Stefan Brandenburg

Stefan Brandenburg
Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz | JGU · Allgemeine und Experimentelle Psychologie

Professor

About

82
Publications
14,312
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341
Citations
Additional affiliations
May 2008 - present
Technische Universität Berlin
Position
  • PostDoc Position

Publications

Publications (82)
Article
In 1994, Deffenbacher et al. published the Driving Anger Scale (DAS), a tool for assessing a driver’s propensity to experience anger in road traffic. Since then, much research has used this scale to measure the driving anger experienced in various countries around the world. This study examines the scale’s validity for German drivers. It also relat...
Article
Full-text available
Die Digitalisierung von Handel und Gastgewerbe kann nur gelingen, wenn digitale Angebote ein- fach zu bedienen sind und sie den Gewerbetrei- benden so ein positives Nutzungserlebnis ermög- lichen. Der aktuelle Beitrag beschreibt ein Best Practice Beispiel für die Analyse und (Um-)Gestal- tung eines Konfigurationsassistenten mit dem Gastronom*innen...
Article
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Bevor Unternehmen Besucherinnen und Besucher auf ihre Website lassen, sind sie seit Inkrafttreten der Datenschutzgrundverordnung (DSGVO) im Jahr 2018 verpflichtet, eine Einwilligung in die Cookies- und Nutzungsvereinbarungen einzuholen. Das Instrument wurde geschaffen, um Nutzende darüber zu unterrichten, welche Daten sie durch den Besuch der Seite...
Article
Objectives Emotions can be dangerous companions in road traffic for vehicle drivers and cyclists in particular. It is therefore important to reliably assess emotions like anger in road traffic. The first objective of the present paper is to examine whether the cycling anger scale (CAS) can be used to assess Singaporean Cyclists’ anger experiences i...
Article
- Vor allem aus dem Sammeln und Analysieren großer Datenmengen ergeben sich ethische Herausforderungen für Softwareentwickler. - Niedrigschwellige Ansätze erlauben es, sich im Entwickleralltag mit den ethischen Aspekten der eigenen Arbeit auseinanderzusetzen. - Neben den Entwicklern und Entwicklerinnen sind auch die Organisation, in der sie tätig s...
Article
Only a couple of studies evaluated whether drivers of automated vehicles change their takeover behavior when they experience takeover requests repeatedly. Even less evidence was accumulated regarding the question whether drivers are able to transfer learned behavior to takeover situations with varying visibility characteristics and whether drivers’...
Article
Highly-automated driving requires drivers to take over the control of their vehicle in any situation. In takeover situations with short time budgets, a fast takeover is crucial. Here, drivers could be supported by an appropriate takeover request. This paper presents a driving simulator study investigating whether less critical takeover situations a...
Article
Even with highly automated driving, there will exist the occasional need for a human driver to resume control. The design of take-over requests (TOR) and the driving scenario upon their presentation are factors that can be expected to determine the effective resumption of vehicle control. We conducted a driving simulator study in the laboratory tha...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Schwerpunkt des diesjährigen Workshops sind ethische Fragestellungen beim Einsatz quantitativer und qualitativer Methoden der Erforschung und Gestaltung von Mensch-Technik-Interaktion. Im Workshop werden Best Practices erarbeitet und zusammengetragen, die Teilnehmer*innen darin unterstützen, ethischen Aspekten früh und begleitend in der Entwicklung...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Die Diskussion über ethische Aspekte neuer Technologien wird zunehmend breiter geführt. Dennoch werden ethische Herausforderungen im Kontext der Erforschung und Entwicklung von Technologien oftmals nicht genügend oder erst spät berücksichtigt. Praktische Maßnahmen zur Berücksichtigung ethischer Aspekte werden nur vereinzelt entwickelt. Ein Grund da...
Article
Highly automated cars will be on the worlds’ roads within the next decade. In highly automated driving the vehicle’s lateral and longitudinal controls can be passed on from the driver to the vehicle and back again. The design of a vehicle’s take-over requests will largely determine the driver’s performance after taking back vehicle control. In the...
