Stefan Borgwardt

Stefan Borgwardt
Universität zu Lübeck · Klinik für Psychiatrie und Psychotherapie

MD

About

658
Publications
166,120
Reads
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23,778
Citations
Citations since 2017
323 Research Items
15335 Citations
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201720182019202020212022202305001,0001,5002,0002,5003,000
201720182019202020212022202305001,0001,5002,0002,5003,000
201720182019202020212022202305001,0001,5002,0002,5003,000
Introduction
Stefan Borgwardt is appointed as Chair of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy at the University of Lübeck, Germany, and Visiting Professor at the Institute of Psychiatry, King’s College London, UK.
Additional affiliations
January 2012 - present
Position
  • Defining the role of carbohydrate in the nutrient‐induced human brain activation matrix
January 2011 - December 2012
January 2010 - present
Universitäre Psychiatrische Kliniken Basel
Position
  • Professor (Full)

Publications

Publications (658)
Article
Importance Social and occupational impairments contribute to the burden of psychosis and depression. There is a need for risk stratification tools to inform personalized functional-disability preventive strategies for individuals in at-risk and early phases of these illnesses. Objective To determine whether predictors associated with social and ro...
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Common risk factors for psychiatric and other brain disorders are likely to converge on biological pathways influencing the development and maintenance of brain structure and function across life. Using structural MRI data from 45,615 individuals aged 3–96 years, we demonstrate distinct patterns of apparent brain aging in several brain disorders an...
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The introduction of clinical criteria for the operationalization of psychosis high risk provided a basis for early detection and treatment of vulnerable individuals. However, about two-thirds of people meeting clinical high-risk (CHR) criteria will never develop a psychotic disorder. In the effort to increase prognostic precision, structural and fu...
Article
Background Patients with psychotic disorders present alterations in thalamocortical intrinsic functional connectivity (iFC) as measured by resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI). Specifically, thalamic iFC is increased with sensorimotor cortices (hyperconnectivity) and decreased with prefrontal-limbic cortices (hypoconnectivi...
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Negative symptoms occur frequently in individuals at clinical high risk (CHR) for psychosis and contribute to functional impairments. The aim of this study was to predict negative symptom severity in CHR after 9 months. Predictive models either included baseline negative symptoms measured with the Structured Interview for Psychosis-Risk Syndromes (...
Preprint
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Normative modeling is a statistical approach to quantify the degree to which a particular individual-level measure deviates from the pattern observed in a normative reference population. When applied to human brain morphometric measures it has the potential to inform about the significance of normative deviations for health and disease. Normative m...
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Investigators in the cognitive neurosciences have turned to Big Data to address persistent replication and reliability issues by increasing sample sizes, statistical power, and representativeness of data. While there is tremendous potential to advance science through open data sharing, these efforts unveil a host of new questions about how to integ...
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Acute caffeine intake has been found to increase working memory (WM)-related brain activity in healthy adults without improving behavioral performances. The impact of daily caffeine intake—a ritual shared by 80% of the population worldwide—and of its discontinuation on working memory and its neural correlates remained unknown. In this double-blind,...
Article
Background: In major depressive disorder (MDD), cognitive dysfunctions strongly contribute to functional impairments but are barely addressed in current therapies. Novel treatment strategies addressing cognitive symptoms in depression are needed. As the gut microbiota–brain axis is linked to depression and cognition, we investigated the effect of a...
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Background Probiotics are suggested to improve depressive symptoms via the microbiota-gut-brain axis. We have recently shown a beneficial clinical effect of probiotic supplementation in patients with depression. Their underlying neural mechanisms remain unknown. Methods A multimodal neuroimaging approach including diffusion tensor imaging, resting...
Article
Zusammenfassung In den letzten Jahren erlebte die klinische Forschung zur therapeutischen Wirksamkeit von Psychedelika eine Art Renaissance. Der aktuelle Stand wissenschaftlicher Erkenntnisse zur Wirksamkeit bei verschiedenen psychiatrischen Indikationen, wie auch die bereits unter bestimmten Voraussetzungen genehmigungsfähige Anwendung einiger psy...
Article
Background: The Collaborative Outcome study on Health and Functioning during Infection Times (COH-FIT; www.coh-fit.com) is an anonymous and global online survey measuring health and functioning during COVID-19 pandemic. The aim of this study was to test concurrently the validity of COH-FIT items and the internal validity of the co-primary outcome,...
