Stefan G Hofmann

Stefan G Hofmann
Philipps University of Marburg | PUM · Faculty of Psychology

Doctor of Philosophy

About

579
Publications
426,331
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
37,855
Citations
Introduction
I am the Alexander von Humboldt Professor for the LOEWE Spitzenprofessur for Translational Clinical Psycholoy at the Philipps-University Marburg. Areas for research are: mechanism, translational research, emotion research, culture and mental health, psychopathology and nosology. For more information: http://www.bostonanxiety.org. Books: http://www.amazon.com/Stefan-Hofmann/e/B002L2OW5Y/ref=ntt_dp_epwbk_0
Additional affiliations
July 2008 - July 2012
Radboud University
Position
  • Guest Professor
Description
  • Guest professor during the summer.
June 1996 - present
Boston University
Position
  • Professor (Full)
June 1991 - July 1993
Stanford University
Position
  • Researcher

Publications

Publications (579)
Article
Full-text available
Abstract Background Many people suffered from emotional distress especially during the COVID-19 pandemic. In order to alleviate emotional distress, more accessible psychological intervention programs, such as online intervention programs, are needed. The study aimed to investigate the efficacy and the potential mechanism of a 4-week, online, self-h...
Article
Full-text available
Background Syndromal classification has failed to produce a progressive science of case conceptualization for mental and behavioral health issues. An idiographic application of processes of change can provide a viable empirical functional analytic alternative if it could be linked to an idionomic approach, modeling idiographic effects first, and re...
Article
Adolescents experiencing anxiety or depression exhibit cognitive biases favoring the processing of negative emotional information. It remains unknown whether common neurobiological processes underlie these biases across anxiety and depression. Here, brain imaging was acquired from typical, anxious, and depressed adolescents during an emotional-inte...
Article
Full-text available
Background Life is filled with situations that remain completely beyond our control. Yet, some people seem better able to tolerate this uncontrollability than others. To date, little research has focused on understanding how people feel about the uncontrollability of life (i.e., tolerance of uncontrollability).Methods This article introduces and de...
Article
Full-text available
In a previous work (Caballo et al., 2021) we tested the effectiveness of the Multidimensional Intervention for Social Anxiety (MISA) program in reducing social anxiety symptoms. In this quasi-experimental study, with pre/post-treatment and follow-up measures, we examined the impact of the MISA program on other problems related to social anxiety. 57...
Article
Full-text available
En un trabajo anterior (Caballo et al., 2021) comprobamos la eficacia del programa de Intervención multidimensional para la ansiedad social (IMAS) en la reducción de los síntomas de ansiedad social. En este estudio cuasiexperimental, con medidas pre/postratamiento y seguimiento, hallamos el impacto del programa IMAS en otros problemas relacionados...
Article
Psychotherapy as it is implemented today, can be seen as the composition of unconnected groups of practitioners and scientists pursuing different theories. The idea of finding a common “umbrella” for all evidence-based treatments in the field of psychotherapy is gaining more interest. Based on this background, experts in clinical psychology from va...
Article
Full-text available
Since 2000, research within positive psychology has exploded, as reflected in dozens of meta-analyses of different interventions and targeted processes, including strength spotting, positive affect, meaning in life, mindfulness, gratitude, hope, and passion. Frequently, researchers treat positive psychology processes of change as distinct from each...
Article
Full-text available
Mental health problems often involve clusters of symptoms that include subjective (conscious) experiences as well as behavioral and/or physiological responses. Because the bodily responses are readily measured objectively, these have come to be emphasized when developing treatments and assessing their effectiveness. On the other hand, the subjectiv...
Article
Affective styles are assumed to play an important role in maintaining negative affect, including anxiety and depression. However, little is known about the longitudinal relationship between affective styles and symptoms. Therefore, we conducted a longitudinal study to examine the influence of affective styles, assessed using the Affective Style Que...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives Current treatments for chronic depression have focused on reducing interpersonal problems and negative affect, but paid little attention to promoting prosocial motivation and positive affect. Following this treatment focus, the objective of the present study was to examine whether the combination of metta (Loving Kindness) group meditati...