Article
Objective: The present study has 3 objectives: First, we wanted to examine whether the Cycling Anger Scale (CAS) applies to German professional bike messengers, because this scale was previously developed with nonprofessional cyclists in Germany. Second, we wanted to look at possible differences in cycling anger experience and expression between pr...
Article
Objective: The main objective of this article is to examine whether the Driving Anger Expression Inventory (DAX) applies to German drivers because this scale has previously been given to drivers in many different countries. Methods: We applied German versions of the DAX, the Driving Anger Scale (DAS), and the State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory...
Article
Research on emotions in road traffic has focused on car drivers rather than on cyclists. However, cyclists experience cycling anger and its consequences as vulnerable road users, i.e., without having a car-like protection zone around them. To address the issue of cycling anger, we suggest a psychological measure assessing cyclists’ anger experience...
Chapter
Full-text available
E-commerce became very important in recent years. About 40% of the customers state that they prefer online shopping over retail shopping. When searching for items in an online shop, the appearing result lists are an important part of the users’ experience. The users’ experience, in turn, is a crucial factor for a business’ success. This online-stud...
Article
Digital technology becomes more powerful, intelligent, pervasive and ubiquitous. Ethical aspects of this development have not yet drawn the appropriate attention of researchers and engineers. This paper presents an instrument that aims at measuring the individual ethical position with regard to the design and development of computer software. The d...
Article
Objective: We investigated drivers' behavior and subjective experience when repeatedly taking over their vehicles' control depending on the design of the takeover request (TOR) and the modality of the nondriving-related task (NDRT). Background: Previous research has shown that taking over vehicle control after highly automated driving provides s...
Conference Paper
When highly automated vehicles reach their system limits, the vehicles’ control is handed back to the driver by issuing a takeover request. Each of these takeover situations is different from the other and the shift of control can be hazardous. Adapting the takeover request (TOR) to the criticality of the situation could support the drivers’ unders...
Presentation
Full-text available
Highly automated vehicles will soon desiminate in roadtraffic. Much research is concentrated on the design of highly automated vehicles and the take over request. Fiew research has focused on the drivers willingness to engage the automation while driving. In the present study 38 drivers were asked to drive a Tesla Model S, equipped with longitudina...
Presentation
Highly-automated driving requires drivers to take over the control of their vehicle at any time. In takeover situations with short time budgets, a fast takeover is crucial. Here, drivers could be supported by an appropriate takeover request (TOR). A driving simulator study was conducted investigating whether a match in the urgency of a TOR and the...
Article
Previous research shows that anger and aggression among road users lead to maladjusted driving and a higher risk of accidents. Especially cyclists as vulnerable road users have a high risk of being injured if they are involved in accidents. This paper examines reasons for cycling anger in two studies. The first study aimed at identifying anger prov...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Zusammenfassung In diesem Workshop werden Best Practices zusammengetragen und erarbeitet, die darin unterstützen, ethische Aspekte früh und begleitend in der Gestaltung, Entwicklung und Erforschung neuer Technik einzusetzen. In kurzen Impulsreferaten von Referentinnen und Referenten wird zunächst das Spektrum aktueller Herausforderungen und möglich...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Zusammenfassung Seit einigen Jahren nimmt die Diskussion der ethischen Verantwortung von Technologieentwicklern einen immer größeren Raum ein. Selten jedoch werden praktische Maßnahmen fokussiert, die helfen können ethische Aspekte im Entwicklungsalltag zu berücksichtigen. In diesem Beitrag werden drei Methoden exemplarisch vorgestellt, die darin u...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Zusammenfassung Digitale Technologien werden immer leistungsfähiger, intelligenter und allgegenwärtiger. Im Zuge der Erforschung und Entwicklung von Mensch-Technik-Interaktion werden ethische Aspekte oft nur unzureichend oder zu spät berücksichtigt. Dieser Beitrag stellt das Messinstrument Epos vor, das die individuelle Ethische Position von Forsch...
Article
Driving behavior after take-over requests (TORs) is one of the most popular subjects in human factors re-search on highly automated driving. Many studies utilized one-step TOR procedures to prompt drivers to resume vehicle control. The present paper examines driver behavior when experiencing a two-step TOR procedure in different modalities. A two-s...
