Sriram Subramanian

Sriram Subramanian
University of Sussex · Department of Informatics

PhD

About

233
Publications
57,378
Reads
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6,255
Citations
Citations since 2016
73 Research Items
4635 Citations
20162017201820192020202120220200400600800
20162017201820192020202120220200400600800
20162017201820192020202120220200400600800
20162017201820192020202120220200400600800
Additional affiliations
September 2007 - August 2015
University of Bristol
Position
  • Professor of Human-computer Interaction
December 2006 - August 2007
Philips
Position
  • Senior Researcher
January 2006 - April 2006
Education
August 1999 - April 2004

Publications

Publications (233)
Conference Paper
Here, we demonstrate DataLev, a data physicalisation platform with a physical assembly pipeline that allows us to computationally assemble 3D physical charts using acoustically levitated contents. DataLev consists of several enhancement props that allow us to incorporate high-resolution projection, different 3D printed artifacts and multi-modal int...
Article
Full-text available
Conventional energy sources are continuously depleting, and the world is actively seeking new green and efficient energy solutions. Enormous amounts of acoustic energy are dissipated daily, but the low intensity and limited efficiency of current harvesting techniques are preventing its adoption as a ubiquitous method of power generation. Herein, we...
Article
Using sound to levitate objects for creating displays that can deliver visual, auditory, tactile, and gustatory experiences.
Article
Full-text available
Human-computer integration is an emerging area in which the boundary between humans and technology is blurred as users and computers work collaboratively and share agency to execute tasks. The sense of agency (SoA) is an experience that arises by a combination of a voluntary motor action and sensory evidence whether the corresponding body movements...
Article
Recent advances in high-speed acoustic holography have enabled levitation-based volumetric displays with tactile and audio sensations. However, current approaches do not compute sound scattering of objects’ surfaces; thus, any physical object inside can distort the sound field. Here, we present a fast computational technique that allows high-speed...
Article
Full-text available
Liquid metals, including eutectic gallium-indium (EGaIn), have been explored for various planar droplet operations, including droplet splitting and merging, promoting their use in emerging areas such as flexible electronics and soft robotics. However, three-dimensional (3D) droplet operations, including droplet bouncing, have mostly been limited to...
Article
Three dimensional sound convergence in air underpins applications ranging from localized acoustic experiences to levitation. Most current solutions, however, are challenging to scale-up: they either require complex electronics or intricate geometries. In this paper, we propose a solution based on sonic crystals: an extruded 2D hexagonal lattice arr...
Preprint
Full-text available
In this paper, we explore how to augment shared 3D model repositories, such as Thingiverse, with slicing results that are readily available to all users. By having print time and material consumption for different print resolution profiles and model scales available in real-time, users are able to explore different slicing configurations efficientl...
Article
Full-text available
While acoustic metamaterials provide extraordinary control to manipulate sound waves, their physical realization and applicability are severely impeded by the limited tunability, narrow operational frequency range, and non‐compact designs. Integrating liquids with active actuation mechanism in the metamaterials provides broader material and design...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Acoustic levitation is gaining popularity as an approach to create physicalized mid-air content by levitating different types of levitation primitives. Such primitives can be independent particles or particles that are physically connected via threads or pieces of cloth to form shapes in mid-air. However, initialization (i.e., placement of such pri...
Conference Paper
We present Flowcuits, a DIY fabrication method to prototype tangible, interactive and functional electrical components by manipulating liquid metals. The prototypes afford both physical and visual interactions to demonstrate the inner working mechanics of fundamental electronic elements, which enables tangible and playful learning. The fabrication...
Article
The conveyor belt represents the manufacture of acoustic metamaterials and phononic crystals. The six displayed structure‐types are central to the review. Sound waves produced from the panel of three speakers interact with the exotic acoustic structures to form interesting wave patterns. Further details can be found in the article, number 2000988,...
Article
Full-text available
Acoustic metamaterials (AMM) and phononic crystals (PC) have the potential to unfold a new wave of disruptive technologies to radically transform human interactions, sensory communications, and beyond. Although essential, cultivating a deep understanding of the fundamental theory and design principles is insufficient alone, in the practical advance...
