Ståle Valvatne Einarsen

Ståle Valvatne Einarsen
University of Bergen | UiB · Department of Psychosocial Science

Professor

About

227
Publications
433,513
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24,884
Citations
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January 1991 - present
University of Bergen
Position
  • Professor (Full)

Publications

Publications (227)
Article
Full-text available
Background: Victims of workplace bullying represent a group characterised by severe negative health complaints at risk of losing their foothold in working life. To date, very few studies have investigated the effect of psychological treatment of the health-related problems often facing victims of bullying. Objective: The aim was to investigate i...
Article
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Environmental stressors such as repeated social defeat may initiate powerful activation of sub-conscious parts of the brain. Here, we examine the consequences of such stress (induced by resident-intruder paradigm) on the pituitary gland. In male stressed vs. control rats, by RNA- and bisulfite DNA sequencing, we found regulation of genes involved i...
Article
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This study investigates the role of perceived power relation between target and perpetrator regarding victimization and turnover intent following exposure to bullying behavior at the workplace. We hypothesized that (1) targets of bullying behavior who self-label as victims experiences a larger power imbalance with the perpetrator compared to target...
Chapter
This chapter outlines a behavioral perspective for understanding destructive forms of leadership. The authors define different forms of harmful leadership practices, present and discuss different behaviors, and illustrate how the same individual may display both constructive and destructive behaviors. Next, the authors explore the prevalence of var...
Article
Building on the Three‐way model of workplace bullying and its underlying theories, this study investigates the role of trait anger and trait anxiety in the link between daily interpersonal conflicts and daily exposure to bullying behaviors. Using a quantitative diary study design, we approached 57 military naval cadets participating in a tall‐ship...
Article
Full-text available
The present study examines employees’ prior victimization from bullying in school or at work as a predictor of 1) their current exposure to negative social acts at work and 2) the likelihood of labelling as a victim of workplace bullying, and 3) whether the link between exposure to negative acts at work and the perception of being bullied is strong...
Article
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Objectives Several studies show that severe social stressors, e.g., in the form of exposure to workplace bullying in humans, is associated with negative mental health effects such as depression and anxiety among those targeted. However, the understanding of the underlying biological mechanisms that may explain the relationship between exposure to b...
Article
The Victim Precipitation Theory states that people may exhibit certain characteristics or behaviors that may act as vulnerability factors for either being picked as a target or for provoking others, hence contributing to escalate an underlying conflict and then increase the risk of victimization from others. In line with this, previous research ind...
Article
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Workplace bullying is, by definition, a gradually escalating process, theorized to occur from psychosocial stressors when there is a lack of management intervention in escalating conflicts, and a lack of fair and robust conflict management procedures in the organization. Based on national probability survey data gathered in 2015–2016 from the offic...
Article
Full-text available
Objective Workplace bullying has been established as a significant correlate of sleep problems. However, little is known regarding the causal direction between bullying and sleep. The aim of this study was to examine temporal relationships between bullying and symptoms of insomnia. Methods Reciprocal and prospective associations between exposure t...
Article
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Objective: This study examines under which conditions being an observer of bullying can be detrimental to health and well-being. It was hypothesized that health-related problems following observations of bullying are determined by (1) whether the observer has been exposed to bullying her/himself and (2) whether the observer have tried to intervene...
Article
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The study investigated relationships between exposure to bullying behaviours, return to work self-efficacy (RTW-SE) and resilience, and if resilience moderates the bullying-RTW-SE relationship among patients on sick leave or at risk of sick leave due to common mental disorders (CMD). A sample of 675 patients treated in an outpatient clinic was anal...
Article
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Background Workers exposed to bullying often report musculoskeletal symptoms. In this study we have clinically evaluated the prevalence and nature of musculoskeletal dysfunction among a group of workers exposed to bullying and studied the relationship between clinical findings and self-reported musculoskeletal and mental symptoms. Materials and me...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Targets of workplace bullying tend to develop severe mental health complaints, having increased risk of sick leave and expulsion from the workplace. Hence, these individuals are likely to be overrepresented among patients seeking treatment for common mental disorders (CMD). This study investigated the prevalence of exposure to workplace...
Method
Documentation on four subscales of destructive forms of leadership; namely tyrannical, derailed, supportive-disloyal and laissez-faire leadership.
Method
The measurement of 4 forms of destructive leadership; namely tyrannical, derailed, supportive-disloyal and laissez-faire leadership
Article
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The present study integrates the work environment hypothesis and the effort-reward imbalance model to argue that work-related antecedents of workplace bullying are moderated by the day-today leadership practices of one's immediate leader. Specifically, we propose that individuals' daily experiences of work pressure are positively related to their d...
Article
Purpose Intention to leave as an outcome of exposure to workplace bullying is well documented in previous studies, yet, research on explanatory conditions for such an association is lacking. Design/methodology/approach The present study investigates the relationship between injustice perceptions, exposure to bullying behaviors and turnover intenti...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Workplace bullying is an important and prevalent risk factors for health impairment, reduced workability and lowered efficiency among both targets and observers. Development and tests of effective organizational intervention strategies are therefore highly important. The present study describes the background, design, and protocol of a...
