Ståle Pallesen

Ståle Pallesen
University of Bergen | UiB · Department of Psychosocial Science

PhD

About

562
Publications
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22,914
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Publications

Publications (562)
Article
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Environmental stressors such as repeated social defeat may initiate powerful activation of sub-conscious parts of the brain. Here, we examine the consequences of such stress (induced by resident-intruder paradigm) on the pituitary gland. In male stressed vs. control rats, by RNA- and bisulfite DNA sequencing, we found regulation of genes involved i...
Article
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Background Blue-depleted light environments (BDLEs) may result in beneficial health outcomes for hospital inpatients in some cases. However, less is known about the effects on hospital staff working shifts. This study aimed to explore the effects of a BDLE compared with a standard hospital light environment (STLE) in a naturalistic setting on nurse...
Article
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Background: This study aimed to investigate whether different types of changes in the work schedule of nurses working rotating shifts during the COVID-19 pandemic were associated with sleep duration, sleep quality, and turnover intention. Methods: Cross-sectional questionnaire data from 694 nurses participating in the SUrvey of Shift work, Sleep...
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Background Shift work, i.e., non-standard work hours, has been associated with both short- and long-term sickness absence. However, findings are inconsistent and inconclusive. Thus far, no comprehensive meta-analytic synthesis on the relationship between shift work and sickness absence has been published. The aims of the planned systematic review a...
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The use of physical activity in the treatment and follow-up of people receiving opioid substitution therapy is an understudied area of research. Therefore, the objective of this systematic review was to synthesize the currently available research on the role of physical activity in opioid substitution therapy and proper adaptions for the group. A...
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In this study, the use of measures to control gambling were investigated. Data from gamblers (N = 5,878) participating in a cross-sectional survey in 2019 based on random sampling from the Norwegian Population Registry, were analysed. The survey included questions about use of eight measures, which comprised the dependent variables. Questions about...
Article
Objective: Telescoping refers to the accelerated progression from starting a potentially addictive behavior to reaching a disordered level. For disordered gambling, telescoping has been reported for women compared to men. Most previous studies on telescoping have used clinical samples and retrospective reports, but this study examined a nonclinica...
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Background Shift work disorder (SWD) is highly prevalent among shift-working nurses and has multiple negative health-related effects. There is a dearth of insight into career-related decisions made by nurses suffering from SWD, for instance in terms of their intention to quit work (turnover intention). In this study, we aimed to investigate the ass...
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People with gambling problems report more exposure and impact from gambling advertising, although less is known regarding the role of specific advertising types. Data on gamblers (n = 5830, 48.5% women, mean age = 44.27) was collected from a general population cross-sectional survey in Norway (32.7% response rate). We examined if problem gambling w...
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Aims: Mobile gaming is a dominant form of gaming, known for its portability and for game characteristics that motivate continuous play and spending. Such involvement may also turn problematic, but research on problem gaming (PG) has tended to focus on non-mobile forms of gaming. The study was based on a cross-sectional observational design where st...
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The study examined sleep and sleepiness among shift working Helicopter Emergency Medical Service pilots from Norway (Norwegian Air Ambulance; NAA) and Austria (Christophorus Flugrettungverein; CFV). Both pilot groups (N = 47) worked seven consecutive 24 h shifts. Sleep was assessed by diaries and actigraphy while sleepiness was assessed by the Karo...
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Introduction In shift work, quick returns refer to transitions between two shifts with less than 11 hours available rest time. Twenty-three per cent of employees in European countries reported having quick returns. Quick returns are related to short sleep duration, fatigue, sleepiness, work-related accidents and sickness absence. The present study...
Article
Night work leads to sleepiness and reduced vigilant attention during work hours, and bright light interventions may reduce such effects. It is also known that total sleep deprivation impairs cognitive flexibility as measured by reversal learning tasks. Whether night work impairs reversal learning task performance or if bright light can mitigate rev...
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The current Russian war against Ukraine is of global concern. It builds on the annexation of Crimea in 2014 and subsequently the war in the Donbas region of Ukraine, and has become a large-scale Russian invasion of Ukraine from three directions, Crimea in the south, Russia in the east, and Belarus in the north. Despite the geopolitical background t...