Conference Paper
This paper presents a thin digital full-face mask display that can reflect an entire facial expression of a user onto an avatar to support augmented face-to-face communication in real environments. Although camera-based facial expression recognition technology has enabled people to augment their faces with avatars, application was limited to face-t...
Conference Paper
The Sense of Agency (SoA) is crucial in interaction with technology, it refers to the feeling of 'I did that' as opposed to 'the system did that' supporting a feeling of being in control. Research in human-computer interaction has recently studied agency in visual, auditory and haptic interfaces, however the role of smell on agency remains unknown....
Article
No PDF available ABSTRACT The creation of a three-dimensional focal spot in air underpins applications in many fields. The literature presents many examples of focusing with acoustic metamaterials, but they are difficult to manufacture in large scale. Sonic crystals, are easier to make—since they are periodic arrangements of simple scatterers—but t...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Current display approaches, such as VR, allow us to get a glimpse of multimodal 3D experiences, but users need to wear headsets as well as other devices in order to trick our brains into believing that the content we are seeing, hearing or feeling is real. Light-field, holographic or volumetric displays avoid the use of headsets, but they constrain...
Article
Full-text available
Phased Arrays of Transducers (PATs) allow accurate control of ultrasound fields, with applications in haptics, levitation (i.e. displays) and parametric audio. However, algorithms for multi-point levitation or tactile feedback are usually limited to computing solutions in the order of hundreds of sound-fields per second, preventing the use of multi...
Article
Full-text available
Precise control of ultrasonic acoustic waves with frequencies f ≳ 20 kHz is useful in a range of applications from ultrasonic scanners to nondestructive testing and consumer haptic devices. A spatial sound modulator (SSM) is the acoustic analogy to the spatial light modulator (SLM) in optics and is highly sought after by acoustics researchers. A sp...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The goal of this research is to propose the e2-MaskZ, a mask-type display that changes the user's face to the face of an avatar. The e2-MaskZ is composed of a face-capture mask to recognize the facial expression, and a face-display mask to present the avatar that reflects the recognize expression of the system wearer. 40 photo reflective sensors ar...
Article
Full-text available
We present a method to realise a wide class of caustics in acoustic fields created by a set of phase holograms realized with metasurfaces. Given the desired caustic shape, we discuss how to identify the phase distribution along the metasurfaces and describe the calculations needed for determining the pressure field in the vicinity of the caustic. T...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
3D selection in dense VR environments (e.g., point clouds) is extremely challenging due to occlusion and imprecise mid-air input modalities (e.g., 3D controllers and hand gestures). In this paper, we propose "Slicing-Volume", a hybrid selection technique that enables simultaneous 3D interaction in mid-air, and a 2D pen-and-tablet metaphor in VR. In...
Conference Paper
3D selection in dense VR environments (e.g., point clouds) is extremely challenging due to occlusion and imprecise mid-air input modalities (e.g., 3D controllers and hand gestures). In this paper, we propose "Slicing-Volume", a hybrid selection technique that enables simultaneous 3D interaction in mid-air, and a 2D pen-and-tablet metaphor in VR. In...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Permeable, mid-air displays, such as those using fog or water mist are limited by our ability to shape and control the aerosol and deal with two major issues: (1) the size and complexity of the system, and (2) the creation of laminar flow, to retain display quality. Here we present SonicSpray, a technique using ultrasonic Bessel beams to create rec...
Article
Full-text available
Science-fiction movies portray volumetric systems that provide not only visual but also tactile and audible three-dimensional (3D) content. Displays based on swept-volume surfaces1,2, holography3, optophoretics4, plasmonics5 or lenticular lenslets6 can create 3D visual content without the need for glasses or additional instrumentation. However, the...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
LeviProps are tangible structures used to create interactive mid-air experiences. They are composed of an acoustically- transparent lightweight piece of fabric and attached beads that act as levitated anchors. This combination enables real- time 6 Degrees-of-Freedom control of levitated structures which are larger and more diverse than those possib...