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Background and hypothesis Around 20% of people at clinical high risk (CHR) for psychosis later develop a psychotic disorder, but it is difficult to predict who this will be. We assessed the incidence of hearing speech (termed speech illusions [SIs]) in noise in CHR participants and examined whether this was associated with adverse clinical outcomes...
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Schizophrenia (SZ) is associated with an increased risk of life-long cognitive impairments, age-related chronic disease, and premature mortality. We investigated evidence for advanced brain ageing in adult SZ patients, and whether this was associated with clinical characteristics in a prospective meta-analytic study conducted by the ENIGMA Schizoph...
Article
Full-text available
Structural MRI studies in first-episode psychosis and the clinical high-risk state have consistently shown volumetric abnormalities. Aim of the present study was to introduce radiomics texture features in identification of psychosis. Radiomics texture features describe the interrelationship between voxel intensities across multiple spatial scales c...
Chapter
Pharmacological treatments for alcohol use disorders have proven efficacy. However, only a minority of treated individuals receive pharmacotherapy. Moreover, in the majority of cases, treatment duration is too short and does not follow recommendations of guidelines. A number of barriers have been identified that are related to the poor adoption of...
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Introduction: Excessive internet use can lead to problems for some individuals. The WHO has introduced Gaming Disorder in the International Classification of Diseases-11 (ICD-11). Previous research has shown that other internet applications can cause serious mental health problems as well. It is important to provide measures of prevention, early i...
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Psychedelics have emerged as promising candidate treatments for various psychiatric conditions, and given their clinical potential, there is a need to identify biomarkers that underlie their effects. Here, we investigate the neural mechanisms of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) using regression dynamic causal modelling (rDCM), a novel technique tha...
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New treatment approaches for opioid-dependent patients include injectable opioid agonist treatment with diacetylmorphine. While evidence has shown beneficial clinical effects of diacetylmorphine, it is still not clear how long-term diacetylmorphine treatment affects the brain and whether functional brain changes are accompanied by clinical improvem...
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Structural MRI studies in first-episode psychosis (FEP) and in clinical high risk (CHR) patients have consistently shown volumetric abnormalities in frontal, temporal, and cingulate cortex areas. The aim of the present study was to employ chaos analysis for the identification of brain topology differences in people with psychosis. Structural MRI we...
Article
Aims: The problematic use of social networks is discussed as a further specific type of Internet-use disorders. Our project aims to clarify whether social-networks-use disorder (SNUD) is marked by characteristics of addictive behaviors by tracking behavior and investigating the relevance of 1) implicit cognitions, 2) the experiences of gratificatio...
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Background Adolescents and young adults (AYA) have an increased risk for Internet use disorders (IUD) compared to older individuals that may lead to functional impairments in daily life. To date, evidence-based brief interventions are lacking. This study aimed to test the efficacy of a low-threshold counseling approach based on Motivational Intervi...
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Importance: The behavioral and cognitive symptoms of severe psychotic disorders overlap with those seen in dementia. However, shared brain alterations remain disputed, and their relevance for patients in at-risk disease stages has not been explored so far. Objective: To use machine learning to compare the expression of structural magnetic resona...
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Subtle subjective visual dysfunctions (VisDys) are reported by about 50% of patients with schizophrenia and are suggested to predict psychosis states. Deeper insight into VisDys, particularly in early psychosis states, could foster the understanding of basic disease mechanisms mediating susceptibility to psychosis, and thereby inform preventive int...
Article
Background Perinatal depression (PND) is a severe complication of pregnancy, but there are no established risk factors predicting the disease. Evening chronotype has been associated with unhealthy lifestyle habits and adverse outcomes during pregnancy. In this study, we aimed to clarify whether chronotype can predict symptoms and/or occurrence of P...
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The basal forebrain cholinergic nuclei (BFCN) provide the main cholinergic input to prefrontal cortices, the hippocampi, and amygdala. These structures are highly relevant for the regulation and maintenance of many cognitive functions, such as attention and memory. In vivo neuroimaging studies reported alterations of the cholinergic system in psych...
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A promising new treatment approach for major depressive disorder (MDD) targets the microbiota-gut-brain (MGB) axis, which is linked to physiological and behavioral functions affected in MDD. This is the first randomized controlled trial to determine whether short-term, high-dose probiotic supplementation reduces depressive symptoms along with gut m...
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According to previous research, borderline personality disorder (BPD) is associated with high cost-of-illness. However, there is still a shortage of cost-of-illness-studies assessing costs from a broad societal perspective, including direct and indirect costs. Further, there are considerable differences in the results among the existing studies. In...
