Stanton Glantz

Stanton Glantz

PhD

About

791
Publications
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Publications

Publications (791)
Article
Introduction Current evidence indicates that smoking worsens COVID-19 outcomes. However, when studies restricted their analyses to current smokers, the risks for COVID-19 severity and death are inconsistent. This meta-analysis explored the association between current smoking and the risk for mortality based on the studies that reported all three ca...
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Bans on tobacco advertising are important for reducing tobacco-caused disease. Previously secret internal tobacco industry documents and organizational and newspaper websites related to tobacco control efforts in India during 1990s were analyzed. The Ministry of Health, World Health Organization, Indian Council of Medical Research, and civil societ...
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Background Smoking impairs lung immune function and damages upper airways, increasing risks of contracting and severity of infectious diseases. This paper quantifies the association between smoking and COVID-19 disease progression. Methods We searched PubMed and Embase for studies published from January 1–May 25, 2020. We included studies reportin...
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Introduction Secondhand cannabis smoke, like secondhand tobacco smoke, creates unhealthy indoor air quality. Ventilation and engineering techniques cannot reduce this pollution to healthy levels, and complete smoke-free policies are the only way to provide healthy indoor environments. Even so, multiple state and local governments have begun to allo...
Article
Background India’s tobacco-free film and TV rules were implemented from 2012. To assess the effect of the rules, we studied tobacco depictions in top-grossing Bollywood films released between 2006 and 2017 and rule compliance after 2012. Methods Tobacco incidents and brand appearances were coded in 240 top-grossing Bollywood films (2006–2017) usin...
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Objective: The study explored e-cigarette use among youth and associated factors in Thailand. Methods: This was a cross sectional study of 6,045 seventh grade students selected using a multistage design. Self-administered questionnaires relating to the socio-demographic characteristics, history of cigarette and e-cigarette uses, friends' and fam...
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Cigarette smoking patterns vary within the population, with some individuals remaining never smokers, some remaining occasional users, and others progressing to daily use or quitting. There is little research on how population-level tobacco control policy interventions affect individuals within different smoking trajectories. We identified associat...
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Introduction Tobacco imagery in films and television increased in India after it ended conventional tobacco advertising in 2004. The Ministry of Health and Family Welfare (MoHFW) introduced rules to eliminate this tobacco imagery in 2005 which took effect in amended form in 2012. This study presents the enablers and barriers in development and impl...
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Until 1990, it was illegal for transnational tobacco companies (TTCs) to sell cigarettes in Thailand. We reviewed and analysed internal tobacco industry documents relevant to the Thai market during the 1980s. TTCs’ attempts to access the Thai cigarette market during the 1980s concentrated on political lobbying, advertising and promotion of the fore...
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Introduction Studies in many countries have documented reductions of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) hospitalizations with smokefree policies. However, evidence on the association of cigarette tax with AMI events is unclear. There have been no studies of the associations between these two policies and AMI hospitalizations in Thailand. Methods We...
Article
Objective To determine if the declining trend in U.S. youth cigarette smoking changed after e-cigarettes were introduced, and if youth e-cigarette users would have been likely to smoke cigarettes based on psychosocial and demographic predictors of smoking. Methods An interrupted time series analysis was used for cross-sectional data from the 2004...
Preprint
Background: Smoking impairs lung immune functions and damages upper airways, increasing risks of contracting and severity of infectious diseases. Methods: We searched PubMed and Embase for studies published from January 1-May 25, 2020. We included studies reporting smoking behavior of COVID-19 patients and progression of disease, including death. W...
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Cannabis is widely used in the U.S. and internationally despite its illicit status, but that illicit status is changing. In the U.S., 33 states and the District of Columbia have legalized medical cannabis, and 11 states and D.C. have legalized adult use cannabis. A majority of state medical cannabis laws and all but two state adult use laws are the...
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Cannabis legalization has resulted in rapid commercialization, making this new market increasingly attractive to tobacco, alcohol and beverage, agricultural, and pharmaceutical multinational corporations, who are well positioned to capitalize on the synergy between cannabis and their products. The fact that cannabis remains a Schedule I drug under...
