Stefan Hagel

Stefan Hagel
Austrian Academy of Sciences (OeAW) | ÖAW · Austrian Archaeological Institute – OeAI

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About

43
Publications
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Introduction
Stefan Hagel works as senior researcher at the Institute for the Study of Ancient Culture of the Austrian Academy of Sciences. Starting from an analysis of melody patterns in Greek epic verse he specialised in ancient music, with publications on ancient music theory and its relation with musical practice, on musical instruments with focus on lyres and double pipes, and on questions of metre and rhythm. His work involves reconstruction of instruments and playing techniques. Characteristic for Stefan's research is an extensive application of computer techniques and mathematical methods; he also created the Classical Text Editor, now the most widely used specialised word processor for critical editions.
Additional affiliations
January 2012 - present
Austrian Academy of Sciences (OeAW)
Position
  • Researcher
Education
October 1986 - December 1999
University of Vienna
Field of study
  • Classical Philology

Publications

Publications (43)
Book
This book endeavours to pinpoint the relations between musical, and especially instrumental, practice and the evolving conceptions of pitch systems. It traces the development of ancient melodic notation from reconstructed origins, through various adaptations necessitated by changing musical styles and newly invented instruments, to its final canoni...
Article
At the end of the second century BCE, Western Han ambassador Zhang Qian (張騫) famously explored the region beyond the Tarim Basin, bringing back reports about urban civilisations commonly believed to represent the Greco-Bactrian (Daxia 大夏 and Dayuan 大宛) and Indo-Greek (Shendu 身毒) states as well as the Arsacid Parthian Empire beyond (Anxi 安息). In the...
Article
Comparison between an original ancient composition and modern supplements shows that the ancient poetcomposer paid attention to sub-metrical parameters defining the suitability of a metrically long syllable for extended voiced performance. This criterion is explored as a potential guide to overlong syllables, developing a statistical method includi...
Chapter
A possible connection between the “Guidonian hexachord”, along with the Sapphic melody with which it is associated, and the early medieval “Northern” lyre is suggested. The uniform tuning of the latter is argued to fit well within certain strands of “Western” music as it emerges in the late Middle Ages, as opposed to the “Mediterranean” music of An...
Article
Full-text available
When contextualising the ancient Greek solmisation system, known from Aristides Quintilianus and one of Bellermann’s Anonymi, within its musical and linguistic environment, it emerges that it hardly predates the Roman Imperial period, an important part of whose musical schooling it appears to have formed. The system seems based on a combination of...
Article
A variety of possible applications of modern technology for music-archaeological purposes are discussed: from studying and evaluating musical finds and acoustical environments through the presentation of pitch structures down to databases, their statistical evaluation and the necessity and promises of dedicated coding.
Article
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Two aulos pairs (Δ1965 and Δ1964), unearthed in 1980 and 2005 respectively at Megara (Attica), are exhibited in the city’s Archaeological Museum. Both are associated with metal sliding keys (resembling the keys on the well-known Pergamon aulos model), either mounted on the pipes (Δ1964) or displayed next to them (Δ1965). The present paper describes...
Article
Full-text available
D. Najock has criticised a tentatively proposed diatonic-chromatic tuning for the triangular frame harp found at Daphnē and suggested a different enharmonic-diatonic stringing. While his criticism may well be justified, it is argued that his alternative proposal is physically problematic and historically implausible. A possible compromise is discus...
Chapter
In order to assess the potential musical scales of the ‘Coptic lutes’ studied by Ricardo Eichmann, an algorithm is developed that evaluates all plausible combinations of bridge positions and relative string tuning. Applied to the lutes from Antinoë and Saqqāra, it confirms Eichmann’s general results while possibly refining certain details.
Chapter
The system of melodic notation, which was invented in Classical Greece and used through Late Antiquity, is set out and explained in its likely historical development, its relation to vocal and instrumental music‐making, and its reception by Aristoxenian theory as well as in Roman‐period schooling. The “chamber pitch” of the ancient system is addres...
Chapter
Full-text available
Starting from data on the ‘Paestum’ or ‘Poseidonia’ aulòs established by Paul and Barbara Reichlin-Moser and Stelios Psaroudakēs, the ‘Pydna’ aulòs, and comparable finds of early, mainly six-hole one-hole-shift, doublepipe fragments, possible musical interpretations of this important instrument type of the early Classical Period are considered. Pro...
