Stanley W. Buol

Stanley W. Buol
North Carolina State University | NCSU · Department of Soil Science

PhD

About

143
Publications
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Publications

Publications (143)
Chapter
Soils are the physical, chemical, and biological media at the upper surface of the Earth's land areas capable of accepting plant roots. A wide range of geologic materials in which soils form are present within tropical latitudes and largely determine soil chemical properties. In addition soil moisture and temperature conditions controlled by climat...
Chapter
Setting Pedogenic Processes Uses of Gelisols Classification of Gelisols Perspective
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Setting Geological Processes of Organic Matter Accumulation Pedogenic Biogeochemical Processes Uses of Histosols Describing Histosols Classification of Histosols Perspective
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Soil Macromorphology: Examination and Description Soil Composition and Characterization Mineralogical Composition Soil Micromorphology Dynamic Soil Properties Perspective
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Subdivisions of Pedology Perspective on the Role of Soil Genesis and Classification Developmental Stages of a Discipline Historical Developments in Soil Genesis Concepts of Soil Genesis A Soil as an Anatomical Specimen A Soil as an Energy Transformer A Soil as an Open System Methods of Soil Genesis Study Some Definitions of Soil Classification Gene...
Chapter
Plate 2.1 Plates 3.1, 3.2, 3.3 Plate 4.1 Plates 8.1, 8.2 Plates 9.1, 9.2 Plates 10.1, 10.2 Plate 11.1 Plates 12.1, 12.2 Plate 13.1 Plate 14.1 Plate 15.1 Plates 16.1, 16.2 Plate 17.1 Plate 18.1 Plate 19.1
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Setting Pedogenic Processes Uses of Inceptisols Classification of Inceptisols Perspective
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Conceptualizing the Environment of Soil Formation Intrasolum Translocations and Transformations Simplified Model of Solum Development Perspective
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Setting Pedogenic Processes Uses of Aridisols Classification of Aridisols Perspective
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Setting Pedogenic Processes Uses of Oxisols Classification of Oxisols Perspective
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The Place of Soils in Ecosystems Parent Material Climate Relief (Topography) Organisms Time as a Factor in Soil Formation Perspective
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Weathering Products of Weathering Equilibria and Stability Ranges for Clay Minerals
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Desired Attributes Definition of the Classes Nomenclature Structure of the System Perspective
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Soil Survey Interpretations Interpretive Uses of Taxonomic Information and Soil Maps Perspective
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Setting Pedogenic Processes Uses of Entisols Classification of Entisols Perspective
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Setting Pedogenic Processes Uses of Andisols Classification of Andisols Perspective
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Definitions Distinction between Soil Taxa and Soil Map Units Kinds of Soil Map Units Orders and Standards of Soil Surveys Assessing Map Unit Composition Relation Between Soilscape and Soil Classification Perspective
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Setting Pedogenic Processes Uses of Vertisols Classification of Vertisols Perspective
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Logic and Cognitive Science in Soil Classification Indigenous Soil Classifications Regional and National Soil Classification Systems World Reference Base (WRB) Numerical Classification of Soils Perspective
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Setting Pedogenic Processes Uses of Spodosols Classification of Spodosols Perspective
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Setting Pedogenic Processes Uses of Ultisols Classification of Ultisols Perspective
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Setting Pedogenic Processes Uses of Alfisols Classification of Alfisols Perspective
Article
Full-text available
Modern soil science, spearheaded by research in Brazil has facilitated the utilization of vast areas of previously uncultivated soil long considered unsuitable for human food production into highly productive agricultural land. Naturally acid soils with high contents of aluminum and iron oxides and low CEC values and organic matter contents long co...
Chapter
Soil is a physical, chemical, and biological medium at the upper surface of Earth’s land areas capable of accepting plant roots and thereby enabling plants to extend their photosynthetic tissues upward and intercept radiant energy from the sun. Each day, chemical and biological activities in soil change in response to temperature and moisture dynam...
Chapter
Soils acquire and maintain their characteristics and composition while undergoing simultaneous alteration by an almost infinite number of biogeochemical reactions. The possible number of pedogenic events and combinations and interactions among them in soils is staggering. Although laboratory experiments can demonstrate that specific processes can p...
