Steeve Boulant

Steeve Boulant
Universität Heidelberg · Department of Infectious Diseases, Virology

PhD

About

152
Publications
21,993
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
6,387
Citations
Additional affiliations
February 2012 - present
Universität Heidelberg
Position
  • Group Leader

Publications

Publications (152)
Article
Full-text available
Increasing evidence points towards the key role of the epithelium in the systemic and over-activated immune response to viral infection, including SARS-CoV-2 infection. Yet, how viral infection alters epithelial–immune cell interactions regulating inflammatory responses, is not well known. Available experimental approaches are insufficient to prope...
Article
Full-text available
Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) and interferons (IFNs) serve as essential antiviral defense against SARS-CoV-2, the causative agent of the COVID-19 pandemic. Type III IFNs (IFN-λ) exhibit cell-type specific and long-lasting functions in auto-inflammation, tumorigenesis, and antiviral defense. Here, we identify the deubiquitinating enzyme USP22...
Article
Full-text available
The chr12q24.13 locus encoding OAS1–OAS3 antiviral proteins has been associated with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) susceptibility. Here, we report genetic, functional and clinical insights into this locus in relation to COVID-19 severity. In our analysis of patients of European (n = 2,249) and African (n = 835) ancestries with hospitalized ve...
Article
Full-text available
SARS-CoV-2 hijacks the host cell transcriptional machinery to induce a phenotypic state amenable to its replication. Here we show that analysis of Master Regulator proteins representing mechanistic determinants of the gene expression signature induced by SARS-CoV-2 in infected cells revealed coordinated inactivation of Master Regulators enriched in...
Article
Full-text available
It is not well understood why diabetic individuals are more prone to develop severe COVID-19. To this, we here established a human kidney organoid model promoting early hallmarks of diabetic kidney disease development. Upon SARS-CoV-2 infection, diabetic-like kidney organoids exhibited higher viral loads compared with their control counterparts. Ge...
Article
Full-text available
The recent emergence of highly transmissible SARS-CoV-2 variants illustrates the urgent need to better understand the molecular details of the virus binding to its host cell and to develop anti-viral strategies. While many studies focused on the role of the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 receptor in the infection, others suggest the important role...
Article
SARS-CoV-2 infection is not restricted to the respiratory tract and a large number of COVID-19 patients experience gastrointestinal distress. Interferons are key molecules produced by the cell to combat virus infection.
Article
Full-text available
Andrea Savarino and Marina Lusic made equal contributions. ABSTRACT Combinations of direct-acting antivirals are needed to minimize drug resistance mutations and stably suppress replication of RNA viruses. Currently, there are limited therapeutic options against the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), and testing of a numb...
Article
Full-text available
MEN1, which encodes menin protein, is the most frequently mutated gene in pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms (pNEN). Pleiotrophin (PTN) was reported being a downstream factor of menin and to promote metastasis in different tumor entities. In this study, the effect of menin and its link to PTN were assessed on features of pNEN cells and outcome of...
Preprint
Full-text available
Precise characterization and targeting of host cell transcriptional machinery hijacked by viral infection remains challenging. Here, we show that SARS-CoV-2 hijacks the host cell transcriptional machinery to induce a phenotypic state amenable to its replication. Specifically, analysis of Master Regulator (MR) proteins representing mechanistic deter...
Article
accines, clinically relevant modalities to curb the pandemic by directly attacking the virus on a genetic level remain highly desirable and urgently needed. Here, we comprehensively illustrate the capacity of Adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors co-expressing a cocktail of three short hairpin (sh)RNAs (RNAi triggers) directed against the SARS-CoV-2...
Article
Full-text available
Escherichia coli is one of the most prevalent pathogens, causing a variety of infections including bloodstream infections. At the same time, it can be found as a commensal, being part of the intestinal microflora. While it is widely accepted that pathogenic strains can evolve from colonizing E. coli strains, the evolutionary route facilitating the...
Article
Full-text available
Interferon lambdas (IFNλ) (also known as type III IFNs) are critical cytokines that combat infection predominantly at barrier tissues, such as the lung, liver, and gastrointestinal tract. Humans have four IFNλs (1–4), where IFNλ1–3 show ~80%–95% homology, and IFNλ4 is the most divergent displaying only ~30% sequence identity. Variants in IFNλ4 in h...