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Introduction Smoking depresses pulmonary immune function and is a risk factor contracting other infectious diseases and more serious outcomes among people who become infected. This paper presents a meta-analysis of the association between smoking and progression of the infectious disease COVID-19. Methods PubMed was searched on April 28, 2020, wit...
Article
Background In June 2018, San Francisco voters upheld the first comprehensive prohibition on sales of flavoured tobacco products (all products including menthol, everywhere in the city with no exceptions). Methods This paper used data collected by the San Francisco Department of Public Health as part of its implementation and enforcement of San Fra...
Article
Background India implemented tobacco-free film and TV rules (Rules) to protect adolescents and young adults from tobacco exposure. Objective To assess tobacco imagery in online series popular among adolescents and young adults. Methods Ten popular online series on streaming platforms were identified after discussions with participants (aged 15–24...
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Objectives. To investigate the transfer of marketing knowledge and infrastructure for targeting racial/ethnic minorities from the tobacco to the food and beverage industry in the United States. Methods. We analyzed internal industry documents between April 2018 and April 2019 from the University of California San Francisco Truth Tobacco Industry Do...
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Objectives Out-of-sample forecasts are used to evaluate the predictive adequacy of a previously published national model of the relationship between smoking behavior and real per capita health care expenditure using state level aggregate data. In the previously published analysis, the elasticities between changes in state adult current smoking prev...
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Background: The effect of secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS) exposure on patients with heart failure (HF) is uncertain. We investigated the association of mortality with SHS exposure for patients with HF. Methods: Nonsmokers with clinical HF were enrolled from 2003-2008 in a single-center longitudinal cohort study. The effect of SHS exposure determi...
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Introduction: E-cigarettes deliver an aerosol of nicotine by heating a liquid and are promoted as an alternative to combustible tobacco. This study determines the longitudinal associations between e-cigarette use and respiratory disease controlling for combustible tobacco use. Methods: This was a longitudinal analysis of the adult Population Ass...
Article
The Surgeon General has concluded that there is a causal relationship between depictions of smoking in movies and initiation of smoking among young persons (1). Youths heavily exposed to onscreen smoking imagery are more likely to begin smoking than are those with minimal exposure (1,2). To assess tobacco-use imagery in top-grossing youth-rated mov...
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Context: As of November 2018, medical cannabis was legal in 33 US states and recreational cannabis in 10, mostly enacted via ballot initiative. Methods: We identified 32 cannabis legalization initiatives from 2004 to 2016 and obtained campaign contribution and state political and demographic data. After exploratory analyses of 15 potential independ...
Article
Tobacco control measures have played an important role in the reduction of the cigarette smoking prevalence among US adults.However, although overall smoking prevalence has declined, it remains high among many subpopulations that are disproportionately burdened by tobacco use, resulting in tobacco-related health disparities. Slow diffusion of smoke...
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Background: In 1976, the U.S. Sugar Association (SA), a globally networked trade organization representing the cane and beet sugar industry, won the Public Relations Society of America's (PRSA) Silver Anvil Award for a crisis communication campaign. Their campaign successfully limited the diffusion of sugar restriction policies to control obesity,...
Article
During the regulatory drafting process, California considered allowing police officers to become licensed owners of cannabis businesses, an action that would have codified a conflict of interest (COI), allowing police to exert influence in two market strata, enforcement and licensure. Up until then, no state specifically excepted law enforcement fr...
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Background E‐cigarettes are popular for smoking cessation and as an alternative to combustible cigarettes. We assess the association between e‐cigarette use and having had a myocardial infarction ( MI ) and whether reverse causality can explain the observed cross‐sectional association between e‐cigarette use and MI . Methods and Results Cross‐sect...
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Background: Increasing tobacco taxes, and through them, prices, is an effective public health strategy to decrease tobacco use. The tobacco industry has developed multiple promotional strategies to undercut these effects; this study assessed promotions directed to wholesalers and retailers and manufacturer price changes that blunt the effects of t...