Article
Full-text available
El trastorno de ansiedad social (TAS) es uno de los trastornos más frecuentes a nivel mundial. El objetivo de este estudio fue comprobar la eficacia del nuevo programa “Intervención multidimensional para la ansiedad social” (IMAS) para el tratamiento del TAS. Participaron 67 personas diagnosticadas con TAS, según el DSM-5, evaluadas mediante una en...
Article
Full-text available
Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is one of the most prevalent disorders worldwide. The goal of this study was to test the effectiveness of the new program “Multidimensional Intervention for Social Anxiety” (MISA) for the treatment of SAD. Sixty-seven people diagnosed with SAD, according to the DSM-5, participated in this study, and they were assessed...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction Poor sleep is prevalent among individuals with social anxiety disorder (SAD) and may negatively affect exposure therapy outcomes. Poor sleep may impair memory and learning, and thus compromise fear extinction learning thought to take place in exposure therapy. We examined poor sleep as a predictor of exposure therapy outcomes for SAD a...
Article
Full-text available
The development of scanners with ultra-high gradient strength, spearheaded by the Human Connectome Project, has led to dramatic improvements in the spatial, angular, and diffusion resolution that is feasible for in vivo diffusion MRI acquisitions. The improved quality of the data can be exploited to achieve higher accuracy in the inference of both...
Article
Background and objectives: According to the Attentional Control Theory, individuals with high levels of anxiety often shift their attention inefficiently due to increased effort to meet task demands. However, literature on the effects of anxiety on shifting performance is discrepant. This study examined the impacts of trait and state anxiety on at...
Preprint
The “protocols for syndromes” approach to evidence-based psychological intervention has failed the test of scientific progressivity. Process-based therapy provides an alternative model that is focused on treatment elements that target biopsychosocial processes of relevance to individual treatment goals. That shift in focus requires new, more integr...
Article
Full-text available
A correction to this paper has been published: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10608-021-10237-1
Article
For decades, cognitive and behavioral therapies (CBTs) have been tested in randomized controlled trials for specific psychiatric syndromes that were assumed to represent expressions of latent diseases. Although these protocols were more effective as compared to psychological control conditions, placebo treatments, and even active pharmacotherapies,...
Book
Full-text available
Este livro reflete o trabalho de mais de 15 anos realizado pelos autores sobre ansiedade social na Espanha, Portugal e 18 países ibero-americanos. Os resultados desta pesquisa serviram como base para o desenvolvimento do atual Programa de Intervenção Multidimensional para Ansiedade Social (IMAS). Único programa que combina técnicas tradicionais de...
Article
Full-text available
Interpersonal Emotion regulation has become an important research topic in emotional studies. In this study, we examined the psychometric properties of the interpersonal emotion regulation questionnaire (IERQ) in the nonclinical and clinical populations. Data were drawn from two studies. One study was conducted in a general population (N = 428) and...
Preprint
Although many individuals who engage in mindfulness endorse less anxiety, others experience heightened anxiety when focusing on particular sensations. This study aimed to determine whether specific mindfulness items related to observing internally or externally differ in individuals with panic disorder (PD) or elevated anxiety sensitivity (AS). We...
Article
Full-text available
Adolescents with anxiety disorders exhibit excessive emotional and somatic arousal. Neuroimaging studies have shown abnormal cerebral cortical activation and connectivity in this patient population. The specific role of cerebellar output circuitry, specifically the dentate nuclei (DN), in adolescent anxiety disorders remains largely unexplored. Res...
