Stalin Raj Victor

Stalin Raj Victor
Indian Institute Of Science Education and Research, Thiruvananthapuram · School of Biology

PhD
Coronaviruses, Vaccine, Virus discovery, Virus-host interaction

About

127
Publications
31,811
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9,285
Citations
Additional affiliations
July 2017 - present
Indian Institute Of Science Education and Research, Thiruvananthapuram
Position
  • Professor (Associate)
October 2010 - June 2017
Erasmus MC
Position
  • Researcher
October 2007 - September 2010
University of Liège
Position
  • PostDoc Position

Publications

Publications (127)
Article
As obligate intracellular parasites, viruses need to cross the plasma membrane and deliver their genome inside the cell. This step is initiated by the recognition of receptors present on the host cell surface. Receptors can be major determinants of tropism, host range, and pathogenesis. Identifying virus receptors can give clues to these aspects an...
Article
Coronaviruses (CoVs) infect a wide range of animals and birds. Their tropism is primarily determined by the ability of the spike protein to bind to a host cell surface receptor. The ongoing outbreak of SARS-CoV-2 inculcates the need for the development of effective intervention strategies. In this study, we aim to produce pseudotyped coronaviruses...
Article
Full-text available
Recently emerged severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV)-1 and -2 initiate virus infection by binding of their spike glycoprotein with the cell-surface receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and enter into the host cells mainly via the clathrin-mediated endocytosis pathway. However, the internalization process post attachm...
Article
Full-text available
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has emerged as a contagious coronavirus following the two major outbreaks of SARS-CoV-1 in 2003 and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in 2012 [1]. To date, approximately 147 million laboratory-confirmed cases of SARS-CoV-2 infection and 3 million deaths have been rep...
Article
Full-text available
Virtually all SARS-CoV-2 vaccines currently in clinical testing are stored in a refrigerated or frozen state prior to use. This is a major impediment to deployment in resource-poor settings. Furthermore, several of them use viral vectors or mRNA. In contrast to protein subunit vaccines, there is limited manufacturing expertise for these nucleic aci...
Preprint
Full-text available
Virtually all SARS-CoV-2 vaccines currently in clinical testing are stored in a refrigerated or frozen state prior to use. This is a major impediment to deployment in resource-poor settings. Furthermore, several of them use viral vectors or mRNA. In contrast to protein subunit vaccines, there is limited manufacturing expertise for these nucleic aci...
Preprint
Full-text available
Coronaviruses (CoVs) infect a wide range of animals and birds. Their tropism is primarily determined by the ability of the spike (S) protein to bind to a host cell surface receptor. The rapid outbreak of emerging novel coronavirus, SARS-CoV 2 in China inculcates the need for the development of hasty and effective intervention strategies. Medicinal...
Article
Full-text available
Background Coronaviruses pose a serious threat to global health as evidenced by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS), Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS), and COVID-19. SARS Coronavirus (SARS-CoV), MERS Coronavirus (MERS-CoV), and the novel coronavirus, previously dubbed 2019-nCoV, and now officially named SARS-CoV-2, are the causative age...
Article
Full-text available
Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infections in humans can cause asymptomatic to fatal lower respiratory lung disease. Despite posing a probable risk for virus transmission, asymptomatic to mild infections can go unnoticed; a lack of seroconversion among some PCR-confirmed cases has been reported. We found that a MERS-CoV spik...
Article
Full-text available
Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infections in humans can cause asymptomatic to fatal lower respiratory lung disease. Despite posing a probable risk for virus transmission, asymptomatic to mild infections can go unnoticed; a lack of seroconversion among some PCR-confirmed cases has been reported. We found that a MERS-CoV spik...
Article
Full-text available
The Middle-East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is a zoonotic virus that causes severe and often fatal respiratory disease in humans. Efforts to develop antibody-based therapies have focused on neutralizing antibodies that target the receptor binding domain of the viral spike protein thereby blocking receptor binding. Here, we developed...
Article
Full-text available
Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) continues to cause outbreaks in humans as a result of spillover events from dromedaries. In contrast to humans, MERS-CoV–exposed dromedaries develop only very mild infections and exceptionally potent virus-neutralizing antibody responses. These strong antibody responses may be caused by affini...
Article
Full-text available
Thus far, no human MERS-CoV infections have been reported from Israel. Evidence for the circulation of MERS-CoV in dromedaries has been reported from almost all the countries of the Middle East, except Israel. Therefore, we aimed to analyze MERS-CoV infection in Israeli camelids, sampled between 2012 and 2017. A total of 411 camels, 102 alpacas and...
Article
Full-text available
Materials and Methods: Dromedaries were infected experimentally with MERS-CoV. The respiratory tract was investigated histologically, immunohistologically and ultrastructurally. Double immunofluorescence was representatively performed in order to identify the target cells of MERS-CoV in dromedaries. Ciliary pathology was evaluated by scanning elect...
Article
Full-text available
Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) targets the epithelial cells of the respiratory tract both in humans and in its natural host, the dromedary camel. Virion attachment to host cells is mediated by 20-nm-long homotrimers of spike envelope protein S. The N-terminal subunit of each S protomer, called S1, folds into four distinct d...