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Background LSD and psilocybin are increasingly used in phase I trials and evaluated as therapeutic agents for mental disorders. The phenomenon of reoccurring drug-like experiences after the acute substance effects have worn off was described for both substances and especially attributed to LSD. According to the DSM-V, the persisting and distressing...
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Background Despite the constant publication of new screening instruments for Internet use disorders (IUD), little is known about their content validity. This study aimed to identify potential mismatches between the items' intention and young adults' interpretation of these items when answering three screening instruments that are commonly used in r...
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Background and hypothesis: In a complex world, gathering information and adjusting our beliefs about the world is of paramount importance. The literature suggests that patients with psychotic disorders display a tendency to draw early conclusions based on limited evidence, referred to as the jumping-to-conclusions bias, but few studies have examin...
Article
Importance: Approaches are needed to stratify individuals in early psychosis stages beyond positive symptom severity to investigate specificity related to affective and normative variation and to validate solutions with premorbid, longitudinal, and genetic risk measures. Objective: To use machine learning techniques to cluster, compare, and comb...
Preprint
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Background Fatigue has an adaptive function and serves as a temporary signal to rest and save energy often in response to immune activation. It may, however, also persist in a pathological condition incurring significant burden. While subjective symptoms and scientific consensus indicate that both physical and mental determinants of motivated behav...
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To investigate the longitudinal latent state-trait structure of the different dimensions of psychosis symptoms in clinical high-risk state (CHRS) and first episode psychosis (FEP) individuals over a one year time-span. This paper examines if the symptom clusters Positive Symptoms, Negative Symptoms, Affectivity, Resistance, Activation, and Exciteme...
Preprint
Caffeine has been reported to acutely increase working memory (WM)-related brain activity without a significant enhancement in performances in healthy adults. As a ritual in the society, however, the impacts of daily caffeine intake on WM-related brain activities remain unknown. This double-blind randomized crossover study aimed to investigate the...
Article
Full-text available
Objective Social dysfunction is a major feature of clinical-high-risk states for psychosis (CHR-P). Prior research has identified a neuroanatomical pattern associated with impaired social function outcome in CHR-P. The aim of the current study was to test whether social dysfunction in CHR-P is neurobiologically distinct or in a continuum with the l...
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Background Formal thought disorder (FTD) has been associated with more severe illness courses and functional deficits in patients with psychotic disorders. However, it remains unclear whether the presence of FTD characterises a specific subgroup of patients showing more prominent illness severity, neurocognitive and functional impairments. This stu...
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High utilizers (HU) are patients with an above-average use of psychiatric inpatient treatment. A precise characterization of this patient group is important when tailoring specific treatment approaches for them. While the current literature reports evidence of sociodemographic, and socio-clinical characteristics of HU, knowledge regarding their psy...
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Background Identifying neurobiologically based transdiagnostic categories of depression and psychosis may elucidate heterogeneity, and provide better candidates for predictive modelling. We aimed to identify clusters across patients with recent onset depression (ROD) and recent onset psychosis (ROP) based on structural neuroimaging data. We hypothe...
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Left-right asymmetry is an important organizing feature of the healthy brain that may be altered in schizophrenia, but most studies have used relatively small samples and heterogeneous approaches, resulting in equivocal findings. We carried out the largest case-control study of structural brain asymmetries in schizophrenia, using MRI data from 5,08...
Preprint
Full-text available
Structural MRI studies in first-episode psychosis and the clinical high-risk state have consistently shown volumetric abnormalities. Aim of the present study was to introduce radiomics texture features in identification of psychosis. Radiomics texture features describe the interrelationship between voxel intensities across multiple spatial scales c...
Article
Full-text available
Depression is a debilitating disorder, and at least one third of patients do not respond to therapy. Associations between gut microbiota and depression have been observed in recent years, opening novel treatment avenues. Here, we present the first two patients with major depressive disorder ever treated with fecal microbiota transplantation as add-...
Article
Background: . High-quality comprehensive data on short-/long-term physical/mental health effects of the COVID-19 pandemic are needed. Methods: . The Collaborative Outcomes study on Health and Functioning during Infection Times (COH-FIT) is an international, multi-language (n=30) project involving >230 investigators from 49 countries/territories/re...