Article
Full-text available
Aaron T. Beck, the founder of this journal and the father of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), is turning 100 on June 18th, 2021. This special issue on the Future of CBT provides a glimpse into the next frontier of CBT research and practice. Some of the leading CBT scholars and researchers, including Dr. Beck himself, will explore new CBT approac...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: Although depression and anxiety often have distinct etiologies, they frequently co-occur in adolescence. Recent initiatives have underscored the importance of developing new ways of classifying mental illness based on underlying neural dimensions that cuts across traditional diagnostic boundaries. Accordingly, the aim of the study was to...
Article
The current study employed machine learning to investigate whether the inclusion of observer-rated therapist interventions and skills in early sessions of psychotherapy improved dropout prediction beyond intake assessments. Patients were treated by post-graduate clinicians at a university outpatient clinic. Psychometric instruments were assessed at...
Article
COVID-19 Special Issue Commentary.
Chapter
This Commentary describes the framework of Process-Based Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (PB-CBT). PB-CBT works under the assumption that the symptom is maintained and is also maintaining a network that is maladaptive and resilient for change; PB-CBT aims to help the client replace a maladaptive network with an adaptive one, to strengthen processes th...
Article
Full-text available
Executive Summary Throughout its history the strategy and tactics of contextual behavioral science (CBS) research have had distinctive features as compared to traditional behavioral science approaches. Continued progress in CBS research can be facilitated by greater clarity about how its strategy and tactics can be brought to bear on current challe...
Article
Individuals with social anxiety disorder (SAD) experience significant interpersonal impairment. However, little is known about the physiological processes that are associated with interpersonal dysfunction in the disorder. In the present study we examined heart-rate (HR) synchrony in SAD during “getting-acquainted” interactions between opposite-sex...
Article
Full-text available
Reduced social functioning in depression has been explained by different factors. Reduced social connectedness and prosocial motivation may contribute to interpersonal difficulties, particularly in chronic depression. In the present study, we tested whether social connectedness and prosocial motivation are reduced in chronic depression. Forty-seven...
Preprint
Fear of enclosed spaces prevents many people from receiving magnetic resonance imagining (MRI) scans. Although exposure therapy can effectively treat such fears, reductions in fear during exposure often do not generalize beyond the context in which they took place. This study tested a strategy designed to increase generalization, which involved rev...
Chapter
The last five decades have seen a proliferation of psychological packages designed to treat psychiatric syndromes. Despite millions of dollars invested evaluating and comparing complex interventions, progress has been limited. Increasingly, research is shifting toward evaluating evidence-based processes of change instead of packages. There is also...
Chapter
Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is the gold standard evidence-based treatment for psychological disorders. The general scientific approach of CBT has been defined in terms of developed validated protocols focused on syndromes. This approach is now rapidly changing. A process-focus is now emerging within the larger family of CBT models. This appr...
Article
Full-text available
Acceptance-based interventions such as acceptance and commitment therapy motivated the development of measures of psychological flexibility. As an anxiety-based condition, test anxiety can be conceptualized as an experiential avoidance condition. Given the need to evaluate acceptance and action processes in test anxiety and the lack of such an inst...
Article
Background Despite increased research interest in smartphone mental health applications (MHapps), few studies have examined user engagement and its determinants. MoodMission is a MHapp that targets low mood and anxiety via evidence-based techniques including behavioural activation (BA). Aims The present study aimed to investigate (i) whether BA in...
Article
Social anxiety disorder is a debilitating and chronic anxiety disorder. There are effective treatments for it and our conceptualization of the psychopathology has advanced a great deal in the last few decades. Negative self‐perception, flawed perceptions of social costs, attentional biases, rumination, and avoidance all play a key role in the maint...
Article
Social anxiety disorder is a debilitating and chronic anxiety disorder. There are effective treatments for it and our conceptualization of the psychopathology has advanced a great deal in the last few decades. Negative self‐perception, flawed perceptions of social costs, attentional biases, rumination, and avoidance all play a key role in the maint...