Preprint
Pain-reducing effects of music listening are well-established, but the effects are small and their clinical relevance questionable. Recent theoretical advances, however, have proposed that synchronizing to music, such as clapping, tapping or dancing, has evolutionarily important social effects that are associated with activation of the endogenous o...
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Background No studies have so far synthesised the current evidence concerning a possible relationship between problem gaming and suicidality. We therefore conducted a systematic review of the literature. Our objective was to investigate the relationship between problem gaming and suicidality. The review was funded by the Norwegian Competence Center...
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Studies conducted on Social Networking Sites (SNSs) addiction have to a large extent focused on Facebook as a prototypical example of SNS. Nonetheless, the evolution of SNSs has spawn conceptual and methodological controversies in terms of the operationalization of SNS addiction. In order to bring more clarity to this field the present study aimed...
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Purpose: Millions of people work at times that overlap with the habitual time for sleep. Consequently, sleep often occurs during the day. Daytime sleep is, however, characterized by reduced sleep duration. Despite preserved time spent in deep NREM sleep (stage N3), daytime sleep is subjectively rated as less restorative. Knowledge on how night wor...
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Objective Sleep disturbances are common in pregnancy. Blocking blue light has been shown to improve sleep and may be a suitable intervention for sleep problems during pregnancy. The present study investigated the effects of blue light blocking in the evening and during nocturnal awakenings among pregnant women on primary sleep outcomes in terms of...
Preprint
Background: Blue-depleted light environments (BDLEs) may in some cases benefit health outcomes for hospital inpatients. However, less is known about the effects on hospital staff. This study aimed to explore the effects of a BDLE compared with a standard hospital light environment (STLE) in a naturalistic setting on nurses’ functioning during shift...
Article
Full-text available
The current study aimed to investigate if general and alcohol-related social media use predicts symptoms of depression and anxiety. Students in Bergen, Norway, participated in a Web-based survey during fall 2015 (T1) and a follow-up survey during fall 2016 (T2). A total of 5217 participated in both surveys. Crude and adjusted linear regression anal...
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Purpose of review: To systematically review and meta-synthesize current (2019-2021) literature on aggression and criminality in androgen abusers. Results from 13 empirical human studies are discussed. Recent findings: Some androgen abusers engage in aggressive and criminal behavior. Here, results show positive effects and associations between th...
Article
Objective To explore associations between intraindividual variability (IIV) in sleep patterns and sleep problems, lifestyle factors, and mental and physical health in individuals with chronic insomnia. Methods Cross-sectional study of 1720 adults with chronic insomnia (67.8% female, mean age = 44.5) who completed online self-report questionnaires...
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Objective In pregnancy melatonin regulates circadian rhythms, induce sleep, and has a neuroprotective positive effect on fetal development. Artificial blue light in the evening delays and suppresses melatonin production. Thus, we investigated the effect of blocking blue light on the melatonin profile. Methods A randomized controlled trial (n=30 bl...
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Short sleep and obstructive apneas/hypopneas have been shown to be associated with childhood obesity. Still, few studies have compared sleep in children with obesity, without suspected sleep disordered breathing and normal weight peers by objective sleep measures and compared results with subjective parent assessment of sleep. Children with obesity...
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There has been great concern about the impact of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID‐19)‐related school lockdown on adolescent health. The aim of the present study was to compare sleep patterns before and during COVID‐19‐related school lockdown, in a large sample of high school students. The present study is based a prospective, longitudinal survey on...
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Objectives: The aim of the present meta-analysis was to synthesize results from the association between problem gambling (PG) and dimensions of the five factor model of personality and to identify potential moderators (gambling diagnosis: yes/no, comorbidity: yes/no and trait assessment: four or fewer items vs. five items or more) of these associat...
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Aim: This study aimed to examine the co-morbidity and temporal relationship between substance abuse disorders (SUDs) and gambling disorder (GD). Method: Cross-tabulated census data were retrieved from the Norwegian Patient Registry. The data included the number of patients by year of first-time incidence of GD and/or SUD diagnoses, age and sex from...
