on the Tafel polarization, corrosion pot...
Article
Full-text available
This paper presents results of failure analysis study to characterize the corrosion damage that occurred in the water supply system in Krakow. This analysis includes: electrochemical noise, linear polarization and resistometric measurements. Water aggressiveness of four water intakes was defined using Langelier and Ryznar indices. Results from this...
Article
Full-text available
Case study of corrosion failure of urban water supply system caused by the harmful effects of stray currents was presented. The failure occurred at a site distant from the sources of these currents namely the tramway and railway traction systems. Diagnosis revealed the stray currents flow to pipeline over a remote distance of 800 ÷ 1,000 meters fro...
Article
Full-text available
Case study of corrosion failure of urban water supply system caused by environmental factors was presented. Nowadays corrosion monitoring of water distribution systems is an object of major concern. There is possibility of application broad range of techniques like gravimetric and electrochemical. Both kinds of techniques can be applied in laborato...
Article
Full-text available
The study presents a research capabilities of Dynamic Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (DEIS) as a tool used for instantaneous on-line monitoring of corrosion processes on the example of AA 7075 aluminum alloy. A borate buffer with admixed chloride ions in a quantity ranging from 0.05 to 25 mM was used to represent different types of corrosio...
Article
Full-text available
The paper presents results of the expertise performed to identify the causes of corrosion of water container for storage of hot water, which is used to production of beer in the brewery. The container was affected by corrosion within a very short time of exploitation, which has led it to deep perforation. During the exploitation of the container si...
Article
Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to examine the passive layer on 1050A aluminium alloy in non-stationary conditions of linearly raised and lowered temperatures by means of dynamic electrochemistry impedance spectroscopy (DEIS). Design/methodology/approach - The oxide passive layer on aluminium was examined using DEIS under non-stationary co...
Article
Full-text available
The potentiodynamic and acoustic emission studies were carried out in a typical three-electrode electrochemical cell. The working electrode was prepared from aluminum alloy 1050A. Cyclic polarization and acoustic emission investigations of pitting corrosion were carried out simultaneously. On the basis of acoustic and potentiodynamic (cyclic polari...
Article
Results of field and laboratory investigations of organic linings have been presented. The linings are used to corrosion protection of inner part of flue gas desulphurization units in clean gas moisture area condensation. Two vinylester coatings have been investigated. The coatings had different filler, one of them was in the form of flakes while t...
Article
Results of electrochemical measurements of 1.4301 stainless steel in chloride ion containing environment have been presented. Surface of investigated stainless steel was chemically treated before investigations in several ways. Resistance to pitting corrosion of as received, passivated and etched steel has been compared. Increase in resistance to p...
Article
Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to present the investigation of aluminum alloy by means of dynamic electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (DEIS), which is simultaneous method of AC impedance and DC polarization measurements. Design/methodology/approach - A method of DEIS has been applied. Changes in equivalent circuit (EC) parameters versus...
Article
The measurements of charge space capacity versus potential have been carried out on passive nickel electrode. The Mott-Schottky relationship was obtained for different measurement frequencies. The shape of this characteristic depends on selection of the measurement frequency. Due to that fact, the accounted defect concentration depends on frequency...
Article
The results of impedance measurements on stainless steel 304L by classical and dynamic electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (DEIS) have been presented. The investigation was focused on a transition of steel from passive state to the initial stage of pit formation. Based on the evolution of electrical parameters of the equivalent circuit it has be...
Article
A metastable pitting corrosion impedance investigation has been performed. The shape of the de current is connected with the shape of the impedance diagram. The corrosion rate inside an active pit is charge transfer controlled. The active surface area expansion is proportional to the double layer capacity changes. Changes of the electrolyte resista...
Article
Impedance measurements have been performed in chronoamperometric conditions and an impedance time diagram has been obtained. The charge transfer resistance and electrode capacitance describing initiation and growth of corrosion pits as a function of time have been determined. The usefulness of dynamic electrochemical impedance spectroscopy in pitti...
Article
Pitting corrosion investigations of 304L stainless steel in 0.5 M NaCl have been performed by means of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) under linear potential change conditions. The general electric equivalent circuit has been determined in a wide range of potentials, covering the passive state, the metastable development of pits and sp...
Article
Measurements of pitting corrosion by potentiodynamic method and also by acoustic emission technique were carried out simultaneously. Cumulative distribution function of pitting corrosion (CDFP) occurrence was determined based on the results of potentiodynamic measurements. Independently cumulative distribution function of acoustic events (CDFAE) wa...
Article
The results have been presented of electrochemical measurements of conducting coatings, based on the mixing of pigmentary carbon in a coating polymer matrix. On the basis of impedance measurements electrochemical parameters of conducting coatings have been calculated. Simultaneously electric and electrochemical parameters have been determined of in...