Article
Full-text available
Virion transmembrane proteins (VTPs) mediate key functions in the herpesvirus infectious cycle. Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3) is the archetype of fish alloherpesviruses. The present study was devoted to CyHV-3 VTPs. Using mass spectrometry approaches, we identified 16 VTPs of the CyHV-3 FL strain. Mutagenesis experiments demonstrated that eight o...
Article
Full-text available
Recent Zika virus (ZIKV) infections have been associated with a range of neurological complications, in particular congenital microcephaly. Human neural progenitor cells (hNPCs) are thought to play an important role in the pathogenesis of microcephaly, and experimental ZIKV infection of hNPCs has been shown to induce cell death. However, the infect...
Article
Full-text available
Current standard-of-care treatment of chronically infected hepatitis C virus (HCV) patients involves direct-acting antivirals (DAA). However, concerns exist regarding the emergence of drug -resistant variants and subsequent treatment failure. In this study, we investigate potential natural drug-resistance mutations in the NS5B gene of HCV genotype...
Article
Full-text available
This study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections among blood donors in different regions in Ethiopia. A total of 56,885 sera were tested for HBsAg and anti-HCV antibodies. Of these, 3.9% were found HBsAg-positive, 0.52% anti-HCV-positive and 0.054% dual positive. HBV prevalence...
Article
Full-text available
Dromedary camels are the main reservoir of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), but other livestock species (i.e., alpacas, llamas, and pigs) are also susceptible to infection with MERS-CoV. Animal-to-animal transmission in alpacas was reported, but evidence for transmission in other species has not been proved. This study explo...
Article
Full-text available
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is genetically highly divergent and classified in seven major genotypes and approximately hundred subtypes. These genotypes/subtypes have different geographic distribution and response to antiviral therapy. In Ethiopia, however, little is known about their molecular epidemiology and genetic diversity. The aim of this study w...
Data
Mutation in the NS5B region of HCV. (DOCX)
Article
Full-text available
Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is a cause of severe respiratory infection in humans, specifically the elderly and people with comorbidities. The re-emergence of lethal coronaviruses calls for international collaboration to produce coronavirus vaccines, which are still lacking to date. Ongoing efforts to develop MERS-CoV vac...
Article
Full-text available
Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) cases continue to be reported, predominantly in Saudi Arabia and occasionally other countries. Although dromedaries are the main reservoir, other animal species might be susceptible to MERS coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infection and potentially serve as reservoirs. To determine whether other animals are potential r...
Data
Clinical signs in llamas, pigs, horses, and sheep and histologic, immunohistochemical, and in situ hybridization findings in sheep after inoculation of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus.
Article
Full-text available
Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) still causes outbreaks despite public awareness and implementation of health care measures, such as rapid viral diagnosis and patient quarantine. Here we describe the current epidemiological picture of MERS-CoV, focusing on humans and animals affected by this virus and propose specific interve...
Article
Full-text available
The newly identified Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), which causes severe respiratory disease, particularly in people with comorbidities, requires further investigation. Studies in Qatar and elsewhere have provided evidence that dromedary camels are a reservoir for the virus, but the exact modes of transmission of MERS-CoV t...
Article
Full-text available
The newly identified Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), which causes severe respiratory disease, particularly in people with comorbidities, requires further investigation. Studies in Qatar and elsewhere have provided evidence that dromedary camels are a reservoir for the virus, but the exact modes of transmission of MERS-CoV t...
Article
Full-text available
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is genetically highly divergent and classified in ten genotypes and forty subgenotypes in distinct ethno-geographic populations worldwide. Ethiopia is a country with high HBV prevalence; however, little is known about the genetic variability of HBV strains that circulate. Here, we characterize the complete genome of 29 HBV s...
Article
Full-text available
To the Editor: Data linking Zika virus (ZIKV) infection to fetal death have been reported in only a handful of cases to date.(1),(2) Here, we present a case of ZIKV infection in a woman who had a miscarriage. ZIKV was detected in the fetal tissue, and ZIKV viremia lasted for at least 21 days. In January 2016, a 31-year-old woman who was 10 weeks pr...
Article
Full-text available
Ferret coronaviruses (FRCoVs) exist as an enteric and a systemic pathotype, of which the latter is highly lethal to ferrets. To our knowledge, this study provides the first full genome sequence of an FRCoV, tentatively called FRCoV-NL-2010, which was detected in 2010 in ferrets in the Netherlands. Phylogenetic analysis showed that FRCoV-NL-2010 is...
Data
Full-text available
Technical Appendix. Overview of background data and study results of alpaca and dromedary cohorts.
Article
Full-text available
Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infections cause an ongoing outbreak in humans fueled by multiple zoonotic MERS-CoV introductions from dromedary camels. Besides implementing hygiene measures to limit further camel-to-human and human-to-human transmissions, vaccine-mediated reduction of MERS-CoV spread from the animal reservo...