Chapter
Full-text available
The idea that the effect of music on the human soul crucially affects matters of education and politics is first found in Plato, with reference to Damon of Athens (5th century BCE). On the basis of a late antique treatise by Aristides Quintilianus, which also refers to Damon, the latter has been ascribed a full-fledged theory of musical ethos. The...
Article
Apart from the better studied musical 'handbooks' of the Roman period, mostly fo-cused on matters of harmonics and sometimes rhythmics, there was a type of text known as 'Musics'. The article discusses their characteristics, their function in ancient schooling and their relation to extant texts and excerpts, most notably the collection known as Bel...
Chapter
The chapter studies ancient Greek music theory, primarily of the 5th and 4th centuries bce and throughout the Hellenistic and Greco-Roman eras. Instruments that must be tuned, either during manufacturing or right before performance, prompt reflection on pitch relations. Stringed instruments, which require repeated tuning, form the background of the...
Chapter
Full-text available
http://www.getty.edu/publications/artistryinbronze/conservation-and-analysis/45-gansicke/ This paper summarizes preliminary results of an extensive, multidisciplinary conservation project at the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston (MFA) of a large cache of ancient musical instruments also known as “the auloi from Meroë.” The objects were discovered in 192...
Chapter
Full-text available
Many aspects of Greek musical culture were firmly in place in Homeric times. Epic singing to the lyre is the musical activity foregrounded in the epic songs and is envisaged as a proper occupation for a nobleman. Dance figured not only in ritual and private merrymaking, but was also part of military training in the form of dances in armor. Song was...
Article
Abstract This study addresses the question of pitches and pitch structures that may have been played on the excavated instruments, assessing string lengths and their implications as well as searching for a plausible effective length for the aulos including its reed, based on computer-modelling the behaviour of the oscillating air column. The result...
Chapter
The wide geographical and chronological span that we have come to circumscribe as “the ancient Near East” implies a multiplicity of music cultures.Keywords:ancient Near East history;archaeology;classical civilization;cultural history;intellectual history;literature;music
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Zusammenfassung Für zwei der berühmten vier Aulosrohre aus Pom­ peji werden verbesserte Messdaten gegeben und ihr Beitrag zur musikalischen Interpretation der Ins­ trumente diskutiert. Darüber hinaus wird erstmals die Konstruktion des Mundstücks untersucht, das das Rohrblatt aufnahm, und als Stimmvorrichtung interpretiert. Of the auloi and aulos fr...
Article
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Eine Anleitung, wie man fotografische Aufnahmen von Blasinstrumenten anfertigt, die sicherstellen, dass wichtige Messdaten nachträglich überprüft werden können.
Chapter
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ZUSAMMENFASSUNG Zwei graeco-ägyptische Gegenschlagzungenklari-netten aus dem Besitz des Ägyptischen Museums Berlin werden beschrieben und interpretiert. Auf beiden findet sich ein kleines Überblasloch; bei einer ist eines der Griff löcher mit einem Metallring versehen. Vieles spricht dafür, dass es sich bei dem Paar um ein einziges Instrument hande...
Article
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A. P. David: The Dance of the Muses. Choral theory and ancient Greek poetics. Oxford: Oxford UP 2006. XI, 284 S. 45 £.
Article
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Vengono esaminate le quattro canne di aulos meglio conservate tra quelle dissotterrate a Pompei e, per mezzo di analisi matematiche, è determinata nella maniera più accurata possibile la loro intonazione originaria. Si sostiene che le scale degli strumenti, così come i dettagli specifici dei loro meccanismi, coincidano con la nostra conoscenza dell...
Article
Full-text available
The four best-preserved aulos pipes unearthed at Pompeii are examined and their original pitches are as far as possible determined by mathematical analysis. It is argued that the scales of the instruments as well as specific details of their mechanism fit well with our knowledge of music from the Roman Imperial period.
Article
Full-text available
A mathematicalanalysis of the notational sections of the 'Human hymns' yields new insights in several aspects of Near Eastern music from the second millen nium BC. The fine tuning of the accompanying instrument(s) can be determined, as well as a coherent system of 'harmonic' progression. The pieces with 'extended' notation seem to include modulatio...

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