Stanley Krippner

Stanley Krippner
California Institute of Integral Studies

Ph.D.

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346
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3,368
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Publications

Publications (346)
Article
Parapsychology and transpersonal psychology were founded independently and have evolved separately as two distinct movements, although there is considerable overlap in both their content and in the interests of a number of scholars who are active in both areas. Harris Friedman, Co-President of the Association of Transpersonal Psychology, and Dean R...
Book
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Identity might be considered as the ideological signifier of our age, it also carries an ever-increasing weight as a political emblem, even as this mostly concerns identification, for which we easily trade our true consciousness and core self. Identity, autonomy, agency and well being resonate and even show up in our looks. Identity is an essentia...
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Kazimierz Dabrowski, the renowned Polish psychiatrist and suicidoloist, observed how suicide is often a by-product of the chaotic emotions and reactions that characterize a person's life. The challenge for both suicide-prone people and those around them is to bring order out of this chaos. But the resulting order needs to be life-affirming because...
Book
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Integrated Care for the Traumatized is a new publication on new models of Whole Person integrated care for the traumatized. It is co-edited by Ilene Serlin, Stanley Krippner and Kirwan Rockefeller, with a foreword by Charles Figley. The book proposes a model for the future of behavioral health by focusing on health care integration and the importa...
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The mental state of mediums has often been explained in the anthropological, psychological, and psychiatric literature in terms of dissociative trance. Even though mediumistic experiences involve, by definition, many of the elements of experiences referred to as dissociative, there is some controversy about the role played by dissociation in medium...
Article
Research has begun to unveil the cognitive and personality correlates of anomalous experiences (AEs). Unfortunately, cultural differences have received markedly less attention. Questions exist regarding whether the Western description of AEs, as possibly nonordinary or exceptional, is valid across cultures. Scant research on AEs has been conducted...
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Transpersonal experiences transcend one’s usual self-identity, and may transform a person’s life. In this study, 25 on-line interviews were conducted with Filipinos who responded positively when asked if they had ever had a “life-changing experience.” The Casto Spirituality Scoring System was used to determine which of these could be considered “sp...
Article
Context: The belief that performing a nonlocal task in darkness plays a facilitating role in remote viewing and other psi-related phenomena is well established in esoteric and traditional beliefs (Grim, 1983; Hallowell, 1942; Lyon, 2012). However, the role of darkness in RV success is unclear beyond these esoteric explanations. Objective: This s...
Article
The target article's use of core concepts is confused and excessively broad. Two main types of experiences have been described in relation to shamanism: magical flight and mediumship/possession. The first refers to visual and remembered experiences of events in other realms, the second to embodied experiences of ceding mental control and personalit...
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The contributions and life of Walter Freeman III are celebrated through an understanding of the neurodynamics of the dreaming brain. Beginning with a brief review of the universal dynamics of self-organizing systems, this paper turns to an exploration of dreaming through the application of concepts from chaos theory to brain activity during REM-sta...
Article
This study asked the question, "Are there significant content differences between male and female dream reports obtained in dream seminars conducted in Japan?" Each of the 100 female and 100 male research participants contributed 1 recent dream report during dream seminars that were held in Japan between 1990 and 1998 and in 2004. Dream reports wer...
Article
A major issue in the study of dissociation concerns the cross-cultural validity of definitions and measurements used to identify and classify dissociative disorders. There is also extensive debate on the etiological factors underlying dissociative experiences. Cross-cultural research is essential to elucidate these issues, particularly regarding ev...
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This essay presents the rationale to consider anomalous experiences (AEs, such as synesthesia, lucid dreaming, hallucinations, psi-related experiences, and near-death experiences) as an essential topic in psychology. These experiences depart from the typical or customary characteristics of consciousness (e.g., out-of-body experiences), or from ordi...
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Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) can affect individuals in both their waking and sleeping life and psychotherapists can utilize interventions towards either wakefulness or sleep. This article reviews the history of PTSD, its socio-cultural contexts, as well as incidence and treatment. We then discuss a multilevel cognitive model of PTSD nightm...
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"Psychedelic art" can be defined as artwork manifested in the context of the ingestion of LSD-type drugs and related substances. There is a long history of such work dating back to ancient times (picturing mushrooms and other plants with psychedelic effects) as well as more recent anecdotal first-person accounts and various collections of psycholog...