Preprint
Full-text available
Interferon lambdas (IFNλ) (also known as type III IFNs) are critical cytokines that combat infection predominantly at barrier tissues, such as the lung, liver and gastrointestinal tract. Humans have four IFNλs (1-4) where IFNλ1-3 show ∼80-95% homology and IFNλ4 is the most divergent displaying only ∼30% sequence identity. Variants in IFNλ4 in human...
Article
Full-text available
Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is enzootic in dromedary camels across the Middle East and Africa. Virus-induced pneumonia in humans results from animal contact, with a potential for limited onward transmission. Phenotypic changes have been suspected after a novel recombinant clade (lineage 5) caused large nosocomial outbrea...
Preprint
Full-text available
SARS-CoV-2 infections lead to a high risk of hospitalization and mortality in diabetic patients. Why diabetic individuals are more prone to develop severe COVID-19 remains unclear. Here, we established a novel human kidney organoid model that mimics early hallmarks of diabetic nephropathy. High oscillatory glucose exposure resulted in metabolic cha...
Preprint
Full-text available
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) represents an unprecedented worldwide health problem. Although the primary site of infection is the lung, growing evidence points towards a crucial role of the intestinal epithelium. Yet, the exact effects of viral infection and the role of intestinal epithelial-immune cell interactions i...
Article
Full-text available
SARS-CoV-2 is the virus causing the major pandemic facing the world today. Although, SARS-CoV-2 primarily causes lung infection, a variety of symptoms have proven a systemic impact on the body. SARS-CoV-2 has spread in the community quickly infecting humans from all age, ethnicities and gender. However, fatal outcomes have been linked to specific h...
Preprint
Full-text available
Genomic regions have been associated with COVID-19 susceptibility and outcomes, including the chr12q24.13 locus encoding antiviral proteins OAS1-3. Here, we report genetic, functional, and clinical insights into genetic associations within this locus. In Europeans, the risk of hospitalized vs. non-hospitalized COVID-19 was associated with a single...
Preprint
Full-text available
The worldwide spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) caused an urgent need for an in-depth understanding of interactions between the virus and its host. Here, we dissected the dynamics of virus replication and the host cell transcriptional response to SARS-CoV-2 infection at a systems level by combining time-...
Preprint
Full-text available
Precise characterization and targeting of host cell transcriptional machinery hijacked by SARS-CoV-2 remains challenging. To identify therapeutically targetable mechanisms that are critical for SARS-CoV-2 infection, here we elucidated the Master Regulator (MR) proteins representing mechanistic determinants of the gene expression signature induced b...
Article
Full-text available
Human intestinal epithelial cells form a primary barrier protecting us from pathogens, yet only limited knowledge is available about individual contribution of each cell type to mounting an immune response against infection. Here, we developed a framework combining single-cell RNA-Seq and highly multiplex RNA FISH and applied it to human intestinal...
Article
Full-text available
COVID-19 outbreak is the biggest threat to human health in recent history. Currently, there are over 1.5 million related deaths and 75 million people infected around the world (as of 22/12/2020). The identification of virulence factors which determine disease susceptibility and severity in different cell types remains an essential challenge. The se...
Article
Full-text available
SARS-CoV-2 is a newly emerged coronavirus that caused the global COVID-19 outbreak in early 2020. COVID-19 is primarily associated with lung injury, but many other clinical symptoms such as loss of smell and taste demonstrated broad tissue tropism of the virus. Early SARS-CoV-2-host cell interactions and entry mechanisms remain poorly understood. I...
Preprint
Endocytosis of extracellular or plasma membrane material is a fundamental process. A variety of endocytic pathways exist, several of which are barely understood in terms of mechanistic execution and biological function. Importantly, some mechanisms have been identified and characterized by following virus internalization into cells. This includes a...
Preprint
Full-text available
The coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 caused the COVID-19 global pandemic leading to 3.5 million deaths worldwide as of June 2021. The human intestine was found to be a major viral target which could have a strong impact on virus spread and pathogenesis since it is one of the largest organs. While type I interferons (IFNs) are key cytokines acting against sys...
Article
Inflammatory diseases are frequently treated with Janus kinase (JAK) inhibitors to diminish cytokine signaling. These treatments can lead to inadvertent immune suppression and may increase the risk of viral infection. Tyrosine kinase 2 (TYK2) is a JAK family member required for efficient type I interferon (IFN-α/β) signaling. We report here that se...