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The finite quantities of essential elements contained in soil determine its sustainable use for food production. Various soils differ substantially in their ability to provide essential elements, Methods of managing soil to facilitate production of food crops differ depending upon the type of crop grown and the characteristics of the soil. Historic...
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Andisols can absorb large amounts of phosphorus rapidly, and then release it slowly, yet the mechanisms by which they retain P and release it for plant growth are poorly understood. Ligand exchange of organic compounds from Al–humic complexes by P and/or Si release – due to breakdown of allophanic microstructure to provide sorption sites – might ac...
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Full-text available
The soil quality paradigm was originally developed in the temperate region with the overarching objective of approaching air quality and water quality standards. Although holistic and systems-oriented, soil quality focused principally on issues arising from large nutrient and energy inputs to agricultural lands. Soil quality in the tropics, however...
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Soil and saprolite sequences found in many regions of the world represent a weathering continuum; composed of soil, isovolumetrically weathered saprolite, partially weathered rock, and bedrock; that may play an important role in ground water recharge and attenuation of pollutants. Various studies of soil and saprolite sequences in the Piedmont and...
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Soils now known in Soil Taxonomy as Oxisols have been historically identified as Laterites, Latosols, and various Lateritic soils. Other soil classification systems identify them as Ferrisols, Kaolisols, and Ferrasols. The geographic distribution of Oxisols is primarily related to geologic materials and stable geomorphic surfaces in intertropical r...
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The Southern Blue Ridge Province of the Appalachian Mountains is defined by its geographic distribution, geology, soils, and vegetation. This province is bounded by the Piedmont Province to the east and the Valley and Ridge Province to the west and extends from northern Alabama and Georgia into southern Virginia. The underlying ancient rocks mostly...
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Properties of soils in the eastern part of Madre de Dios, Peru, were characterized and related to landscape position and parent material texture. Level uplands, dissected side slopes and recent flood plains dominate the topography in this region. Soil textures vary from clayey to sandy, depending on the texture of sedimentary materials from which e...
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Many soils are underlain by saprolite. The purpose of this study was to assess the potential for preferential movement of pollutants through one soil and two saprolites in the Piedmont region of North Carolina. At one site (Site 1), two 100 by 100 by 100 cm intact blocks were isolated in situ in the Bt horizon and underlying saprolite, and a soluti...
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The ability to predict long-term plant-availability of soil P provides an additional management tool for sustainable agriculture. Our objective is to present a methodology using P fractionation data for predicting long-term plant-availability of soil P. Soil samples were collected (0–30 cm) in 1975, 1985, and 1992 from two continually cropped field...
Article
Excluding fertilizer P, a finite quantity of soil P exists for plant uptake. To improve our understanding of sinks and sources of long-term plant-available P, soil p fractions to a depth of 30 cm were determined in soils under a continuous cropping system prior to fertilization (1975), after 10 yr of P fertilization (1985), and 6 yr after the last...
Article
This study was conducted to assess the changes in the saturated hydraulic conductivity, water retention, particle-size distribution, and bulk density of a Typic Kanhapludult soil and its underlying gneiss-schist saprolite across a typical landscape in the Piedmont region of North Carolina. The patterns of Ksat with depth were consistently associate...
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Describes the major soil processes affected by human action and the incidence of the globally significant effects - erosion and physical and chemical degradation. Emphasizes the depletion of soil nutrients as a key impact through its consequences for the vegetation cover, and though fertilizer inputs for avoiding such depletion exist, they may not...
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Full-text available
Properties of earth materials below soil as defined by Soil Taxonomy and above hard rock are important to many land use activities. No quantitative system, based on measurable properties of the materials, is available for its classification. Concepts of the various materials are communicated by genetically based names such as alluvium, glacial drif...
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When the kandic horizon definition was being developed (1975-1987) and changes were being considered in the Oxisol order by the Internationd Committee on Low Activity Clay (ICOMLAC) and Internationd Committee on Oxisols (ICOMOX), the use of cation exchange capacity (CEC) by NHaOAc pH 7 (CEC7) vs. the effective cation exchange capacity (ECEC) was cr...