Article
This special edition by guest editors, Cheryl L. Fracasso, Kaleb R. Smith, and Stanley Krippner, presents 22 articles that cover a vast array of interdisciplinary and multicultural views on health, healing, and consciousness. The reader is sure to be intrigued, as cutting edge models of consciousness are presented, along with original research that...
Presentation
Discussion of the history of trauma through philosophy and psychology as well as current therapeutic approaches to PTSD nightmares.
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Etiological factors in reading disability for a high intelligence group were compared to those in average and low intelligence groups. All subjects were elementary and secondary pupils ranging from 7-1 to 15-10 in age. The twenty-six high intelligence subjects ranged from 113 to 128 in WISC IQ. The 146 subjects of average intelligence ranged from 8...
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DREAMS AND THE ARAB SPRING Secular arabic traditions have emphasized the potential of dreams to foretell the future. Sometimes the prediction is seen as obvious and on other occasions elaborate systems of symbolic translations were consulted such as the tenth century Oneirocriticon of Achmet. In Islam, many of the foundations of the Koran were rev...
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A summary of the research on anomalous experiences covered in the book
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A historical and conceptual introduction to the study of anomalous experiences.
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Maraldi, E. O., Zangari, W., Machado, F. R. & Krippner, S. (2014). Anomalous mental and physical phenomena of Brazilian mediums: a review of the Scientific literature.
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A category of religious experience that still preserves much of the original blurring and fusion between art and religion is mediumistic or spirit painting. Performed by spiritualist mediums in different locations around the world, this form of religious experience is characterized by the supposed ability of an individual to serve as an instrument...
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My chance encounter with Ludwig von Bertalanffy in 1959 introduced me to general systems theory, and provided me with a perspective that has impacted my entire professional career. This article illustrates how systems thinking permeated my experimental and theoretical work with parapsychological phenomena, dreams and dreaming, and personal mytholog...
Book
State of the science reviews of anomalous experiences such as synesthesia, lucid dreaming, OBEs, and mystical experiences, and with a discussion of their relationship to psychopathology, personality, culture, and neuroscience
Book
Translation into Portuguese of the first edition of Varieties of Anomalous Experience.
Article
People do not adapt to trauma easily. it is common for men and women to undergo potentially traumatizing events, however only some of these become traumatizing events that lead to traumatic experiences. Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) results not from events but from experiences, the way someone gives meaning to an event. This attribution of...
Article
Reviews the book, Meditations of a Buddhist Skeptic: A Manifesto for the Mind Sciences and Contemplative Practice by B. Alan Wallace (see record 2012-18132-000 ). Potential readers need to know that Wallace’s “skepticism” is not about Buddhism but about the “dogma of materialism” that he feels pervades contemporary science (p. 19). How does Wallace...
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Just as there are many cultures within the world, so also are there many practices, beliefs, myths, values, and traditions within each culture. These unique ways of being can often present challenging frames of reference that may prevent a whole perspective from being attained. This essay examines the contextual formation of culture and the fundame...
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This chapter approaches dreaming consciousness through an examination of the self-organizing properties of the sleeping brain, a view that offers a step towards the reconciliation of brain-based and content-based attempts to understand the nature of dreaming. It is argued that the brain can be understood as a complex self-organizing system that in...
Book
This book, 'Perchance to Dream: New Frontiers in Dreams and Dreaming', presents valuable research-based information, which encourages us to explore the powerful potential of dreams to contribute to growth, self-actualization, and stability in our waking lives. Recognizing and utilizing the insights and lessons that may be found in our dreams may be...
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The focus of this chapter is anomalous healing experiences (AHEs). The chapter summarizes the literature that focuses on what D. C. Glick (1993) called AHEs but it also cites pertinent anomalous healing events; the latter have been reviewed and evaluated in several penetrating chapters and books, even though the authors have not always reached the...
Book
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Phenomena such as near-death and out-of-body experiences have often been ignored or ridiculed by mainstream psychology. In this volume, leading scholars explore these areas, as well as experiences of hallucinations, lucid dreams, alien abductions, mysticism, anomalous healings, psi events, and past lives, in an effort to explain the totality of hum...