Article
Full-text available
Exacerbated pro-inflammatory immune response contributes to COVID-19 pathology. However, despite the mounting evidence about SARS-CoV-2 infecting the human gut, little is known about the antiviral programs triggered in this organ. To address this gap, we performed single-cell transcriptomics of SARS-CoV-2-infected intestinal organoids. We identifie...
Preprint
Full-text available
Combinations of direct-acting antivirals are needed to minimize drug-resistance mutations and stably suppress replication of RNA viruses. Currently, there are limited therapeutic options against the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Corona Virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and testing of a number of drug regimens has led to conflicting results. Here we show tha...
Article
Full-text available
One of the most fundamental processes of the cell is the uptake of molecules from the surrounding environment. Clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) is the best-described uptake pathway and regulates nutrient uptake, protein and lipid turnover at the plasma membrane (PM), cell signaling, cell motility and cell polarity. The main protein in CME is cla...
Article
Full-text available
The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a global threat to human health and has compromised economic stability. In addition to the development of an effective vaccine, it is imperative to understand how SARS-CoV-2 hijacks host cellular machineries on a system-wide scale so that potential host-directed therapies can be de...
Article
Full-text available
Emergence of the novel pathogenic coronavirus SARS‐CoV‐2 and its rapid pandemic spread presents challenges that demand immediate attention. Here, we describe the development of a semi‐quantitative high‐content microscopy‐based assay for detection of three major classes (IgG, IgA, and IgM) of SARS‐CoV‐2 specific antibodies in human samples. The poss...
Preprint
Full-text available
COVID-19 outbreak is the biggest threat to human health in recent history. Currently, there are over 1.5 million related deaths and 75 million people infected around the world (as of 22/12/2020). The identification of virulence factors which determine disease susceptibility and severity in different cell types remains an essential challenge. The se...
Preprint
Full-text available
SARS-CoV-2 is a newly emerged coronavirus (CoV) that spread through human populations worldwide in early 2020. CoVs rely on host cell proteases for activation and infection. The trypsin-like protease TMPRSS2 at the cell surface, cathepsin L in endolysosomes, and furin in the Golgi have all been implicated in the SARS-CoV-2 proteolytic processing. W...
Article
Full-text available
Interferons (IFNs) constitute the first line of defense against microbial infections particularly against viruses. They provide antiviral properties to cells by inducing the expression of hundreds of genes known as interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs). The two most important IFNs that can be produced by virtually all cells in the body during intrinsi...
Article
Full-text available
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which causes COVID-19, utilizes angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) for entry into target cells. ACE2 has been proposed as an interferon-stimulated gene (ISG). Thus, interferon-induced variability in ACE2 expression levels could be important for susceptibility to COVID-19 or its outco...
Article
Pathogenesis induced by SARS-CoV-2 is thought to result from both an inflammation-dominated cytokine response and virus-induced cell perturbation causing cell death. Here, we employ an integrative imaging analysis to determine morphological organelle alterations induced in SARS-CoV-2-infected human lung epithelial cells. We report 3D electron micro...
Article
Full-text available
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the causative agent of the COVID19 pandemic, is a highly pathogenic β-coronavirus. As other coronaviruses, SARS-CoV-2 is enveloped, replicates in the cytoplasm and assembles at intracellular membranes. Here, we structurally characterize the viral replication compartment and report critic...
Preprint
Full-text available
The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a global threat to human health and has compromised economic stability. In addition to the development of an effective vaccine, it is imperative to understand how SARS-CoV-2 hijacks host cellular machineries on a systems-wide scale so that potential host-directed therapy can be dev...
Preprint
Full-text available
Objective Exacerbated pro-inflammatory immune response contributes to COVID-19 pathology. Despite the evidence about SARS-CoV-2 infecting the human gut, little is known about the importance of the enteric phase of SARS-CoV-2 for the viral lifecycle and for the development of COVID-19-associated pathologies. Similarly, it remains unknown whether the...
Article
Full-text available
Feline coronaviruses (FCoVs) infect both wild and domestic cat populations world-wide. FCoVs present as two main biotypes: the mild feline enteric coronavirus (FECV) and the fatal feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV). FIPV develops through mutations from FECV during a persistence infection. So far, the molecular mechanism of FECV-persistence...
Preprint
Full-text available
Human intestinal epithelial cells form a primary barrier protecting us from pathogens, yet only limited knowledge is available about individual contribution of each cell type to mounting an immune response against infection. Here, we developed a pipeline combining single-cell RNA-Seq and highly-multiplex RNA imaging and applied it to human intestin...
