Stefan Bogdanov

Stefan Bogdanov
Bee Product Science · bee products

PhD

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126
Publications
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Publications

Publications (126)
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Organic honey is produced by apiaries with certified organic beekeeping. The composition of organic honey is the same as normal natural honey. The only difference is that such honey should not contain toxic residues of pesticides used in agriculture and beekeeping.
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This article concentrates on the main quality issues of Apis mellifera beeswax: production by bees and processing by beekeepers and manufacturers, overall chemical composition, as well as sensory and physicochemical characteristics. The main quality issues today are adulteration and contamination. Contamination from the environment being relatively...
Article
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International honey standards are specified in a European Honey Directive and in the Codex Alimentarius Standard for Honey, both of which are presently under revision. In this article, present knowledge on the different quality criteria is reviewed. The standard drafts include standards and methods for the determination of the following quality fac...
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In the last two decades many papers have been published on issues concerning bee pollen. Some have related to nutritional and therapeutic claims supported by scientific based evidence and many have dealt with quality control questions and validation of the methodologies that allow bee pollen producers to have sufficient knowledge to provide the mar...
Conference Paper
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Royal jelly (RJ) is a valuable bee product with different functional health enhancing properties. It is produced in Bulgaria only in conventional beekeeping. The study was carried out to update the present Bulgarian RJ standard. 30 RJ samples from whole Bulgaria were analysed. In general, the methods described in Sabatini et al., (2009) were follow...
Article
Due to its high carbohydrate content honey is an excellent energy source and possesses some functional effects. It is especially valuable for children and sportsmen. The glycemic index of honey varies from 32 to 91 depending on botanical origin. Honey contains also a great number of other constituents in small and trace amounts. This composition po...
Article
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a b s t r a c t Total phenolic phytochemical concentration was measured in 12 honeybee-collected pollens of selected floral species as well as their antioxidant capacity. The content of total polyphenols was measured spec-trophotometrically using the Folin–Ciocalteu reagent with gallic acid as standard. The antioxidant prop-erties were evaluated by...
Article
In this study, we investigated and compared the physico-chemical properties (moisture, colour, ash, and sugars content) as well as total phenols, total flavonoids and antioxidant activity of several honey samples (24) collected from different regions of Romania. The physico-chemical values were in the range of approved limits (conforming to EU legi...
Article
a b s t r a c t In this study, we investigated and compared the physico-chemical properties (moisture, colour, ash, and sugars content) as well as total phenols, total flavonoids and antioxidant activity of several honey sam-ples (24) collected from different regions of Romania. The physico-chemical values were in the range of approved limits (conf...
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Due to the variation of botanical origin honey differs in appearance, sensory perception and composition. The main nutritional and health relevant components are carbohydrates, mainly fructose and glucose but also about 25 different oligosaccharides. Although honey is a high carbohydrate food, its glycemic index varies within a wide range from 32 t...
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Honey bee pollen is considered to be a food, and national pollen standards exist in different countries such as Brazil, Bulgaria, Poland and Switzerland. It is the aim of the present work to review pollen composition and the analytical methods used for the evaluation of high quality bee pollen. Based on the experience of different countries and on...
Article
Honey bee pollen is considered to be a food, and national pollen standards exist in different countries such as Brazil, Bulgaria, Poland and Switzerland. It is the aim of the present work to review pollen composition and the analytical methods used for the evaluation of high quality bee pollen. Based on the experience of different countries and on...
Article
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Validated spectrophotometric procedures were used to quantify three main groups of bioactive substances (phenolics, flavones/flavonols, flavanones/dihydroflavonols) in 114 samples of poplar-type propolis from different geographic origins. From the results, we characterized raw poplar propolis in terms of minimum content of its bioactive components...
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Fourier transform near-infrared spectroscopy (FT-NIR) was evaluated to quantitatively determine 24 different measurands in honey. The reference values of 421 honey samples of different botanical origins were determined by classical physical and chemical methods. Partial least squares regression was used to develop the calibration models for the mea...
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Honey usually contains a variety of mineral substances. Ninety five samples of known geographic and botanic origin were analyzed in order to detect possible contamination by common air pollution or other pathways. It was found that most elements correlate significantly with electrical conductivity. The contamination level of the toxic elements Pb a...
Article
Honey usually contains a variety of mineral substances. Ninety five samples of known geographic and botanic origin were analyzed in order to detect possible contamination by common air pollution or other pathways. It was found that most elements correlate significantly with electrical conductivity. The contamination level of the toxic elements Pb a...
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SUMMARY Compositional data from 152 stingless bee (Meliponini) honey samples were compiled from studies since 1964, and evaluated to propose a quality standard for this product. Since stingless bee honey has a different composition than Apis mellifera hon- ey, some physicochemical parameters are presented according to stingless bee species. The ent...