Article
Full-text available
Ethical aspects are of key importance in research and the development of technical systems. They play a major role when the societal impact of innovative products and new technologies is considered. However, ethics are already essential during technology development, especially when testing these technologies with human participants. The latter is...
Article
Technological products impact many aspects of individual´ lives. Modern research and product development processes consider user needs to ensure the acceptance and usability of technology. Researchers and developers involve therefore users into early stages of product development. As a consequence, ethical issues like providing informed consent, ma...
Conference Paper
The technical evolution of the past decades facilitated the development of highly automated vehicles. Accordingly, psychologists increased their efforts to investigate the effects of highly automated cars on driver perception, behaviour and experience. This article summarizes selected psychological studies on highly automated driving (SAE level 3)...
Conference Paper
Körperliche Bewegung ist der Ausdruck von Emotionen. So wird es in der Theorie der Ur-Affekte (Kafka, 1950) beschrieben. Raab und Kollegen erbrachten bereits empirische Belege für den Zusammenhang von Affekt und Körperbewegung (Raab et al., 2013). Die aktuelle Studie überprüft die Annahme dieser Korrelation erneut und erweitert den Test um den Einf...
Article
Objective: The objective of this paper was twofold: firstly, we wanted to examine whether the original Driving Anger Scale (DAS) and the original Driving Anger Expression Inventory (DAX) apply to German professional taxi drivers as these scales have previously been given to professional and particularly to non-professional drivers in different cou...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Usability is a central quality feature for business software these days. Insufficient usability may lead to great disadvantages in particular for small and medium enterprises (SMEs). Software producing SMEs may incur grave competitive disadvantages, especially towards bigger enterprises and international corporations. Software SMEs may suffer from...
Poster
Full-text available
Cycling anger defined as the propensity of cyclists to become angry in traffic is a concept so far rather neglected in research. Research on emotions in traffic has been focusing rather on car drivers than on cyclists. On the basis of previous qualitative research a questionnaire was developed assessing cyclists’ anger experience in interaction wit...
Poster
Full-text available
Most first world innovations are technology driven. Economical thoughts and thoughts on usability, user experience, service design, etc. are considered in the technology development process. Yet ethics did not find their way into everyday engineering despite many codes of conducts for engineers and developers. The Employee, Company, and Culture (EC...
Article
Die Interaktion von Mensch und Maschine ist Untersuchungsgegenstand der Ingenieurpsychologie. Technische Systeme sollten so beschaffen sein, dass wir sie effizient und fehlerfrei einsetzen können, um Aufgaben zu bewältigen und bestimmte Ziele zu erreichen. Lange Zeit standen dabei komplexe Systeme der Arbeitswelt, wie Leitwarten in Kraftwerken oder...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Es ist nicht einfach, Usability-Maßnahmen in kleine und mittlere Unternehmen (KMU) einzuführen. Für diese Unternehmen gelten Usability-Maßnahmen zumeist als wichtig, jedoch auch als zu teuer und aufwändig. Der aktuelle Beitrag zeigt anhand von empirischen Daten aus 20 Usability-Projekten mit softwareproduzierenden KMU wie es gelingen kann, Usabilit...
Article
Affective states have become a crucial part of human–computer interaction research. Many studies have analysed the impact of the technology on the users' affective states as a part of what is called user experience (UX). We consider the impact of antecedent affective states on interaction with a technological artefact. We induced positive and negat...