Article
Background Clinical high-risk states for psychosis (CHR) are associated with functional impairments and depressive disorders. A previous PRONIA study predicted social functioning in CHR and recent-onset depression (ROD) based on structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI) and clinical data. However, the combination of these domains did not lead to...
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Full-text available
Caffeine elicits widespread effects in the central nervous system and is the most frequently consumed psychostimulant worldwide. First evidence indicates that, during daily intake, the elimination of caffeine may slow down, and the primary metabolite, paraxanthine, may accumulate. The neural impact of such adaptions is virtually unexplored. In this...
Article
Zusammenfassung Ziel war die Erfassung subjektiver Einstellungen von Medizinstudierenden gegenüber alkoholbezogenen Störungen (AS) im direkten Vergleich mit anderen psychischen und somatischen Erkrankungen. Die mithilfe eines Onlinefragebogens befragten Studierenden (n = 1875) bewerteten AS gegenüber anderen Erkrankungen als weniger schwerwiegend (...
Article
Objective Psychotic disorders are frequently associated with decline in functioning and cognitive difficulties are observed in subjects at clinical high risk (CHR) for psychosis. In this work, we applied automatic approaches to neurocognitive and functioning measures, with the aim of investigating the link between global, social and occupational f...
Preprint
Full-text available
Schizophrenia (SZ) is associated with an increased risk of life-long cognitive impairments, age-related chronic disease, and premature mortality. We investigated evidence for advanced brain ageing in adult SZ patients, and whether this was associated with clinical characteristics in a prospective meta-analytic study conducted by the ENIGMA Schizoph...
Preprint
Full-text available
Structural MRI studies in first-episode psychosis (FEP) and in clinical high risk (CHR) patients have consistently shown volumetric abnormalities in frontal, temporal, and cingulate cortex areas. The aim of the present study was to employ chaos analysis in the identification of people with psychosis. Structural MRI were acquired from 73 CHR, 77 FEP...
Article
Background: Cognitive Behavioral System of Psychotherapy (CBASP) and Metacognitive Therapy (MCT) are effective for depression. CBASP might offer most benefit in patients reporting childhood emotional abuse (CEA). This needs to be confirmed in real-world settings and in comparisons with bona-fide psychotherapies. This study examines the moderating i...
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Full-text available
Background: Psychotic disorders are associated with high rates of comorbid substance use disorders. Use of cannabis rich in tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is linked to an increased risk of psychosis, worsening of psychotic symptoms, and an adverse course of psychotic disorders. Previous studies suggest oral cannabidiol (CBD) as possible novel antipsych...
Article
Full-text available
Background: This study explores the association of experienced dependency in psychotherapy as measured with the CDQ (Care Dependency Questionnaire) and treatment outcome in depression. Furthermore, the course of care dependency and differences in the CDQ scores depending on the received type of treatment, MCT (metacognitive therapy), or CBASP (cogn...
Article
Personalised prediction of functional outcomes is a promising approach for targeted early intervention in psychiatry. However, generalisability and resource efficiency of such prognostic models represent challenges. In the PRONIA study (German Clinical Trials Register: DRKS00005042), we demonstrate excellent generalisability of prognostic models in...
Article
Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has altered daily routines and family functioning, led to closing schools, and dramatically limited social interactions worldwide. Measuring its impact on mental health of vulnerable children and adolescents is crucial. Methods: The Collaborative Outcomes study on Health and Functioning during Infection Times (C...
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Psychiatry has a well-established tradition of comparing drug-induced experiences to psychotic symptoms, based on shared phenomena such as altered perceptions. The present review focuses on experiences induced by classic psychedelics, which are substances capable of eliciting powerful psychoactive effects, characterized by distortions/alterations o...
Article
Approximately 2% of adolescents and young adults display symptoms indicating a high risk for psychotic disorders. Apart from a risk of 20-35% of developing a psychotic disorder, these individuals show high rates of persisting mental health problems and functional impairment, even in the absence of a psychotic transition. Treatment in specialized ce...
Article
Adult gyrification provides a window into coordinated early neurodevelopment when disruptions predispose individuals to psychiatric illness. We hypothesized that the echoes of such disruptions should be observed within structural gyrification networks in early psychiatric illness that would demonstrate associations with developmentally relevant var...
Article
Full-text available
Schizophrenia is associated with widespread alterations in subcortical brain structure. While analytic methods have enabled more detailed morphometric characterization, findings are often equivocal. In this meta-analysis, we employed the harmonized ENIGMA shape analysis protocols to collaboratively investigate subcortical brain structure shape diff...