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Background Cigarette packs are a form of advertising that distributes brand information wherever smokers go. In the 21st century, tobacco companies began using onserts on cigarette packs to communicate new advertising messages to smokers. Methods We reviewed tobacco industry documents dated 1926 to 2017 to identify how the tobacco industry develop...
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Importance Reducing smoking is associated with a reduction in health care costs, including in the short run. Medicaid recipients smoke at higher rates than the general population, which suggests that investments to reduce smoking in this population would reduce short-run Medicaid costs. Objective To estimate the short-run (1-year) change in health...
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A growing literature indicates that electronic cigarette use increases the risk of subsequent initiation of conventional smoking among cigarette-naïve adolescents in several Western countries. This research assesses the same relationship in an Asian country, Taiwan. The Taiwan Adolescent to Adult Longitudinal Study is a school-based survey that was...
Article
Smoking prevalence differs among different racial/ethnic groups. Previous research found that as smoking prevalence declined in the U.S., remaining smokers made more quit attempts and smoked fewer cigarettes per day (CPD), indicating so-called softening. We examined California, a state with a highly diverse population, to assess whether there is di...
Article
Introduction While a large body of literature suggests that tobacco control legislation—including fiscal measures such as excise taxes—effectively reduces tobacco smoking, the long-run (10+ years) relationship between cigarettes excise taxes and life expectancy has not been directly evaluated. Here, we test the hypothesis that increases in state ci...
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Objective Analyse the transnational tobacco companies’ (TTCs) memoranda of understanding (MoUs) on illicit trade and how they could undermine the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) and the Protocol to Eliminate Illicit Trade in Tobacco Products (Protocol). Methods Review of tobacco industry documents and websites, reports, news and...
Article
Middlekauff and Gornbein1 argued that “there is reason to believe” people who have had a myocardial infarction (MI) would be more likely to use e-cigarettes than those who did not, which would result in a systematic misclassification error that could explain the association we2 found between e-cigarette use and having had an MI. This assertion is...
Article
Recreational cannabis is being legalized in states across the USA. The public relies on popular media for health information about cannabis. We assessed the accuracy of reporting on health effects of cannabis use in GreenState, a specialty publication on cannabis published by the San Francisco Chronicle and the main newspaper using the Index of Sci...
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Tobacco companies are marketing new 'heated tobacco products' (HTPs) composed of battery-powered holders, chargers and tobacco plugs or sticks. The non-tobacco HTP components have escaped effective regulation under many countries' tobacco control laws because they are packaged and sold separately from the tobacco-containing components. In the USA,...
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Objective To quantify changes in tobacco tax rates and cigarette affordability after countries ratified the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) using with the WHO MPOWER standards. Methods We used logistic regression to assess the association of FCTC ratification with adoption of at least 50% and 75% (high) of retail price tobacco t...
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Introduction Heated tobacco products (HTPs) are being marketed in several countries around the world with claims that they are less harmful than combusted cigarettes, based on assertions that they expose users to lower levels of toxicants. In the USA, Philip Morris International (PMI) has submitted an application to the Food and Drug Administration...
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There has been a global decline in tobacco consumption that, if continued, will negatively impact the tobacco industry’s profits. This decline led the industry to invent and market new products, including heated tobacco products (HTP). HTP are an extension of the industry’s strategies to undermine government’s tobacco regulatory efforts as they are...
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Introduction New ‘heated tobacco products’ are being marketed in several countries with claims that they expose users to lower levels of toxins than conventional cigarettes which could be read as being less likely to cause health problems than conventional cigarettes. In the USA, Philip Morris International (PMI) has submitted an application to the...
Article
Background In response to a changing regulatory and consumer landscape, tobacco companies developed new strategies to promote cigarettes and smoking. We examined one of these strategies: to fund and conduct scientific research related to potential benefits of nicotine, and to use their findings to promote nicotine. Methods Qualitative analysis of...
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Introduction Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are promoted as a less risky alternative to conventional cigarettes and have grown in popularity. Experimental and clinical evidence suggests that they could increase the risk of myocardial infarction. Methods The National Health Interview Surveys of 2014 (n=36,697) and 2016 (n=33,028) were used to...