Article
Full-text available
We characterized Middle East respiratory syndrome coronaviruses from a hospital outbreak in Jordan in 2015. The viruses from Jordan were highly similar to isolates from Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, except for deletions in open reading frames 4a and 3. Transmissibility and pathogenicity of this strain remains to be determined.
Article
Full-text available
MERS-CoV Infection of Alpaca in a Region Where MERS-CoV is Endemic To the Editor: Accumulating evidence indicates that dromedaries (Camelus dromedarius) are a reservoir for zoonotic transmission of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). Although numerous studies have looked at other livestock in the Middle East region, evidence...
Presentation
Full-text available
Background: The recently emerged Middle East syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) can cause severe and fatal respiratory diseases in humans. Antibodies against MESR-CoV can be found in camels in the Middle East but also outside this regionThe high prevalence of circulating MERS-CoV neutralizing antibodies in dromedary camels from different geographic re...
Article
Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is not efficiently transmitted between humans, but it is highly prevalent in dromedary camels. Here we report that the MERS-CoV receptor-dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4)-is expressed in the upper respiratory tract epithelium of camels but not in that of humans. Lack of DPP4 expression may be the...
Article
Full-text available
Coronaviruses (CoVs) able to infect humans emerge through cross-host transmission from animals. There is substantial evidence that the recent Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS)-CoV outbreak is fueled by zoonotic transmission from dromedary camels. This is largely based on the fact that closely related viruses have been isolated from this but n...
Article
Full-text available
Although hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is hyperendemic in Ethiopia and constitutes a major public health problem, little is known about its genetic diversity, genotypes and circulation. The aim of this study was to determine the molecular epidemiology and genetic diversity of HBV in Ethiopia, using 391 serum samples collected from HBsAg-positiv...
Article
Full-text available
Notification of 2 imported cases of infection with Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus in the Netherlands triggered comprehensive monitoring of contacts. Observed low rates of virus transmission and the psychological effect of contact monitoring indicate that thoughtful assessment of close contacts is prudent and must be guided by clinical...
Article
Full-text available
We determined the presence of neutralizing antibodies to Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus in persons in Qatar with and without dromedary contact. Antibodies were only detected in those with contact, suggesting dromedary exposure as a risk factor for infection. Findings also showed evidence for substantial underestimation of the infectio...
Data
Full-text available
Technical Appendix. Description of human cohorts for serum samples.
Article
Full-text available
Two of the earliest Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) cases were men who had visited the Doha central animal market and adjoining slaughterhouse in Qatar. We show that a high proportion of camels presenting for slaughter in Qatar show evidence for nasal MERS-CoV shedding (62/105). Sequence analysis showed the circulation of at least five diff...
Article
Full-text available
Two of the earliest Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) cases were men who had visited the Doha central animal market and adjoining slaughterhouse in Qatar. We show that a high proportion of camels presenting for slaughter in Qatar show evidence for nasal MERS-CoV shedding (62/105). Sequence analysis showed the circulation of at least five diff...
Article
Full-text available
The ability of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) to infect small animal species may be restricted given the fact that mice, ferrets, and hamsters were shown to resist MERS-CoV infection. We inoculated rabbits with MERS-CoV. Although virus was detected in the lungs, neither significant histopathological changes nor clinical sym...
Chapter
As obligate intracellular parasites, viruses need to cross the plasma membrane and deliver their genome inside the cell. This step is initiated by the recognition of receptors present on the host cell surface. Receptors can be major determinants of tropism, host range, and pathogenesis. Identifying virus receptors can give clues to these aspects an...
Article
The ability of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) to infect small animal species may be restricted given the fact that mice, ferrets, and hamsters were shown to resist MERS-CoV infection. We inoculated rabbits with MERS-CoV. Although virus was detected in the lungs, neither significant histopathological changes nor clinical sym...
Article
Full-text available
Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is an emerging pathogen that causes lower respiratory tract infection in humans. Camels are the likely animal source for zoonotic infection, although exact transmission modes remain to be determined. Human-to-human transmission occurs sporadically. The wide geographic distribution of MERS-CoV...
Article
Full-text available
In May 2014, Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infection, with closely related viral genomes, was diagnosed in two Dutch residents, returning from a pilgrimage to Medina and Mecca, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). These patients travelled with a group of 29 other Dutch travellers. We conducted an epidemiological assessment of th...
Article
Serological, molecular and phylogenetic analyses of a recently imported case of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in Greece are reported. Although MERS-CoV remained detectable in the respiratory tract secretions of the patient until the fourth week of illness, viraemia was last detected 2 days after initiation of triple combin...