Article
To the Editor Dr Young and colleagues¹ suggested that there are occasions when clinicians may treat statistically nonsignificant results as clinically meaningful and incorporate them in important clinical decision-making, especially when considering the effect size and associated confidence intervals. This recommendation is problematic because it e...
Chapter
Full-text available
Trotz der zentralen Relevanz von sozialen Beziehungen für die Emotionsregulation wurden interpersonelle Aspekte des Umgangs mit Emotionen in der klinisch-psychologischen Literatur bisher nur wenig untersucht. Das folgende Kapitel argumentiert, dass ein interpersoneller Ansatz die Emotionsregulationsforschung bedeutsam erweitern kann, und fasst aktu...
Article
For half a century, the dominant paradigm in psychotherapy research has been to develop syndrome-specific treatment protocols for hypothesized but unproved latent disease entities, as defined by psychiatric nosological systems. While this approach provided a common language for mental health problems, it failed to achieve its ultimate goal of conce...
Article
Background : Poor quality of life, sleep problems, anhedonia, and negative metacognitions are common in anxiety and depression. To examine the nature of the relationship between these features and the role of metacognitions, anhedonia, and quality of life in anxiety and depression, we conducted a complex network analysis with items of self-report m...
Article
Importance Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is common, impairing, and undertreated. Although many patients with GAD seek complementary and alternative interventions, including yoga, data supporting yoga’s efficacy or how it compares to first-line treatments are lacking. Objectives To assess whether yoga (Kundalini yoga) and cognitive behavioral...
Article
COVID-19 presents significant social, economic, and medical challenges. Because COVID-19 has already begun to precipitate huge increases in mental health problems, clinical psychological science must assert a leadership role in guiding a national response to this secondary crisis. In this article, COVID-19 is conceptualized as a unique, compounding...
Article
Historically there has been only a limited relationship between clinical psychology and evolutionary science. This article considers the status of that relationship in light of a modern multi-dimensional and multi-level extended evolutionary approach. Evolution can be purposive and even conscious, and evolutionary principles can give guidance and p...
Article
Historically speaking, the behavioral tradition advanced functional analysis as a method of applying existing principles to novel situations. In the more than half a century since that idea was advanced, functional analysis has either fallen into disuse, as in most of applied psychology, or has been used but modified to a point that is virtually in...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives Loving-kindness meditation (LKM) has been shown to improve wellbeing and positive emotions in clinical and non-clinical populations. The main goal of the present study was to examine whether LKM might be an effective intervention to promote positive mental health using the Positive Mental Health Scale (PMH) and to decrease depression, an...
Article
Full-text available
Mindfulness training has been shown to have a beneficial effect on cognitive flexibility. However, little is known about the mediators that produce this effect. Cross-sectional studies show that there might be a link between Non-judgment, Non-reactivity and cognitive flexibility. Longitudinal studies examining whether Non-judgment or Non-reactivity...
Article
Full-text available
Importance Findings suggest that the efficacy of D-cycloserine (DCS) for enhancing exposure therapy may be strongest when administered after sessions marked by low fear at the conclusion of exposure practice. These findings have prompted investigation of DCS dosing tailored to results of exposure sessions. Objective To compare tailored postsession...
Preprint
Full-text available
COVID-19 presents humanity with one of the greatest health and economic crises of the 21st Century. Because COVID-19 has already begun to precipitate a huge increase in mental health problems, we believe that clinical science must also play a leadership role in guiding a national response to this secondary crisis. In this article, we explain why CO...
Article
Full-text available
Background and aims Internet addiction, sex addiction and compulsive buying are common behavioral problems, which share similarities with gambling disorder and substance use disorders. However, little is known about the efficacy of their treatments. The objective of this meta-analysis was to examine the efficacy of the treatments of such problem be...
Article
Previous studies have found that social anxiety and experiential avoidance (EA) are significantly associated, but the directionality of this relationship has not been firmly established. The present study examined momentary EA and social anxiety using repeated measurements during an opposite-sex interaction. Participants were 164 individuals (50% f...