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Introduction Nigeria ratified the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) in 2005. Tobacco control advocates in Nigeria achieved some success in countering tobacco industry interference to implement the FCTC. Methods We triangulated interviews with key informants from local and international organisations who worked in Nigeria with docu...
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In Reply The declining prevalence of youth cigarette smoking in the United States has been a welcome and encouraging trend. However, contrary to the suggestion from Ip and Middlekauff, the available empirical evidence does not support attributing this achievement to the emerging popularity of tobacco in other forms.
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The manufacture, use, and marketing of tobacco present a serious threat to children's right to health. This makes the Convention on the Rights of the Child a potentially powerful tobacco-control tool and the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), which oversees the convention's implementation, a potential leader in tobacco control. UNICEF activel...
Article
Background: Nigeria is a significant tobacco market and influential country in Africa. Nigeria ratified the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) in 2005. We reviewed Nigeria's tobacco control legislation since 2000 and compliance of the National Tobacco Control Act (NTCA) 2015 with the FCTC. Methods: We reviewed the National Tobacc...
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Since e-cigarettes appeared in the mid-2000s, some practitioners, researchers, and policy makers have embraced them as a safer alternative to conventional cigarettes and an effective way to stop smoking. While e-cigarettes deliver lower levels of carcinogens than do conventional cigarettes, they still expose users to high levels of ultrafine partic...
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Introduction: American Indians/Alaska Natives have the highest commercial tobacco use in the United States, resulting in higher tobacco-caused deaths and diseases than the general population. Some American Indians/Alaska Natives use commercial tobacco for ceremonial as well as recreational uses. Because federally-recognized Tribal lands are sovere...
Article
Background: It has been shown that never-smoking adolescents who try electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are at increased risk of subsequent conventional cigarette smoking. We evaluated associations between e-cigarette use and progression to established smoking among adolescents who had already tried cigarettes. Methods: Among participants (age...
Article
The article by Chaiton et al¹ in this issue of JAMA Internal Medicine is the first empirical confirmation that banning the sale of menthol tobacco products is good for public health. The investigators surveyed individuals in Ontario, Canada, who smoked menthol cigarettes before and 1 month after the province implemented a full menthol cigarette ban...
Article
Objectives: Smokers underestimate the health risks of smoking and overestimate their expected longevity. Warning labels on cigarette packs might help correct these misperceptions. Methods: We carried out an online study with 1200 smokers (18-62 years old), randomized to 3 conditions: text warning labels, pictorial warning labels, and a control g...
Article
Background After the collapse of communism in Eastern Europe in 1989 state-owned tobacco industry was taken over by transnational tobacco companies (TTCs). TTCs engaged in aggressive lobbying against tobacco control efforts, and targeted key politicians. In Poland and Czechoslovakia (from 1993 Czech Republic) former anti-communist dissidents often...
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Background Tobacco control policy in South Africa was one of the strongest in the African continent before the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) entry into force in 2005. South Africa ratified the FCTC in 2005 and the treaty came into force same year. However, with many African governments keying into implementation of the FCTC, So...
Article
State legalization and regulation of cannabis, despite continued federal illegality, is a massive shift in regulatory approach. Manufactured cannabis, including concentrates, extracts, edibles, tinctures, topicals and other products, has received less attention than more commonly used dried flower, but represents emerging regulatory challenges due...
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We examined the relationship between the tobacco industry and the journal Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology (RTP) using the Truth Tobacco Industry Documents Library and internet sources. We determined the funding relationships, and categorised the conclusions of all 52 RTP papers on tobacco or nicotine between January 2013 and June 2015, as "p...
Article
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to use individual-level data to examine the relationship between e-cigarette minimum legal sale age (MLSA) laws and cigarette smoking among U.S. adolescents, adjusting for e-cigarette use. Methods: In 2016 and 2017, we regressed (logistic) current (past 30-day) cigarette smoking (from 2009-2014 National You...