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Morphological and mineralogical characteristics of various color zones associated with Mn-coated fractures in the Piedmont and Mountain regions of North Carolina, were evaluated to determine their nature and assess their role in water flow through saprolite. Four distinct color zones (black, white, yellow, and red) were identified surrounding these...
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Full-text available
This study was initiated to examine the accumulation of secondary Mn relative to that of secondary Fe as influenced by field-scale water movement. Secondary Mn and Fe were measured using a citrate-bicarbonate-dithionite (CBD) extract of genetic horizons of 60 soils sampled in an Ultisol-dominated landscape of the North Carolina Piedmont. The strong...
Article
In the Piedmont and Mountain Provinces of North Carolina average annual precipitation exceeds evapotranspiration. Soil solum thickness is usually 1 to 2 m. Saprolite thickness is variable but related to rock type and geomorphic position. Slow hydraulic conductivity in the zone between the soil and the saprolite appears to restrict vertical percolat...
Article
The study was initiated to examine the distribution of Mn in Ultisols and Alfisols formed in gneisses of this area. Results indicate that accumulation of secondary Mn is related to interactions between landscape position and associated redox potential (Eh)-pH environments rather than mineralogy of soil parent material. Spatial relationships between...
Article
Regolith distributions and characteristics were related to slope processes along 2 transects in mica gneiss and mica schist terrane on the Blue Ridge Front of North Carolina. Regolith types are saprolite, soil residuum, and colluvium. Saprolite is thickest on low slope positions and thinnest on shoulders and backslopes; soil residuum is present on...
Article
Soils along two mountain slope transects in mica gneiss and schist terrane were studied to better understand soil distribution and genesis on the Blue Ridge Front landscape in North Carolina. Soils may form entirely in residuum or colluvium, but on most slope positions they have developed in both materials. The colluvial/residual nature of soils is...
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This paper identifies the design principles involved in setting up field experiments to compare the responses to different management treatments of crops grown on areas within different soil mapping units, and suggests experimental designs for this purpose. Representation of the entire soil mapping unit in the area studied is emphasized. Repetition...
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Full-text available
Warming of the atmosphere will increase mean annual soil temperatures. Large areas in the Northern Hemisphere could become suitable for cultivation, assuming little change in rainfall patterns. A 3 °C temperature rise is predicted to cause an overall 11% decrease in soil organic matter content to a 30-cm depth in the temperature zone, but this incr...
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Discusses limitations of grain counts for quantitative mineralogical analysis of the coarser fine-earth fractions, presents a case for the revision of the key to mineralogy classes through use of actual mineralogic data, and recommends adoption of the line count method of determining composition for the purpose of mineralogy class placement. -from...
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The mineralogy of the clay fraction was studied for soils and saprolite on two Blue Ridge Front mountain slopes. The clay fraction contained the weathering products of primary minerals in the mica gneiss and schist parent rocks. Gibbsite is most abundant in the saprolite and residual soil horizons, where only chemical weathering has been operable....
Article
Laboratory measurements of saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ksat) of soil cores from nine North Carolina Coastal Plain Ultisols demonstrate that Ksat generally decreases with increasing depth, while grade of blocky structure generally becomes stronger with depth. The best single predictor of Ksat is the proportion of pores with diameters ↔30 μm (L...
Article
The chemical, morphological, and mineralogical properties of two soil-saprolite profiles from the Durham Triassic Basin were determined. The relationship between clay mineralogy and shrink-swell activity of the soils was also determined. Base saturation percentage increases abruptly below the paralithic contact requiring close examination for corre...
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Full-text available
The relationships among subsoil blocky structure, soil drainage class and landscape position were studied on nine Ultisol pedons from the Middle Coastal Plain of North Carolina. The pedons represented fine-loamy, fine-silty, and clayey families of Typic and Aquic Paleudults and Typic Paleaquults. The grade of blocky structure was strongest in poorl...