Article
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Background: Previous studies suggest that persistent exposure to social stress in mammals may be associated with multiple physiological effects. Here, we examine the effects of social stress in rats, i.e. repeated social defeat, on behavior, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis and immune system. Methods: A resident-intruder paradigm, where...
Article
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Personality has been hypothesized to act as antecedent as well as an outcome of workplace bullying. Still, investigations on the longitudinal relationship between bullying and personality are scarce. We investigated the relationship between accumulated exposure to bullying at work and subsequent changes in psychological hardiness. Additionally, we...
Article
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Based on a nationally representative sample (N = 1,613) and a true prospective design, we show that the link between self-labelled workplace bullying and exclusion from working life (i.e., becoming a non-participant in working life) over a 5-year time lag becomes stronger with increasing numbers of perpetrators involved. The amount of exposure to b...
Article
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This systematic review and meta-analysis 1) clarifies and quantifies existing results on the association between exposure to workplace bullying and sleep, 2) evaluates the methodological quality of existing studies, 3) identifies theoretical frameworks used in research, 4) determines moderating and mediating variables, and 5) provides guidelines fo...
Article
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Research and theory on deviance in work groups suggest that nonprototypical members risk devaluation and mistreatment by their peers. Drawing on the self-categorisation theory, we propose and test a contextual model to explain workplace bullying from a target perspective, using non-prototypicality as a predictor and social identification and anti-b...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background Previous studies suggest that persistent exposure to social stress in mammals may be associated with multiple physiological effects. Here, we examine the effects of social stress in rats, i.e. repeated social defeat, on behavior, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis and immune system. Methods A resident-intruder paradigm, where an i...
Article
The detrimental effects of exposure to bullying behaviors at work on employees’ mental health have been thoroughly documented. However, few studies have examined whether employees’ prior experiences with bullying may affect the strength of this relationship. The present study tested a model where victimization from bullying in adolescence was expec...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background – The study was designed to examine whether patients exposed to workplace bullying have clinically evident dysfunction in their musculoskeletal system. Furthermore, we wanted to explore the relationship between clinical findings and self-reported data on mental and musculoskeletal symptoms in the included patients. Methods – Targets of w...
Article
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Conflict management climate is an important organizational resource that is theorized to prevent interpersonal frustration from escalating into harsh interpersonal conflicts and even workplace bullying. The present study investigates whether team-level perceptions of conflict management climate moderate the relationship between previously investiga...
Article
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Prolonged exposure to bullying behaviors may give rise to symptoms such as anxiety, depression and chronic pain. Earlier data suggest that these symptoms often are associated with stress-induced low-grade systemic inflammation. Here, using data from both animals and humans, we examined the moderating role of microRNAs (miRNAs, miRs) in this process...
Article
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Since the turn of the millennium, a growing academic interest has emerged regarding the dark side of leadership, both in general and specific contexts. Characteristics of military organisations may either reduce or exaggerate the prevalence and impact of destructive leadership. It is therefore pertinent to explore antecedents and outcomes of destru...
Article
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Workplace bullying is regarded as one of the most devastating stressors at work for those targeted, and the bullying-mental health relationship is well-documented in the literature, even under lower levels of exposure. However, less is known about when and for whom these negative behaviors have more effect. Perceived control over outcomes in life (...
Article
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Leadership ostracism denotes a severe work stressor, potentially entailing more serious negative effects than other types of workplace ostracism. However, scholars have paid relatively little attention to ostracism carried out by leaders, leaving the phenomenon insufficiently accounted for in the literature. Hence, the present study aims to explore...
Article
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Several lines of evidence show that systematic exposure to negative social acts at the workplace i.e., workplace bullying, results in symptoms of depression and anxiety among those targeted. However, little is known about the association between bullying, inflammatory genes and sleep problems. In the present study, we examined the indirect associat...
Article
Purpose Drawing on the resource-based view, the purpose of this paper is to examine the extent to which the level of the organization’s human resource management (HRM) practices, perceived financial resources and organizational size predict the existence of a well-developed ethical infrastructure against workplace bullying. Design/methodology/app...
Article
The aim of this study was to determine the direction of associations between perceived leadership styles of an immediate leader and state anxiety among subordinates using time-lagged data from a large and heterogeneous probability sample of Norwegian employees. It was hypothesised that high levels of transformational leadership would be associated...
Article