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Background and aims The effect of internet-based psychological treatment for gambling problems has not been previously investigated by meta-analysis. The present study is therefore a quantitative synthesis of studies on the effects of internet-based treatment for gambling problems. Given that effects may vary according to the presence of therapist...
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Bright light treatment is an effective way to influence circadian rhythms in healthy adults, but previous research with dementia patients has yielded mixed results. The present study presents a primary outcome of the DEM.LIGHT trial, a 24-week randomized controlled trial conducted at nursing homes in Bergen, Norway, investigating the effects of a b...
Article
Diagnostically defined insomnia is prevalent, persistent, and associated with a range of negative outcomes in childhood and adolescence. To inform prevention and treatment, we need to identify relevant predictors that can be addressed in such intervention efforts. Therefore, a systematic search for longitudinal studies involving child and adolescen...
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Aim To estimate the prevalence of sleep medication and melatonin use among nurses and to assess if factors related to work, sleep or mental health, were associated with such use. Design A cross-sectional study. Methods A questionnaire survey including 2,798 Norwegian nurses. Associations were estimated using a modified Poisson regression model....
Article
Background Insomnia is prevalent among children and adolescents and is associated with a wide range of negative outcomes. Knowledge about its determinants is therefore important, but due to the lack of longitudinal studies, such knowledge is limited. The aim of the present inquiry is to identify child and family predictors of future pediatric insom...
Article
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The traits languidity (tendency to become tired/sleepy upon losing sleep) and flexibility (ability to sleep and work at odd times) have been implicated in shift work tolerance. However, there is a dearth of knowledge about their temporal stability. The aim of the present study was to explore these traits during a long follow-up (FU) period and iden...
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Background The majority of people with dementia have behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD), including depression, anxiety and agitation. These may be elicited or aggravated by disrupted circadian rhythms. Bright light treatment (BLT) is a promising non-pharmacological approach to the management of BPSD, but previous research has...
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Objective Workplace bullying has been established as a significant correlate of sleep problems. However, little is known regarding the causal direction between bullying and sleep. The aim of this study was to examine temporal relationships between bullying and symptoms of insomnia. Methods Reciprocal and prospective associations between exposure t...
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Rationale Aggression and irritability are notable psychiatric side effects of anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) use. However, no previous study has systematically reviewed and quantitatively synthesized effects reported by experimental studies on this topic. Objective We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled tria...
Article
Study objectives To investigate circadian typology in a large, representative sample of Norwegian adolescents, and its implications for sleep health. Methods The sample included 3920 1st year high school students aged 16–17 years. Respondents completed a web-based survey, including the short version of the Horne-Ostberg Morningness-Eveningness Que...
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A central task in military leadership is to take care of one's followers, which presupposes knowledge about relevant risk factors. Very little research has focused on the risks of developing problematic gaming behavior during military service. The present study tries to bridge this gap by assessing prevalence rates and associated risk factors of pr...
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Background Nurses are in the frontline and play an important role in the battle against the COrona VIrus Disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Sleep problems among health care workers are likely to increase due to the pandemic. However, it is conceivable that negative health outcomes related to the pandemic fluctuate with the infection rate waves of th...
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Previous research shows that female athletes sleep better according to objective parameters but report worse subjective sleep quality than male athletes. However, existing sleep studies did not investigate variations in sleep and sleep stages over longer periods and have, so far, not elucidated the role of the menstrual cycle in female athletes’ sl...
Article
This study explores the prevalence of flight shame in different travel situations that may involve flying, and their respective associations with perceived norms. A particular focus is on how flight shame might be shaped by expectations regarding social approval from others and perceptions of how others typically behave.
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Problematic gaming has been linked to poor sleep outcomes; however, these associations have not yet been synthesized quantitatively. This review employed a meta-analysis to investigate the relationship between problematic gaming and sleep-related outcomes. A search of Medline, Embase, Web of Science, PsycINFO, and Google Scholar identified a total...
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The relationship between anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) use and aggression and psychological distress requires further elucidation. No previous study has examined whether the latent patterns of aggression and psychological distress are the same in male and female AAS users. Multigroup latent class analysis (MLCA) can be used to classify individu...