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Introduction: Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are often promoted to assist with cigarette smoking cessation. In 2016-2017, the relationship between e-cigarette use and having stopped smoking among ever (current and former) smokers was assessed in the European Union and Great Britain by itself. Methods: Cross-sectional logistic regression of...
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Objective To systematically review the price elasticity of demand of non-cigarette tobacco products. Data sources Medline, Embase, EconLit and the Web of Science without language or time restrictions. Study selection Two reviewers screened title and abstracts, then full texts, independently and in duplicate. We based eligibility criteria on study...
Article
Thirty-day smoking, although a widely used measure of adolescent smoking (age 12-16), has been questioned as an accurate measure of young adult (age 26-30) smoking behavior, particularly when critiquing studies linking use of e cigarettes with subsequent cigarette smoking. We used logistic regression to test two measures of 30-day adolescent smokin...
Article
Importance Approximately 90% of adult smokers first tried a cigarette by 18 years of age, and even infrequent smoking in adolescence is associated with established adult smoking. Noncigarette tobacco use is increasing and could stimulate subsequent conventional cigarette smoking in youths. Objective To estimate the longitudinal association between...
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Using the Truth Tobacco Industry Documents Library and Congressional records, we examined the tobacco industry’s involvement with the 1990 Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). During legislative drafting of the ADA (1989–1990), the Tobacco Institute, the tobacco industry’s lobbying and public relations arm at the time, worked with industry lawyer...
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In 1965, the Sugar Research Foundation (SRF) secretly funded a review in the New England Journal of Medicine that discounted evidence linking sucrose consumption to blood lipid levels and hence coronary heart disease (CHD). SRF subsequently funded animal research to evaluate sucrose’s CHD risks. The objective of this study was to examine the planni...
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On April 20, 2017, at 4:20 in the afternoon, 15 000 people in San Francisco’s Golden Gate Park lit marijuana joints during the annual “420 Day.” In cannabis culture, April 20 has become an international countercultural holiday; people gather to celebrate and consume cannabis, typically around 4:20 pm.
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Objective To examine the relationship between spending on electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) and disease symptoms compared with the relationship between 30-day e-cigarette use and disease symptoms among adult cigarette smokers in the U.S. Methods We analyzed data from the Tobacco and Attitudes Beliefs Survey which included 533 respondents aged 2...
Data
SAS file containing raw data. (SAS7BDAT)
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Background The United Nations Global Compact (UNGC), a UN initiative to engage corporations in supporting the UN’s mission, sets out principles that companies should follow for more ethical business practices. Since its inception in 2000, at least 13 tobacco companies, subsidiaries and tobacco industry affiliates joined the UNGC. In a September 201...
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Introduction: It has been argued that as smoking prevalence declines, the remaining smokers represent a "hard core" who are unwilling or unable to quit, a process known as hardening. However, as recently shown, the general smoking population is softening not hardening (i.e., as prevalence falls, more quit attempts and lower consumption among conti...
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Background: In the context of different regulatory environments, different patterns of e-cigarette use have emerged among adolescents worldwide. One example is the United States and South Korea, the latter of which has maintained much more extensive regulation of e-cigarettes. Methods: This analysis compares the prevalence of e-cigarette and con...
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Nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) is recommended for tobacco cessation on the basis of pharmaceutical industry research showing its effectiveness when combined with counseling. The tobacco industry opposed NRT when it first appeared in the 1980s but by 2016 was marketing its own NRT products. We used internal tobacco industry documents dated 1960...
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The objective of this paper is to examine the implementation of Colombia's tobacco control law. Methods involved are triangulated government legislation, news sources, and interviews with policy-makers and health advocates in Colombia. Colombia, a middle-income country, passed a tobacco control law in 2009 that included a prohibition on tobacco adv...
Chapter
More data continues to emerge on teen use of eCigarettes that leads to smoking. Renowned AAP journal editors have created this new, first-in-series, Pediatric Collection with high-impact articles that address the public health trend among adolescents and young adults, and the unintended nicotine poisonings among younger children. https://shop.aap.o...