Stefan M Gold

Stefan M Gold
Charité Universitätsmedizin Berlin | Charité · Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy

PhD

About

171
Publications
72,483
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7,305
Citations
Additional affiliations
November 2014 - present
Charité Universitätsmedizin Berlin
Position
  • Professor
June 2010 - November 2014
University Medical Center Hamburg - Eppendorf
Position
  • Group Leader

Publications

Publications (171)
Article
Background With a lifetime risk for major depressive disorder of up to 50%, depression is a common comorbidity in multiple sclerosis but remains widely underdiagnosed and untreated. We investigated the potential of a fully automated, internet-based, cognitive behavioural therapy programme, Deprexis, to reduce depressive symptoms in patients with mu...
Article
The hippocampus is likely involved in mood disorders, but in vivo evidence for the role of anatomically distinct hippocampal subregions is lacking. Multiple sclerosis, an inflammatory disease of the central nervous system, is linked to a high prevalence of depression as well as hippocampal damage and may thus provide important insight into the path...
Article
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Prospective clinical studies support a link between psychological stress and multiple sclerosis (MS) disease severity, and peripheral stress systems are frequently dysregulated in MS patients. However, the exact link between neurobiological stress systems and MS symptoms is unknown. To evaluate the link between neural stress responses and disease p...
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Pregnancy is one of the strongest inducers of immunological tolerance. Disease activity of many autoimmune diseases including multiple sclerosis (MS) is temporarily suppressed by pregnancy, but little is known about the underlying molecular mechanisms. Here, we investigated the endocrine regulation of conventional and regulatory T cells (Tregs) dur...
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The pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS) involves complex interactions between genetic susceptibility and environmental triggers. Clinical observations suggest that the study of sex differences might provide important insight into mechanisms of pathogenesis and progression of the disease in patients. MS occurs more frequently in women than in me...
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Background A multiple sclerosis (MS) diagnosis urges decision-making on immunotherapies, while persons with MS (PwMS) need to develop a coping concept in parallel. At this stage, PwMS ask how they themselves may contribute to controlling the disease. Evidence suggests that maintaining a healthy lifestyle (e.g. physical activity and stress managemen...
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Background Platform trials can evaluate the efficacy of several experimental treatments compared to a control. The number of experimental treatments is not fixed, as arms may be added or removed as the trial progresses. Platform trials are more efficient than independent parallel group trials because of using shared control groups. However, for a t...
Article
Background Multiple sclerosis (MS) particularly affects women between the age of 20 and 40. Therefore, pregnancy is often an important issue for women with MS (wwMS), but misunderstandings, misinformation, and uncertainties about MS and pregnancy are common. We developed and pilot-tested two questionnaires, one on knowledge (MCKQ), and one on attit...
Article
Depression is an invalidating disorder, marked by phenotypic heterogeneity. Clinical assessments for treatment adjustments and data-collection for pharmacological research often rely on subjective representations of functioning. Better phenotyping through digital applications may add unseen information and facilitate disentangling the clinical char...
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In multiple sclerosis (MS), relapse rate is decreased by 70-80% in the third trimester of pregnancy. However, the underlying mechanisms driving this effect are poorly understood. Evidence suggests that CD56bright NK cell frequencies increase during pregnancy. Here, we analyze pregnancy-related NK cell shifts in a large longitudinal cohort of pregna...
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Depression is among the most common comorbidities in multiple sclerosis and has severe psychosocial consequences. Alterations in neural emotion regulation in amygdala and prefrontal cortex have been recognized as key mechanism of depression but never been investigated in multiple sclerosis depression. In this cross-sectional observational study, we...
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Background Depression and anxiety are known to be associated with stress-induced changes in the immune system. Bothersome tinnitus can be related to stress and often co-occurs with depression and anxiety. This study investigates associations of psychological and audiological tinnitus-related factors with inflammatory parameters and immune cell subs...
Article
Introduction: Depression and obesity often occur comorbidly, and once both are present, they further increase the risk of developing other medical comorbidities, likely due to the underlying chronic low-grade inflammation. We investigated to what extent depression and obesity are associated with levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP...
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Epidemiological, clinical, and neuroscientific studies support a link between psychobiological stress and multiple sclerosis. Neuroimaging suggests that blunted central stress processing goes along with higher multiple sclerosis severity, neuroendocrine studies suggest that blunted immune system sensitivity to stress hormones is linked to stronger...
Article
Objective : Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory and neurodegenerative disease of the central nervous system of potential autoimmune origin that is frequently associated with neuropsychiatric symptoms and cognitive deficits, as well as with fatigue, stress and psychosocial burden. In the present controlled multi-center trial we investigated w...
Article
Therapeutic interventions are typically evaluated in individual, parallel group trials, which are time consuming and provide limited information on comparative efficacy. Clinical psychology should leverage advances in other fields to improve and accelerate the evaluation process by adopting more efficient platform trials.
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Criteria for treatment-resistant depression (TRD) and partially responsive depression (PRD) as subtypes of major depressive disorder (MDD) are not unequivocally defined. In the present document we used a Delphi-method-based consensus approach to define TRD and PRD and to serve as operational criteria for future clinical studies, especially if condu...
Article