Chapter
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So-called [altered] states of consciousness have been the focus of considerable contemporary interest in the disciplines of, for example, psychology, anthropology, and philosophy. However, we argue that [altered] states of consciousness do not, in fact, exist. We attempt to logically prove this thesis by demonstrating that while definitions of "con...
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Shamanic models of healing, counseling, and psychotherapy differ from Western models in that they emphasize closeness to the natural world as well as to one's body and life's spiritual dimensions. Shamanic practices reflect the ideals of harmony and knowledge. In shamanism, there is no division between "mind" and "body," hence what Westerners refer...
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Dynamics of creative mental activity are examined in waking and dreaming processes which manifest beyond normative waking consciousness. Some consider such phenomena to be pathological or meaningless. Alternatively they may be viewed in new and healthier ways, in the context of adaptive mental controls, using nonlinear dynamical/chaos theory. The f...
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Basic dynamical concepts relevant to human creativity include those of stability, instability, bifurcations, and self-organization. Here we present the view that most creative bifurcations are from chaotic to chaotic attractors, and that such bifurcations are macro-bifurcations comprised of a cascade of micro-bifurcations whether in continuous dyna...
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In 2003, the four of us spent several weeks in Calabria, Italy. We interviewed local people about folk healing remedies, attended a Feast Day honoring St. Cosma and St. Damian, and paid two visits to the Shrine of Madonna dello Scoglio, where we interviewed its founder, Fratel Cosimo. In this essay, we have provided our impressions of Calabria and...
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Although so-called states of consciousness have been the focus of considerable contemporary multi-disciplinary interest, this concept is neither well defined nor sufficiently understood. While definitions of “consciousness” usually distinguish it from its content, definitions of “states of consciousness” typically confuse consciousness and its cont...
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There has been little rigorous research on the spiritual content of ayahuasca sessions, despite the tribal use of this herbal concoction and the existence of three Brazilian churches in which ayahuasca is considered a sacrament. The Casto Spirituality Scoring System, a reliable measure designed to identify spiritual content in dream reports, was ut...
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Full-text available
There has been little rigorous research on the spiritual content of ayahuasca sessions, despite the tribal use of this herbal concoction and the existence of three Brazilian churches in which ayahuasca is considered a sacrament. The Casto Spirituality Scoring System, a reliable measure designed to identify spiritual content in dream reports, was ut...
Article
I was 14 years old when I had my first so-called paranormal experience. As a child, I was a voracious reader and wanted to own a set of World Book Encyclopedia. My aunt was a salesperson for World Book and was eager to sell a set to my family, not only for my use but for that of my younger sister as well. Our parents explained to us that we simply...
Article
A psychophysiological study was conducted with two Brazilian claimant mediums and a nonmedium living in Recife, Brazil and 7 North American advanced meditators from the esoteric school, Ramtha's School of Enlightenment, located in Yelm, Washington Results revealed specific incongruence in the peripheral nervous system (PNS) and central autonomic ne...
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We are pleased to present this special edition on Dreams, Telepathy, and Various States of Consciousness. This edition includes a broad array of articles from well-known authors in the field that address topics such as anomalous experiences of mediums and advanced meditators, shamanic experiences, near-death experiences, experiences related to drea...
Article
Ecstasy (from the Greek, ekstasis: distraction; derangement; astonishment) is defined by dictionaries as (1) an emotional state so intense that one is carried beyond rational thought or self-control; (2) rapture associated with mystical experience. In this essay, we take the position that "addiction" is a social construct, a term that reflects a so...
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One of the best known ancient examples of psychedelics and exceptional human experiences concerns the Oracle of Delphi in Greece. The oracle, or seer, would sit atop a stool, where she would prophesize in a delirious altered state. Some researchers have identified the trigger of this state as psychoactive hydrocarbon gases issuing from the underlyi...
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This paper approaches the question of awareness outside of attention through a broader psychological examination of human consciousness. Questions regarding the boundaries of conscious awareness, as well as the possibility of 'subconscious' or 'unconscious' mental processes, were widely discussed 100 years and more ago when they played a central ro...
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In a 2008 pilot study we used DNA microarrays to explore the historical ideo-plastic faculty of therapeutic hypnosis. We documented how to measure changes in activity or experience-dependent gene expression over relatively brief time periods (1 hour and 24 hours) following a single intervention of therapeutic hypnosis (about 1 hour). In the present...