Preprint
High reappraisal and low suppression are generally seen as desirable outcomes of therapy, but this combination may not benefit those who typically use reappraisal and suppression together. A daily diary study (N=187; Mage = 23.9; 71% females; 3,852 days; M=20.59 days/person) showed that the group-level correlation between reappraisal and suppressio...
Article
Full-text available
We present the first Human Connectome Project study tailored toward adolescent anxiety and depression. This study is one of the first studies of the Connectomes Related to Human Diseases initiative and is collecting structural, functional, and diffusion-weighted brain imaging data from up to 225 adolescents (ages 14-17 years), 150 of whom are expec...
Article
Depression is a serious and common mental health problem. Although a number of psychological and pharmacological treatments are available for this serious psychiatric condition, there is still a lot of room for improvement. As is true for virtually all mental disorders, the most common and comparatively most effective form of psychological treatmen...
Article
Full-text available
Background: People differ in their affective styles, which refers to habitual use of emotion regulation (ER) strategies. Previous research has shown that mental health is associated with an individual's adaptive flexibility of emotion regulation strategies rather than any one particular ER strategy. Methods: The present study employed a person-c...
Article
In preparation for a larger case-control study of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and anxiety, we conducted a pilot study using a noninvasive electrocardiographic device to measure cardiovascular reactivity in 10 children (age range 9 to 14) with ASD. The 45-minute procedure included six conditions: Baseline rest, an interview about sc...
Article
Full-text available
The Connectomes Related to Human Diseases (CRHD) initiative was developed with the Human Connectome Project (HCP) to provide high-resolution, open-access, multi-modal MRI data to better understand the neural correlates of human disease. Here, we present an introduction to a CRHD project, the Boston Adolescent Neuroimaging of Depression and Anxiety...
Chapter
Biofeedback refers to the operant training of physiological responding. Variants include electromyography (EMG), electrodermal activity (EDA), skin temperature, heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV), respiratory biofeedback of end-tidal CO2 (ETCO2), electroencephalography (EEG) signal, and blood oxygen-level dependent signal using functi...
Article
Few clinical scientists would disagree that more research is needed on the underlying mechanisms and processes of change in psychological therapies. In the dominant current approach, processes of change are studied through mediation. The study of mediation has been largely structured around a distinction between moderation and mediation first popul...
Method
Full-text available
The Interpersonal Emotion Regulation Questionnaire – German Version (IERQ; Pruessner et al., 2020) measures interpersonal emotion regulation processes that aim to improve negative emotional states based on the original English version by Hofmann, Carpenter, and Curtiss (2016). The items are grouped equally into the dimensions enhancing positive aff...
Article
Full-text available
Emotion regulation processes have gained increasing importance in psychological science. While a number of questionnaires have been developed to measure intrapersonal emotion regulation, there is a scarcity of measures assessing interpersonal emotion regulation. Therefore, we developed a German version of the Interpersonal Emotion Regulation Questi...
Article
Full-text available
To compare the effectiveness of two Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT) interventions-an individual and a group intervention-in Social Anxiety Disorder therapy. We compared the two treatment groups against a waitlist condition in a randomized clinical trial with 86 young adults. The individual CBT intervention was Trial-Based Cognitive Therapy (TBCT...
Article
Trait mindfulness appears to be related to lower levels of negative affective symptoms, but it remains uncertain which facets of mindfulness are most important in this relationship. Accordingly, the present meta-analysis examined studies reporting correlations between affective symptoms and trait mindfulness as assessed by the Five Facet Mindfulnes...
Article
Full-text available
Preclinical and clinical data have shown that D-cycloserine (DCS), a partial agonist at the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor complex, augments the retention of fear extinction in animals and the therapeutic learning from exposure therapy in humans. However, studies with non-clinical human samples in de novo fear conditioning paradigms have demonstrate...