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Objective Sleep disturbances are common in pregnancy, and the prevalence increases during the third trimester. The aim of the present study was to assess sleep patterns, sleep behavior and prevalence of insomnia in pregnant women in the third trimester, by comparing them to a group of non-pregnant women. Further, how perceived stress and evening li...
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The purpose of gambling regulation can be to ensure revenue for the public, to prevent crime and gambling problems. One regulatory measure involves restriction of what games can be offered in a market. In this study, the effects of two regulatory market changes are investigated: First, a restriction of availability when slot machines were banned fr...
Article
Daylight Saving Time is highly debated and associated with several health risks. Health experts recommend terminating adjusting the clock time, and to keep permanent standard (winter) time year around. The aims of the study were to investigate preferences for keeping or terminating this biannual adjustment of clock times and for permanent standard...
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Background Up to 70% of nursing home patients with dementia suffer from sleep problems. Light is the main zeitgeber to the circadian system and thus has a fundamental impact on sleep-wake behaviour. Low indoor light levels in nursing homes have been reported, and in combination with age-related reductions in light sensitivity, insufficient light ex...
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Objectives: To investigate changes over time and identify predictors of online gambling among gamblers by using three Norwegian representative samples covering a 6-year (2013–2019) period. We also aimed to identify different characteristics (including video game participation and video gaming problems) of online compared to offline gamblers. Method...
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Models to explain persistent and excessive gaming behavior have proposed that reward characteristics in video games influence gaming behavior, yet these characteristics have received minimal empirical attention to date. The present study employed an experimental approach to examine how a near miss and other different outcomes (a win or loss with sm...
Article
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Objectives: No systematic review or meta-analysis concerning the prevalence of shift work disorder (SWD) has been conducted so far. The aim was thus to review prevalence studies of SWD, to calculate an overall prevalence by a random effects meta-analysis approach and investigate correlates of SWD prevalence using a random-effects meta-regression. M...
Article
This study aimed to explore how changes in the work schedule would affect the prevalence of Shift Work Disorder (SWD) over time. Two-year follow-up data from 1076 nurses participating in the longitudinal SUrvey of Shift work, Sleep and Health among Norwegian nurses (SUSSH) were included in the study. The questionnaires included measures of work-rel...
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Adequate illumination plays an important part in providing a healthy environment for nursing home patients with dementia. With increasing awareness of non-visual responses to light, new approaches to quantifying illuminance have emerged. In the present study, we assessed the illuminance in nursing home dementia units in terms of melanopic equivalen...
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Climate change threatens mental health via increasing exposure to the social and economic disruptions created by extreme weather and large-scale climatic events, as well as through the anxiety associated with recognising the existential threat posed by the climate crisis. Considering the growing levels of climate change awareness across the world,...
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Patients with insomnia complain of problems with sleep onset or sleep maintenance or early morning awakenings, or a combination of these, despite adequate opportunity and circumstances for sleep. In addition, to fulfill the diagnostic criteria for insomnia the complaints need to be associated with negative daytime consequences. For chronic insomnia...
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Purpose: Many children have periods when they sleep too little, with widely recognized detrimental effects. Less is known about persistent short sleep during childhood. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the prevalence of persistent short sleep in school-aged children and identify a set of child, parent, and peer predictors thereof....
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Whether lockdown related to the COVID-19 pandemic influences alcohol consumption is not well known. This study assesses alcohol consumption and hazardous drinking behavior during the initial phase of pandemic measures in Norway and identifies potential risk factors. A cross-sectional study (N = 25,708) was conducted in Bergen, Norway, following the...
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Objectives Inspired by the James Lind Alliance (JLA) user involvement approach, the aim of the present study was to identify the top 10 uncertainties for sleep research raised by students in higher education, and to discuss our experiences with adapting the JLA method to a student population. Design The study design is a pragmatic JLA approach, in...
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Pop-up messages utilized by gambling operators are normally presented to gamblers during gambling sessions in order to prevent excessive gambling and/or to help in the appraisal of maladaptive gambling cognitions. However, the effect of such messages on gambling behavior and gambling cognitions has not previously been synthesized quantitatively. Co...