Article
Full-text available
Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) investigations of a bromobutyl rubber lining were performed under field conditions. The electric capacitance of the lining was determined to be the best indication of the condition of the corrosion protective, coating. The method of determination of moisture content is based on the Brasher-Kingsbury equa...
Article
Impedance measurements allow early evaluation of the protective properties of paint coatings and linings. They are applied for comparison of coatings, monitoring of their properties and determination of the protection mechanism. This methodology is being used more and more frequently in laboratory investigations. On site studies are more difficult...
Article
Heat exchanger tubes were locally heavily damaged by desalted crude forming a shell side stream under the pressure of 2.6 MPa and at the temperature of 385-395 K. Boiler steel tube temperature was 97 K higher compared to that of the crude oil at its inlet to the exchanger. Two types of segmental baffles effected cross vortex type flow that was lowe...
Article
Results have been presented of investigations on the effect of the temperature change rate on the critical temperature of pitting corrosion. Investigations of 316L stainless steel have been conducted by cyclic thermometry. An increase has been stated of the critical pitting temperature with increase of the temperature change rate. The dependence of...
Article
A method has been proposed for testing rubber linings in industrial conditions based on a proposed model of coating penetration. The depth of penetration of rubber lining by water has been determined on the basis of investigation results by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Verification of the proposed procedure has been performed by comparin...
Article
Performed investigations by cyclic thermometry in a solution containing 1 per cent H2SO4 by weight admired with chloride ions in 0.2 per cent quantity by weight at 553K have shown that 654SMO steel is not susceptible to pitting, while 316L steel is intensively attacked in investigation conditions. On cyclic thermograms for 316L steel three temperat...
Article
Results of DC electrochemical measurements of four Ni-base alloys are presented. The tests were conducted in 1 percent sulphuric acid, containing 0.2 percent chlorides at temperature 353K. Gravimetric test, performed in the same conditions, revealed excellent properties of alloy signed A3. Pitting corrosion of alloy A4 at the test conditions after...
Article
The indirect method of application electrical equivalent circuits is described. Correlation of electrical equivalent circuit and experimental impedance data allows schematically notice of impedance spectrum. Mathematical description of investigated electrochemical process allows give the physicochemical sense of an electrical elements of equivalent...
Article
A discussion has been carried out of the stochastic method of the evaluation of steel resistance to pitting corrosion. It has been stated that the distribution function of pitting corrosion strongly depends on the assumed threshold current value. A. new method has been presented for the determination of the dependence of the distribution function o...
Article
Presents the results of direct current polarization and exposure measurements of alloy steels, used as construction materials for flue-gas desulphurization units. Ascertains that in some cases there is unconformity between results of classic anodic cyclic polarization and results of laboratory exposure. Proposes a modified methodology for the evalu...
Conference Paper
Durability of superaustenitic steels 654 SMO, 254 SMO, 904L and also duplex steel 2205 was tested basing on exposition to diluted sulfuric acid containing small amount of Cl- (pH 1) at 353 K during 180 days. The test solution simulates extreme corrosion conditions for the desulfurized flue gas zone. Different types of local corrosion were observed...
Conference Paper
Results of standard anodic polarisation (SAP), cyclic polarisation (CP) potentiokinetic multiple anodic (MAP) finished with cycle polarisation, as well as electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements of C-276, C-4, 59 and 31 nickel alloys (Krupp VDM AG) are presented. The tests were conducted in 1% sulfuric acid containing 0.2% chlorid...
Article
Full-text available
Summary Results have been presented of electrochemical measurements of conducting coatings, based on the mixing of pigmentary carbon in a coating polymer matrix. On the basis of impedance measurements electrochemical parameters of conducting coatings have been calculated. Simultaneously electric and electrochemical parameters have been determined o...
Article
Full-text available
The main aim of this study was to investigate electrochemical properties of aluminum alloys 6020 and 6082. To achieve this acoustic emission and cyclic polarization methods was particularly utilized. Properties of aluminum alloys 6020 and 6082 was compared to the technically pure aluminum 1050. Generally, an aluminum acoustic activity is mostly ass...

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Projects

Projects (3)
Project
The goal of this project is to find corrosion inhibitors of high efficiency that could be used to protect aluminium and its alloys in alkaline media. When searching, a focus will be put for compounds achievable from renewable sources as well as the actual mechanism of protection. Typically, inhibitor efficiency is deducted from variation in corrosion resistance, measured under open circuit conditions, thus providing little information about passivity under anodic polarization.
Project
Gravimetric and electrochemical measurement (tafel, eis, LPRdynamic EIS) of steel in HCl + inhibitors.