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Stressors in the work environment and individual dispositions among targets have been established separately as antecedents and risk factors of workplace bullying. However, few studies have examined these stressors in conjunction in order to determine personal dispositions among targets as possible moderators in the work stressor–bullying relations...
Article
The aim of the present study was to examine the relationships between daily exposure to negative acts and depressed mood on the same day and on the days following the exposure, and to test the hypothesis that these relationships would be stronger among those who have recently gone through a process of victimization from workplace bullying. The samp...
Article
Full-text available
Background Existing evidence on the association between exposure to bullying and sleep is limited and inconclusive. The aims of this planned systematic review and meta-analysis are therefore (1) to determine whether exposure to workplace bullying is related to changes in sleep function and (2) to establish mediating and moderating factors that gove...
Article
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Introduction Interest in workplace bullying has been steadily growing since the 1990s, focusing on understanding its driving factors, prevalence rates in different occupations and countries, its consequences, as well as the characteristics of the typical bully and victim. Currently, the Negative Acts Questionnaire-Revised (NAQ-R) is the most freque...
Article
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In this paper, we tackle an important but unresolved research question: How distinct are workplace conflict, aggression and bullying? We study this question by means of latent class (LC) analysis using cross-industry data from 6,175 Belgian workers. We find a two-factor solution (conflict-aggression versus bullying) to provide the best fit to the d...
Article
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In line with the work environment hypothesis, interpersonal conflict has been proposed as an important antecedent of workplace bullying. However, longitudinal studies on this relationship have been scarce. The aim of this study was to examine whether co‐worker conflict predicted new cases of self‐reported workplace bullying 2 years later and whethe...
Article
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Over the last three decades, the scientific and social interest in workplace bullying has accelerated and our understanding of this pervasive and detrimental social problem has advanced considerably in a relatively short amount of time. Workplace bullying is now a phenomenon of global interest, new topics are steadily emerging within the field, and...
Article
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The current study aims to investigate the psychometric properties of the abbreviated version of the Negative Acts Questionnaire, also known as the SNAQ (Short Negative Acts Questionnaire). A Latent Class analysis of 7,790 observation from 38 Belgian organizations demonstrated that four latent classes of respondents can be distinguished in our data:...
Article
Objective: The association between exposure to bullying at work and subsequent pain reports is relatively well-established, but few studies have examined possible moderators of this relationship. As gender is a known risk factor for pain, with women reporting pain levels of higher intensity and longer duration, a possible gender difference in the...
Article
Full-text available
Workplace bullying is increasingly recognised as a risk factor for job loss and exclusion from working life. Consequently, bullying may represent an antecedent of job insecurity, but this notion has not been sufficiently tested using prospective, representative data. In the present study, the association between workplace bullying and job insecurit...
Article
Objectives Long-term exposure to systematic negative acts at work, usually labeled workplace bullying, is a prevalent problem at many workplaces. The adverse effects of such exposure may range from psychological symptoms, such as depression and anxiety to somatic ailments like cardiovascular disease and musculoskeletal complaints. In this study, we...
Article
Background: Workplace bullying has consistently been found to predict mental health problems among those affected. However, less attention has been given to personal dispositions as possible moderators in this relationship. Aims: To investigate the moderating role of individual hardiness in the relationship between exposure to bullying behaviour...
Article
Full-text available
This study investigates the extent to which Norwegian adolescents (age 15–16 years) choose vocational foundation classes for high school related to the hospitality industry and intend to complete their certificate of apprenticeship in this field. Departing from the concepts of beliefs, behavioral intentions, and background factors, the study explor...
Article
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In the context of workplace bullying, the ability to defend refers to whether or not a target feels able to deal with those negative behaviors that typically constitute bullying. The aim of this study was to determine whether the perceived ability to defend oneself moderates the association between exposure to bullying behaviors at work and symptom...
Article
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Purpose The purpose of this paper is to examine the extent to which emotional experiences mediate the relationships between employees’ perception of considerate and/or tyrannical leadership behaviors and their work engagement and intention to leave the organization. The notion of symmetric and asymmetric relationships between specific kinds of lea...
Article
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Abstract Workplace bullying is a universal threat with statistics available at global level prominently suggesting that this phenomenon is thriving like a pandemic worldwide. Limited literature on workplace bullying from Indian perspective can be attributed to the paucity of standardized tools for investigating its prevalence. This study reports va...
Article
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Previous studies on the personality of bullies and targets have exclusively been based on self-report. Against this backdrop we conducted a between group experimental vignette study with three conditions, describing a bully, a target and a control, respectively. Students (n = 242) were recruited as participants and rated the target on the observer...
Article
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Antecedents and consequences of workplace bullying are well documented. However, the measures taken against workplace bullying, and the effectiveness of such measures, have received less attention. This study addresses this knowledge gap by exploring the role of ethical infrastructure in perceived successful handling of reported workplace bullying....