Article
Full-text available
The COVID-19 pandemic caused by the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus is a major public health challenge. Rapid tests for detecting existing SARS-CoV-2 infections and assessing virus spread are critical. Approaches to detect viral RNA based on reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) have potential as simple, scalable, and broadl...
Preprint
Full-text available
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), which causes COVID-19, utilizes angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) for entry into target cells. ACE2 has been proposed as an interferon-stimulated gene (ISG). Thus, interferon-induced variability in ACE2 expression levels could be important for susceptibility to COVID-19 or its outco...
Article
Full-text available
Amyloid fibrils result from the aggregation of host cell-encoded proteins, many giving rise to specific human illnesses such as Alzheimer's disease. Here we show that the major virulence factor of Rift Valley fever virus, the protein NSs, forms filamentous structures in the brain of mice and affects mortality. NSs assembles into nuclear and cytosol...
Article
Full-text available
Clathrin-mediated endocytosis is one of the major pathways by which cells internalise cargo molecules. Recently it has been shown that clathrin triskelia can first assemble as flat lattices before the membrane starts to bend. However, for fully assembled clathrin lattices high energetic and topological barriers exist for the flat-to-curved transiti...
Preprint
Full-text available
Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) can cause severe pneumonia in humans. The virus is enzootic in dromedary camels across the Middle East and Africa. It is acquired through animal contact and undergoes limited onward transmission particularly in hospitals. Because of this initial potential for human-to-human transmission, we mo...
Preprint
Full-text available
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the causative agent of the COVID19 pandemic, is a highly pathogenic β-coronavirus. As other coronaviruses, SARS-CoV-2 is enveloped and remodels intracellular membranes for genome replication and assembly. Here, we report critical insights into the budding mechanism of the virus and provi...
Article
Severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is an unprecedented worldwide health problem that requires concerted and global approaches to stop the coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Although SARS-CoV-2 primarily targets lung epithelium cells, there is growing evidence that the intestinal epithelium is also infected. Here...
Preprint
Full-text available
Emergence of the novel pathogenic coronavirus Sars-CoV-2 and its rapid pandemic spread presents numerous questions and challenges that demand immediate attention. Among these is the urgent need for a better understanding of humoral immune response against the virus and assessment of seroprevalence levels in the population, both of which form the ba...
Preprint
Full-text available
SARS-CoV-2 is an unprecedented worldwide health problem that requires concerted and global approaches to better understand the virus in order to develop novel therapeutic approaches to stop the COVID-19 pandemic and to better prepare against potential future emergence of novel pandemic viruses. Although SARS-CoV-2 primarily targets cells of the lun...
Article
Full-text available
The sand fly-borne Toscana virus (TOSV) is the major cause of human meningoencephalitis in the Mediterranean basin during the summer season. In this work, we have developed a T7 RNA polymerase-driven reverse genetics system to recover infectious particles of a lineage B strain of TOSV. The viral protein pattern and growth properties of the rescued...
Article
The efficient application of smart drug delivery systems requires further improvement of their cellular uptake and in particular their release from endolysosomal compartments into the cytoplasm of target cells. The usage of virus proteins allows for such developments, as viruses have evolved efficient entry mechanisms into the cell, mediated by the...
Preprint
Imaging of biological matter across resolution scales presents the challenge of preserving the direct and unambiguous correlation of subject features from the macroscopic to the microscopic level. We present here a correlative imaging platform developed specifically for imaging cells in 3D, under cryogenic conditions. Rapid cryo-preservation of bio...
Article
Full-text available
Many intracellular pathogens, such as mammalian reovirus, mimic extracellular matrix motifs to specifically interact with the host membrane. Whether and how cell-matrix interactions influence virus particle uptake is unknown, as it is usually studied from the dorsal side. Here we show that the forces exerted at the ventral side of adherent cells du...
Article
Full-text available
Intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) act as a physical barrier separating the commensal-containing intestinal tract from the sterile interior. These cells have found a complex balance allowing them to be prepared for pathogen attacks while still tolerating the presence of bacterial or viral stimuli present in the lumen of the gut. Using primary human...
Article
Full-text available
The study of congenital virus infections in humans requires suitable ex vivo platforms for the species-specific events during embryonal development. A prominent example for these infections is rubella virus (RV) which most commonly leads to defects in ear, heart, and eye development. We applied teratogenic RV to human induced pluripotent stem cells...