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Full-text available
Soil wetness has long been recognised as an important consideration in land use, and nearly every soil classification scheme has differentiated wet soils from dry soils (Smith, 1973). Wetlands imply wetness, that is water-saturated conditions that occur for at least part of the year. Soils developed in the presence of enough moisture to cause anoxi...
Article
The Fertility Capability Classification (FCC) system is a technical soil classification system developed to evaluate soil properties affecting crop response to fertilization and to aid in making fertilizer recommendations. It was developed primarily for use in lesser developed countries. Results from a series of experiments involving application of...
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Full-text available
Potassium is an essential element for plant growth and its importance in agriculture has been well recognized. With continuous cropping of a soil, exchangeable ? levels decrease to a minimum, steady‐state level if no ? is added. This minimum level is important to both modeling soil ? cycling and fertilizer ? recommendations, and it has been determi...
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The technical soil classification system was found to have considerable potential as a basis for transfer of tillage response information. -from Authors
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Biotite transformations in 10 pedons, representing a developmental sequence of soils formed from coarse-grained regional metamorphic rocks in the Piedmont and Blue Ridge provinces of North Carolina are reported. Kaolinite is common to abundant in sand fractions of six of the pedons and is found in nine of the 10 pedons. Most of the kaolinite is der...
Article
Dystrochrepts and Hapludults formed from mica gneiss and schist in the Piedmont and Blue Ridge Provinces of North Carolina have a range of illuvation cutan orientation patterns that is related to various indicators of soil development (clay content, solum thickness, and degree of primary mineral alteration). The relationship of cutan orientation pa...
Article
Samples of Andepts from Costa Rica and Guatemala were incubated with rates of P, then analyzed. Phosphate retention ranged from 25-99% and correlated well with ammonium oxalate extractable Al concentration in a linear model. In samples with <2.4% ammonium oxalate extractable Al, the amount of applied phosphate retained was related even better to th...
Article
Upland residual soils formed from mica gneiss and schist in the Piedmont and Blue Ridge provinces of North Carolina represent developmental sequences where particle-size class, profile development, and mineralogy are related to landscape position and slope. The distribution of total and free iron in 10 Hapludult and Dystrochrept pedons is examined....
Article
The association of free Fe oxides with soils and clays from two Enon sandy loam (Ultic Hapludalfs, fine, mixed, thermic) soil saprolite profiles was studied. Goethite was the dominant Fe oxide identified. Lepidocrocite was detected in trace amounts in some sam ples. Fe CBD /clay ratios were highest in the epipedons of these soils suggesting the con...
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The chemical, morphological and mineralogical properties of two Enon sandy loam (fine, mixed, thermic Ultic Hapludalfs) soil-saprolite profiles, one formed on gabbro and the other on metagabbro, are compared. Clay skins are scarce and stress cutans common in the argillic horizons of these soils. The high shrink-swell capacities and slow permeabilit...
Article
The significant physical changes accompanying the weathering of this saprolite to soil include: a weathering of sand-sized weatherable minerals to clay-sized minerals, an increase in structural strength of the Bt horizon, an accompanying increase in macroporosity in the Bt horizon, and higher saturated hydraulic conductivity in the Bt horizon than...
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Depending on the mineralogical nature of the parent material and underlying rock, Fe, Mn, Si, and bases are concentrated downslope as a result of lateral- and/or base-water flow action. Dissolution at the rock-saprolite interface is an important supplier of those elements, which are transported by the base-water flow affecting mainly the soils in t...
Article
This study of Oxisol-Ultisol transitions on hill slopes in transported material with oxic properties allowed the development of a double-water flow model explaining the formation of soil structure that occurs during the soil development. According to this view, Ultisols form from Oxic materials through the action of both lateral- and base-water flo...
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Full-text available
This paper summarizes the first five years of testing and evaluation of the Fertility Capability Soil Classification System (FCC) and presents an improved version, examples of interpretation and its applicability. FCC is a technical system for grouping soils according to the kinds of problems they present for agronomic management of their chemical...
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Gives an account of a revised version of a fertility-capability classification, based on texture and 13 condition modifiers. Interpretations of the modifiers in terms of soil potential and management are given.-A.Young