Book
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Agroscope Liebefeld-Posieux Zentrum für Bienenforschung Eidg. Forschungsanstalt für Nutztiere und Milchwirtschaft (ALP) Schwarzenburgstrasse 161 CH-3003 Bern Telephon +41 (0)31 323 84 18 Fax +41 (0)31 323 84 18
Article
Front-face fluorescence spectroscopy, directly applied on honey samples, was used for the authentication of 11 unifloral and polyfloral honey types (n = 371 samples) previously classified using traditional methods such as chemical, pollen, and sensory analysis. Excitation spectra (220-400 nm) were recorded with the emission measured at 420 nm. In a...
Article
Fourier transform near-infrared spectroscopy (FT-NIR) was evaluated for the authentication of eight unifloral and polyfloral honey types (n = 364 samples) previously classified using traditional methods such as chemical, pollen, and sensory analysis. Chemometric evaluation of the spectra was carried out by applying principal component analysis and...
Article
The potential of Fourier transform mid-infrared spectroscopy (FT-MIR) using an attenuated total reflectance (ATR) cell was evaluated for the authentication of 11 unifloral (acacia, alpine rose, chestnut, dandelion, heather, lime, rape, fir honeydew, metcalfa honeydew, oak honeydew) and polyfloral honey types (n = 411 samples) previously classified...
Article
Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) was used to determine 20 different measurands in honey. The reference values for 144 honey samples of different botanical origin were determined by classical physical and chemical methods. Partial least squares regression was used to develop the calibration models for the measurands studied. They were...
Article
Propolis has been used as a remedy since ancient times, because of its remarkable healing properties. It attracts the attention of modern scientists with its diverse pharmacological activities and low toxicity. At present, there are two main directions in propolis research. One is aimed to the use of propolis in well defined pharmaceutical preparat...
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Se compilaron datos de composición de 152 mieles de abejas sin aguijón (Meliponini) en estudios realizados desde 1964, y se evaluaron para proponer requisitos de calidad para este producto. Dado que la miel de abejas sin aguijón tienen una composición distinta a la de Apis mellifera, algunos parámetros físico-químicos fueron presentados según la es...
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Bee products can be contaminated from different sources. The contamination can arise from beekeeping practices or from the environment. Environmental contaminants are covered in the first part of the review. They are: the heavy metals lead, cadmium and mercury, radioactive isotopes, organic pollutants, pesticides (insecticides, fungicides, herbicid...
Article
The potential of front-face fluorescence spectroscopy for the authentication of unifloral and polyfloral honey types (n = 57 samples) previously classified using traditional methods such as chemical, pollen, and sensory analysis was evaluated. Emission spectra were recorded between 280 and 480 nm (excit: 250 nm), 305 and 500 nm (excit: 290 nm), and...
Article
The validation of rapid, low-cost spectrophotometric procedures for the quantification of the three main groups of bioactive substances (flavones and flavonols, flavanones and dihydroflavonols, and total phenolics) in poplar-type propolis has been performed. A spectrophotometric assay based on the formation of an aluminium chloride complex was appl...
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An electronic nose based on mass spectrometry has been applied to the control of the authenticity of the botanical origin of honey. PCA and DFA models were built based on groups of samples identified as typical unifloral honey by a classical method, i.e. a combination of sensory, pollen and physicochemical analysis. Swiss unifloral honeys of the fo...
Article
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Honey authenticity is defined by the Codex Alimentarius standard, the EU Honey Directive and several national legislations. The Codex and EU standards were recently revised. The authenticity of honey and other bee products have two aspects. Authenticity in respect of production i.e. to prevent adulteration by addition of other food ingredients by c...
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Bee gathered pollen is regarded as valuable special food and is used also in apitherapy. A production method, that ensures good pollen quality is described, as well as the main quality criteria, that can be included in a future standard. There are sensory, microbiological and physico-chemical quality criteria. Most important for the pollen quality...
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Para-dichlorobenzene (PDCB) is an insecticide used in beekeeping for wax moth control. Analysis of PDCB residues were carried out on Swiss retail market honey samples by the cantonal food control authorities in 1997, 1998, 2000, 2001 and 2002. 173 Swiss honeys and 287 imported samples were analysed. On average, 30% of the Swiss honeys contained PDC...
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The contamination sources of the bee colony can roughly be divided into environmental and apicul-tural ones. The environmental sources can be further divided in agricultural and non-agricultural ones. The following environmental sources were examined: heavy metals, radioactivity and pesticides. The contamination of bee products by these sources is...
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A method is reported for the first time for the determination in beeswax of several acaricides used for the control of the bee parasite Varroa destructor. The method was optimized and validated for amitraz residues in wax and was applied to the determination of other acaricides: bromopropylate (BP), chlordimeform, cymiazole and chlorfenvinphos. It...
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The objective of this paper is to review shortly the current status of the analytical methods, used for the examination of bee products. There will be a focus on the main contaminants in bee products. Details about the different method can be found in the references. Following antibiotics have been reported to be used in apiculture, but there are n...
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The bee parasite Varroa destructor has developed resistance against traditional varroacides in many regions of Europe 46. Of course, there are substitutes, such as organic acids and components of essential oils. However, these are effective only, if applied in the frame of a control strategy. The aim of this article is to provide more background in...