Multiple neurobiological pathways have been implicated in the pathobiology of major depressive disorder (MDD). The identification of reliable biological substrates across the entire MDD spectrum, however, is hampered by a vast heterogeneity in the clinical presentation, presumably as a consequence of heterogeneous pathobiology. One way to overcome...
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Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is an essential complementary parameter in the assessment of disease burden and treatment outcome in multiple sclerosis (MS) and can be affected by neuropsychiatric symptoms, which in turn are sensitive to psychological stress. However, until now, the impact of neurobiological stress and relaxation on HRQoL in...
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The emergence of high-throughput sequencing techniques and the development of bioinformatics tools provide efficient ways to profile the human adaptive immune receptor repertoire (AIRR) including repertoires of T cell receptors (TCRs) and immunoglobulins ( Bradley and Thomas, 2019 ). Despite these advancements, the representation of populations in...
Preprint
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Background Advances have recently been made in identifying the genetic basis of psychiatric and neurological disorders, however, fundamental questions about their evolutionary origins remain elusive. Here, introgressed variants from archaic humans such as Neandertals can serve as an intriguing research paradigm. Methods We compared the number of a...
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The complement system is implicated in synapse loss in the MS hippocampus, but the functional consequences of synapse loss remain poorly understood. Here, in post-mortem MS hippocampi with demyelination we find that deposits of the complement component C1q are enriched in the CA2 subfield, are linked to loss of inhibitory synapses and are significa...
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Converging evidence indicates that major depressive disorder (MDD) and metabolic disorders might be mediated by shared (patho)biological pathways. However, the converging cellular and molecular signatures remain unknown. Here, we investigated metabolic dysfunction on a systemic, cellular, and molecular level in unmedicated MDD patients compared to...
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Early-onset (EOD) and late-onset (LOD) late-life depression might differ in etiology, clinical features, and treatment response. While EOD is more frequently associated with a family history of affective disorders and personality aspects, LOD is thought to be more strongly driven by acquired cerebrovascular risk factors associated with vascular pat...
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Background: Walking disability is one of the most frequent and burdening symptoms of progressive multiple sclerosis (MS). Most of the exercise intervention studies that showed an improvement in mobility performance were conducted in low to moderately disabled relapsing–remitting MS patients with interventions using the legs. However, MS patients wi...
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Fatigue in persons with multiple sclerosis (PwMS) is severely disabling. However, the underlying mechanisms remain incompletely understood. Recent research suggests a link to early childhood adversities and psychological trait variables. In line with these studies, this paper took a psychodynamic perspective on MS-fatigue. It was hypothesized that...
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Although multiple sclerosis (MS) is frequently accompanied by visuo‐cognitive impairment, especially functional brain mechanisms underlying this impairment are still not well understood. Consequently, we used a functional MRI (fMRI) backward masking task to study visual information processing stratifying unconscious and conscious in MS. Specificall...
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Background: People with multiple sclerosis (MS) experience myriad symptoms that negatively affect their quality of life. Despite significant progress in rehabilitation strategies for people living with relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS), the development of similar strategies for people with progressive MS has received little attention. Objective: To...
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Introduction Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory and degenerative disease of the central nervous system that mainly affects young adults. Uncertainty is a major psychological burden of the disease from diagnosis to prognosis, enhanced by the pressure to make early decisions on a diverse set of immunotherapies. Watchful waiting for 1–2 years...
Preprint
Full-text available
The complement system is implicated in synapse loss in the MS hippocampus, but the functional consequences of synapse loss remain poorly understood. Here, in post-mortem MS hippocampi with demyelination we find that deposits of the complement component C1q are enriched in the CA2 subfield, are linked to loss of inhibitory synapses and are significa...
Article
Full-text available
In this pilot study, we explored the immune phenotype of patients with severe obesity and comorbid depressive symptoms compared to non‐depressed patients with obesity and normal‐weight controls. Immune cell subsets were analysed by flow cytometry and depressive symptoms assessed using the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ‐9). Cell frequencies were...
Chapter
Altered activity of the hypothalamus–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) stress-axis has been implicated in the pathogenesis and progression of multiple sclerosis (MS) and linked to the development of specific symptoms and comorbidities such as mood disorders, fatigue, or cognitive dysfunction. Overall the HPA-axis is activated or hyperresponsive in MS, though...
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Hippocampal damage and associated cognitive deficits are frequently observed in neuroimmunological disorders, but comparative analyses to identify shared hippocampal damage patterns are missing. Here, we adopted a transdiagnostic analytical approach and investigated hippocampal shape deformations and associated cognitive deficits in four neuroimmun...
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Background: Women are more susceptible to multiple sclerosis (MS) than men by a ratio of approximately 3:1. However, being male is a risk factor for worse disability progression. Inflammatory genes have been linked to susceptibility, while neurodegeneration underlies disability progression. Thus, there appears to be a differential effect of sex on...
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Introduction Major depressive disorder (MDD) and obesity are both common disorders associated with significant burden of disease worldwide. Importantly, MDD and obesity often co-occur, with each disorder increasing the risk for developing the other by about 50%–60%. Statins are among the most prescribed medications with well-established safety and...