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Analysis of cultural aspects of hypnosis and hypnotic-like phenomena across the globe.
Chapter
Most Asian, African, Native American, and other indigenous traditions used creative imagination to enrich and enhance everyday life; original contributions were typically seen as gifts from deities or spirits who used humans as their “channels.” These insights would often come in nighttime dreams or daytime visions and were thought to re-create div...
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Psychoneuroimmunology (PNI) can be defined as the study of adaptive interactions among the behavioral, neurological, endocrinal, and immunological systems. PNI emerged from the realization that the immune system does not operate autonomously, as had been assumed by those who had conceptualized it as a closed system. This former perspective assumed...
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Following recent trends in the historiography of psychology and psychiatry we argue that psychical research was an important influence in the development of concepts about dissociation. To illustrate this point, we discuss American psychologist and philosopher William James's (1842-1910) writings about mediumship, secondary personalities, and hypno...
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Throughout most of the 19th and 20th centuries, trance and mediumistic experiences were regarded as a manifestation of severe mental disorders by most members of the Western scientific community (Almeida, 2007; Moreira-Almeida, Almeida, & Lotufo, 2005) and were usually described as rich in dissociative behavior, hallucinations, feelings of being co...
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This chapter focuses on exploring various models of spiritual development. It first addresses philosophical dilemmas underpinning the concept of spiritual development by questioning whether these can be addressed without metaphysical assumptions embedded in religious worldviews and thus understood in any consensual way across different historical a...
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This paper focuses on exploring various models of spiritual development. It first addresses philosophical dilemmas underpinning the concept of spiritual development by questioning whether these can be addressed without metaphysical assumptions embedded in religious worldviews and thus understood in any consensual way across different historical and...
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Ayahuasca, a hallucinogenic plant brew from the Amazon basin used as part of healing ceremonies by the local indigenous people of the region for centuries, is now being consumed by growing numbers of people throughout the world. Anecdotal evidence and previous research suggest that there are spiritual effects experienced among participants who take...
Article
According to Division 30 of the American Psychological Association, “hypnosis” typically involves an introduction to the procedure during which a subject, client, or research participant is told that suggestions for imaginative experiences will be presented. The so-called “hypnotic induction” is an extended initial suggestion for using one’s imagin...
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This paper offers a cognitive conceptualization of personal mythology, presents a model for working with individual's personal mythology, and considers the integral relationships among personal myths, family myths and cultural myths.
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Recollections of humanistic and transpersonal psychology’s origin’s morph into the pros and cons of humanistic/transpersonal oriented schools developing APA accredited clinical programs. This discussion dovetails with the question will ATP ever become an APA division, raising an interesting alternative for those of us considering a career in counse...
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This study asked the question, "Are there significant content differences between male and female dream reports obtained in seminars conducted in Argentina?" Each of the 100 female and 100 male participants contributed one recent dream report during dream seminars held in Argentina between 1990 and 1998. Dream reports were scored using Hall and Van...
Article
Full-text available
Despite renewed interest in shamanic patterns of phenomenal properties such as journeying imagery, these phenomena are neither well defined nor sufficiently understood. Consequently, we propose criteria pertaining to four necessary conditions for a visual mental image to qualify as a shamanic journeying image. Finally, we demonstrate how these nece...
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This article discusses preliminary data on advancing what we know about “sacred sites” and their effects on dreaming. Thirty-five volunteers spent between one and five nights in one of four unfamiliar outdoor sacred sites in England and Wales. Another volunteer awakened them following the observation of rapid eye movement and asked for dream recall...
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Brazilian spiritistic religions have developed along elaborate historical and cultural trajectories with spirit mediumship as a central feature of ritual practice in Candomblé, Umbanda, Kardecismo, and similar groups. In these studies, several Brazilian spiritistic practitioners who worked as mediums were interviewed and, in some cases, tested with...

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Projects (3)
Project
To introduce the Chinese to the American Society of Clinical Hypnosis through basic and intermediate courses taught by Saybrook University staff for an ASCH certificate.
Archived project
Project
Pursuing sufficient depth and detail to make specific ecstatic state operationalizable.