Article
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The solid phase microextraction technique was tested for thymol evaluation in honey. Thymol can be present in honey as a residue of treatments against Varroa destructor Honey was sampled from apiaries treated with anti-Varroa products whose active ingredient is thymol. Thymol evaluation was done using the internal standard method; benzophenone and...
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Formic acid and oxalic acid field trials for control of Varroa destructor were carried out in autumn according to the Swiss prescriptions during three successive years in different apiaries in Switzerland. The following parameters were determined in honey that was harvested the year after treatment: formic acid, ox- alic acid and free acidity. The...
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Ten propolis samples from Bulgaria, Italy and Switzerland were analyzed by GC-MS. As expected, most samples displayed the typical chemical pattern of "poplar" propolis: they contained pinocembrin, pinobanksin and its 3-O-acetate, chrysin, galangin, prenyl esters of caffeic and ferulic acids. Two samples differed significantly: one from the Graubünd...
Article
A study on the possible degradation of amitraz, bromopropylate, coumaphos, chlordimeform, cymiazole, flumethrin, and tau-fluvalinate during the storage of honey was carried out by HPLC. Except amitraz, the other acaricides are stable in this medium for at least 9 months. Degradation studies of amitraz in honey and beeswax were carried out; the degr...
Article
Degradation processes of bromopropylate, coumaphos, chlordimeform, cymiazole, flumethrin and fluvalinate in aqueous media have been studied by HPLC. Cymiazole is stable at any tested pH (1-11), while bromopropylate, flumethrin and coumaphos are unstable at basic pH and chlordimeform and fluvalinate in neutral and basic media. The main degradation p...
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Essential oils and essential oil components offer an attractive alternative to synthetic acaricides for the control of Varroa jacobsoni. They are generally inexpensive and most pose few health risks. Terpenes (mainly monoterpenes) are the main components of essential oils, comprising about 90 % of the total. More than 150 essential oils and compone...
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Apilife VAR®, with thymol as its main active ingredient, is registered for use against Varroa jacobsoni Oudemans in Switzerland. After Apilife VAR® treatment in autumn of 1992, the residues in honey and comb were examined the following spring. Only thymol residues were found in honey, whereas in comb the residues consisted of 99 % thymol and 1 % me...
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Bee colonies were prevented from collecting pollen, and the effect on brood rearing and on the N, P, K, Ca, Na and Mg contents of pupae was studied. Under these conditions brood rearing was reduced and fully stopped, which lead to a decrease in population size, whereas control colonies with access to pollen developed normally. Only a few significan...
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The ectoparasitic mite Varroa jacobsoni reproduces in the capped brood of the honey bees Apis cerana and Apis mellifera. Observations on the reproductive behavior of the mite have shown a well-structured spatial allocation of its activity using the bee or cell wall for different behaviors. The resulting advantages for the parasite of this subdivisi...
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In Switzerland the acaricides Folbex VA (bromopropylate, BP), Perizin (coumaphos, CM), Apistan (fluvalinate, FV) Bayvarol (flumethrin, FM) are used for varroa control. We studied the contamination level of BP, CM and FV in brood and honey combs, sugar feed and honey after field trials. In samples of recycled pure beeswax and propolis, gathered by b...
Article
The ectoparasitic mite Varroa jacobsoni reproduces in the capped brood of the honey bees Apis cerana and Apis mellifera. Observations on the reproductive behavior of the mite have shown a well-structured spatial allocation of its activity using the bee or cell wall for different behaviors. The resulting advantages for the parasite of this subdivisi...
Article
The nonperoxide antibacterial activity of honey and honey fractions was tested withStaphylococcus aureusandMicrococcus luteusbacterial species. Antibacterial activity correlated significantly with the honey acidity but did not correlate with honey pH. There were small differences between the antibacterial activities of different honey types: rhodod...
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There are two types of antibacterial agents in honey. The peroxide one is destructed when honey is heated or stored in the light. The other one is a non-peroxide one and is stable to heat and storage. The chemical properties of the non-peroxide activity are determined. Most of the non- peroxide antibacterial activity originates from the bee, but so...
Chapter
The acaricides Folbex VA (active ingredient, a.i. bromopropylate), Perizin (coumaphos), Apistan (fluvalinate) and Bayvarol (flumethrine) are used in Switzerland for varroa control in autumn, after the bee season. These acaricides are in world-wide use and there are many reports, dealing with their residues in honey and beeswax (1–8). The varroacide...
Chapter
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Honey acts as an antibacterial agent against many bacteria (1). There are two sorts of antibacterial agents or so called “inhibines.” One of them is heat- and light-sensitive and has its origin in the H2O2, produced by honey glucose oxidase (2,3,4). Some workers believe that hydrogen peroxide is the main antibacterial agent (2,5,6). Other authors f...
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The HPLC sugar profiles and the conductivity of 42 stingless bee honey samples from Venezuela were determined. Three of the honey types were produced by Melipona species (n = 24), while the rest belonged mainly to five Trigona species. The main sugars of the Melipona honeys were fructose and glucose, with an average of 36.7 g/100 g. The Trigona (Fr...
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