Data
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Conference Paper
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Return on Investment (ROI) is the most prominent concept for cost-benefit analyses to proof the profitability of software development efforts. However, current frameworks with focus on the financial ROI are not suitable to demonstrate the value of usability measures or to improve their performance. Hence we propose a new framework with specific Usa...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In der User Experience (UX) Forschung und Praxis liegt seit jeher ein Fokus auf der Erfassung des Konzeptes. Trotz der hohen Anzahl von Fragebögen sind bei weitem nicht alle dieser Instrumente auf ihre Gütekriterien überprüft worden. Daher übertrugen wir die erfolgreich eingesetzte Version der modified Differential Emotions Scale (mDES; Frederickso...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Zusammenfassung Die Berücksichtigung ethischer Aspekte in der Mensch-Technik Interaktion (MTI) spielt eine immer größere Rolle in Forschung und Entwicklung. Es gibt zahlreiche Ethikkodizes für Ingenieure und An-forderungen von Mittelgebern, aber keine empirischen Daten zu der Häufigkeit und Art von ethisch relevanten Problemen bei Forschungs-und En...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Zusammenfassung " Tut etwas für Usability! Denn die Anwendung von Usability-Maßnahmen verbessert jedes Softwareprodukt. " So möchte man es kleinen und mittleren Unternehmen zurufen, die diese Erkenntnis häufig noch nicht gewonnen haben. Doch selbst wenn man den Software-KMU diese Botschaft zuriefe, sie wollten und könnten Usability-Maßnahmen wohl k...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Enabling highly automated driving is a long lasting endeavor in traffic research. Whereas technical solutions have been tested for more than 20 years, psychological effects of highly automated driving became subject to debate in the last decade. Recent studies revealed that switching from highly automated to manual driving mode produces some diffic...
Chapter
Full-text available
Intuitiv bedienbare und an den realen Bedarfen der Endanwender entwickelte Software ist zu einem wichtigen Wettbewerbsfaktor geworden – sowohl für Anwenderunternehmen, als auch als Qualitätsmerkmal für Anwendungsentwickler. Doch trotz der Bedeutung des The-mas kommt es in der betrieblichen Praxis immer noch zu kurz, da es am Bewusstsein und Wissen...
Conference Paper
The present paper highlights the importance of positive technology, user experience, and needs fulfillment in developing countries. It proposes a theoretical framework that enables engineers and interaction designers to develop products that help users to fulfill their interaction needs in this special environment. Put in other words: the proposed...
Article
Zusammenfassung Bei der Interaktion mit technischen Geräten spielt das emotionale Nutzererleben (UX, User Experience) eine große Rolle. Die vorliegende Studie untersuchte zwei UX-Aspekte. Zum einen wurde die Möglichkeit der Induktion von Emotionen (Frustration und Freude) durch die Interaktion mit einer interaktiven Spielekonsole untersucht, zum an...
Thesis
Welche Geschwindigkeit wählen Sie auf einer Landstraße? Welche auf einer Autobahn? Sicherlich werden Ihre Antworten auf beide Fragen ähnlich lauten, beispielsweise: Kommt darauf an, welches Geschwindigkeitslimit gilt. Genau diese beispielhafte Antwort fanden bereits empirische Untersuchungen zu dieser Fragestellung (z. B. vanNes, Brandenburg & Twis...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Die Rahmenbedingungen bei kleinen und mittleren Softwareherstellern (KMU) erschweren häufig eine geplante und nachhaltige Einführung nutzerzentrierter Softwareentwicklung. Bisherige Reifegrad- und Prozessmodelle beschreiben eine umfassende Umsetzung der Prozessschritte des Usability Engineering, gehen dabei jedoch nicht auf mögliche Vorgehensweisen...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In the last years the emotional impact of artifacts became more and more interesting to the field of human-computer interaction research. Despite many models that describe factors of user experience (UX), most of them are of a descriptive nature. In contrast, we propose a theoretical approach, the model of user experience (MUX) that offers an expla...
Conference Paper
This paper describes the development of a culturally sensitive instrument for assessing user needs related to Internet usage. The resulting instrument, which encompasses four questionnaires used to obtain empirical data, was validated in a pre-study and experimental study in Germany and South Korea, and provides a quantitative and qualitative diffe...
Article
Motivational models of driving behaviour agree that choice of speed is modulated by drivers' goals. Whilst it is accepted that some goals favour fast driving and others favour safe driving, little is known about the interplay of these conflicting goals. In the present study, two aspects of this interplay are investigated: the balance of conflict an...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Bei der Interaktion mit technischen Geräten spielt das emotionale Nutzererleben (UX, User Experience)
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Virtual prototypes are essential for engineers to understand the complex structures and arrangements of mechatronic products like automobiles. Currently, Virtual Environments (VE) are used for visual analysis and interaction with virtual models. In the next years more supplementary information will be integrated in the VE, completing the 3D-model....