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Background: Psychological stress can influence the severity of multiple sclerosis (MS), but little is known about neurobiological factors potentially counteracting these effects. Objective: To identify gray matter (GM) brain regions related to relaxation after stress exposure in persons with MS (PwMS). Methods: 36 PwMS and 21 healthy controls (HCs...
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Fatigue is a major complaint in MS. Up to now no objective assessment tools have been established which hampers any treatment approach. Previous work has indicated an association of fatigue with cognitive measures of attention. Oculomotor tests have been established in healthy individuals as a read-out of fatigue, and to some extent in MS patients....
Article
Depression is one of the most common comorbidities of many chronic medical diseases including cancer and cardiovascular, metabolic, inflammatory and neurological disorders. Indeed, the prevalence of depression in these patient groups is often substantially higher than in the general population, and depression accounts for a substantial part of the...
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Fatigue is a common and disabling symptom in patients with Multiple Sclerosis (PwMS). Its pathogenesis, however, is still not fully understood. Potential psychological roots, in particular, have received little attention to date. The present study examined the association of childhood adversities, specific trait characteristics, and MS disease char...
Article
Many patients with depression do not respond sufficiently to antidepressant treatment, necessitating other treatment approaches. HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (i.e. statins), which are frequently used for their cardioprotective properties, have also been studied regarding potential antidepressant effects. Possible mechanisms underlying an antidepres...
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Background Multiple sclerosis (MS) is characterized by two neuropathological key aspects: inflammation and neurodegeneration. Clinical studies support a prospective link between psychological stress and subsequent inflammatory disease activity. However, it is unknown if a similar link exists for grey matter (GM) degeneration as the key driver of ir...
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Abstract Objectives: Evidence from animal studies suggests that aerobic exercise may promote neuroplasticity and could, therefore, provide therapeutic benefits for neurological diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS). However, the effects of exercise in human CNS disorders on the topology of brain networks, which might serve as an outcome at the...
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Objective: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is characterized by impairments in basic cognitive functions such as information processing speed as well as in more complex, higher-order domains such as social cognition. However, as these deficits often co-occur, it has remained challenging to determine whether they have a specific pathological basis or are dri...
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Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is the most common chronic inflammatory and neurodegenerative disease of the central nervous system (CNS), which can lead to severe cognitive impairment over time. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is currently the best available biomarker to track MS pathophysiology in vivo and examine the link to clinical disability. Howeve...
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Fatigue in multiple sclerosis (MS) has been associated with brain damage with low replicability. Temporal fatigue fluctuations have not been considered. We assessed whether sustained fatigue (SF) associates more strongly with grey matter (GM) changes than reversible fatigue (RF). Patients were stratified into three groups according to historical fa...
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Identifying T cell clones associated with human autoimmunity has remained challenging. Intriguingly, many autoimmune diseases, including multiple sclerosis (MS), show strongly diminished activity during pregnancy, providing a unique research paradigm to explore dynamics of immune repertoire changes during active and inactive disease. Here, we chara...
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Background Across psychopathologies, trauma-exposed individuals suffer from difficulties in inhibiting emotions and regulating attention. In trauma-exposed individuals without psychopathology, only subtle alterations of neural activity involved in regulating emotions have been reported. It remains unclear how these neural systems react to demanding...
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Disease activity of autoimmune disorders such as multiple sclerosis and its mouse model experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is temporarily suppressed by pregnancy. However, whether disease amelioration is due to nonspecific immunomodulation or mediated by Ag-specific regulation of disease-causing conventional T cells (Tcon) and immunosu...
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Fatigue is among the most disabling symptoms in patients with multiple sclerosis (PwMS). The common distinction between cognitive and motor fatigue is typically incorporated in self-rating instruments, such as the Chalder Fatigue Questionnaire (CFQ), the Fatigue Scale for Motor and Cognitive Functions (FSMC) or the Modified Fatigue Impact Scale (MF...
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Background: Decision-making (DM) capabilities are impaired in multiple sclerosis (MS). A variety of researchers hypothesized that this impairment is associated with reduced quality of life (QoL) and neuropsychiatric symptoms. Studies explicitly testing this hypothesis, however, are rare, provided inconclusive results, or evaluated only a limited se...
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Objective The aim was to describe a broad range of health dimensions in possibly benign multiple sclerosis (MS) hypothesizing that despite some limitations there is a high adaptation to the disease. Methods All patients from an outpatient university clinic data registry with an Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) ≤3.5 and disease duration ≥15...
Article
Background: Many depressed patients do not achieve response or remission despite adequate treatment. Identifying predictors of outcome can contribute to developing therapeutic algorithms for difficult-to-treat depression. Therefore, we examined clinical predictors of response and remission in a naturalistic inpatient sample undergoing multimodal t...
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Stronger adaptive immune responses in females can be observed in different mammals, resulting in better control of infections compared to males. However, this presumably evolutionary difference likely also drives higher incidence of autoimmune diseases observed in humans. Here, we summarize sex differences in the most common autoimmune diseases of...