Conference Paper
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Intuitive interaction utilizes stored experiential knowledge (Blackler et al., 2007a). Several theorists focus on the impact of prior knowledge on intuitive interaction (e.g. Hurtienne & Israel, 2007; Baylor, 2001). However, most empirical investigations look at experiential knowledge that was gained through past experience of some product features...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
To date, inappropriately adjusted driving speed is still one of the main causes for traffic accidents (Aarts et al., 2011). Recent theoretical approaches of modeling speed behavior assume that choice of speed is partly determined by environmental characteristics (e.g. Fuller, 2005). In addition, empirical studies revealed an influence of basic chan...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
When people have to make predictions and diagnosis they make use oftheir causal knowledge. This knowledge refers to two constituting aspects of causality: sufficiency and necessity. In standard theories both aspects are considered as being independent from each other. The present research tests this assumption. In an experiment we examined how peop...
Article
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Declarative memory is a central resource for reasoning processes. In line with the ACT-R theory, we assume that declarative memory is the basis for causal learning. Based on this assumption we conducted an experiment, showing that subjects' confidence in causal predictions decreased if their causal knowledge is discredited. Moreover, confidence dec...
Article
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 Abstract— Speed and homogeneity of speed are important factors for safe and sustainable traffic. Lower speeds and more homogeneous speeds are safer and cause less pollution. Speed behavior is influenced by environmental factors as well as by personal factors. Understanding the relation between speed behaviour and the influencing factors offers cl...
Chapter
Zusammenfassung Eine Zielstellung der Geräteentwicklung im Bereich mobiler Telekommunikation und Technikinteraktion ist die schnelle Erlernbarkeit und effektive Nutzung neuer Funktionen und Interaktionsformen durch den Anwender. Damit verbunden ist die Frage, wie grafische Benutzungsschnittstellen gestaltet sein müssen, um die kognitive Beanspruch...
Article
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Homogeneity of driving speeds is an important variable in determining road safety; more homogeneous driving speeds increase road safety. This study investigates the effect of introducing dynamic speed limit systems on homogeneity of driving speeds. A total of 46 subjects twice drove a route along 12 road sections in a driving simulator. The speed l...
Conference Paper
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Zusammenfassung Interaktive technische Produkte, wie Computer, mobile Endgeräte und Verkaufsautomaten, werden heutzutage in nahezu allen Lebensbereichen genutzt, um bestimmte Aufgaben in Freizeit und Beruf zu erledigen. Idealerweise erfolgt der Gebrauch solcher Systeme, ohne den Nutzer zusätzlich über die Anforderungen der Zielerreichung hinaus zu...
Chapter
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Schlüsselwörter: Müdigkeit im Kfz, Fremdbewertung, psychometrische Gütekriterien, Bewer-tungsverfahren Zusammenfassung Müdigkeit im Straßenverkehr ist eine der Hauptunfallursachen (Evers & Auerbach, 2005). In Zukunft soll eine automatische Erkennung von Müdigkeit im Kraftfahrzeug helfen, die Unfall-häufigkeit zu reduzieren. Die dafür entwickelten A...
Conference Paper
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Homogeneity of driving speed is considered to be an important variable determining traffic safety. A more homogeneous driving speed increases road safety. This study investigates if the introduction of dynamic speed limit systems will contribute to an increase in homogeneity of driving speed and to what extent this can be explained by an increase i...
Article
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Zusammenfassung Schätzungen zufolge entstehen 10-20% aller Verkehrsunfälle unter dem Einfluss von Müdigkeit [1]. Automatische Warnsysteme für Kraftfahrzeuge könnten helfen, müdigkeitsbedingte Unfälle zu verhindern. Die Wirksamkeit solcher Systeme hängt stark davon ab, ob ein Fahrer auf eine entsprechende Systemrückmeldung angemessen reagiert. Wir d...

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