Conference Paper
Scale adaptive techniques for VR navigation enable users to navigate spaces larger than the real space available, while allowing precise interaction when required. However, due to these techniques gradually scaling displacements as the user moves (changing user's speed), they introduce a Drift effect. That is, a user returning to the same point in...
Chapter
We present an approach for the semi-automatic generation of gesture mappings for devices with low gestural resolution such as the Myo Armband, an off-the-shelf EMG capture device. As an exemplar interactive task, we use text-entry: a pervasive and highly complex interaction. We quantify data related to interaction combining systematic studies (i.e....
Poster
Acoustic waves are ubiquitous in our everyday life. They are not only the core of our verbal communicative experience but also the basis for a growing number of technologies that exploit sound outside the audible range. Examples include mid-air ultrasonic haptics systems, drug transport and medical ultrasound, or systems for contactless manipulatio...
Conference Paper
Touchscreens are the predominant medium for interactions with digital services; however, their current fixed form factor narrows the scope for rich physical interactions by limiting interaction possibilities to a single, planar surface. In this paper we introduce the concept of PickCells, a fully re-configurable device concept composed of cells, th...
Conference Paper
Centuries of development in optics have given us passive devices (i.e. lenses, mirrors and filters) to enrich audience immersivity with light effects, but there is nothing similar for sound. Beam-forming in concert halls and outdoor gigs still requires a large number of speakers, while headphones are still the state-of-the-art for personalized audi...
Conference Paper
Mid-air tactile stimulation using ultrasonics has been used in a variety of human computer interfaces in the form of prototypes as well as products. When generating these tactile patterns with mid-air tactile ultrasonic displays, the common approach has been to sample the patterns using the hardware update rate capabilities to their full extent. In...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Ultrasound manipulation is growing in popularity in the HCI community with applications in haptics, on-body interaction, and levitation-based displays. Most of these applications share two key limitations: a) the complexity of the sound fields that can be produced is limited by the physical size of the transducers, and b) no obstacles can be presen...
Chapter
One way to create mid-air haptics is to use an ultrasonic phased-array, whose elements may be controlled to focus acoustic pressure to points in space (referred to as focal points). At these focal points the pressure can then deflect off the skin and induce a tactile sensation. Furthermore, by rapidly and repeatedly updating the position of a focal...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The Sense of Agency (SoA) refers to our capability to control our own actions and influence the world around us. Recent research in HCI has been investigating SoA to provide users an instinctive sense of "I did that" as opposed to "the system did that". However, current agency measurements are limited. The Intentional Binding (IB) paradigm provides...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
We present Tangible Drops, a visio-tactile display that for the first time provides physical visualization and tactile feedback using a planar liquid interface. It presents digital information interactively by tracing dynamic patterns on horizontal flat surfaces using liquid metal drops on a programmable electrode array. It provides tactile feedbac...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Acoustic levitation enables a radical new type of human-computer interface composed of small levitating objects. For the first time, we investigate the selection of such objects, an important part of interaction with a levitating object display. We present Point-and-Shake, a mid-air pointing interaction for selecting levitating objects, with feedba...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This demo presents the concept of Interactive Digital Signage with Haptics, where users can interact with public digital screens with their bare hands, utilizing tracking technology and ultrasonic mid-air haptic feedback. Using these three main components: a digital screen, a tracking device, and Ultrahaptics technology for tactile feedback in mid-...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Control interfaces and interactions based on touch-less gesture tracking devices have become a prevalent research topic in both industry and academia. Touch-less devices offer a unique interaction immediateness that makes them ideal for applications where direct contact with a physical controller is not desirable. On the other hand, these controlle...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
An actuated shape-changing interface with faster response and smaller pixel size using a liquid material can provide real time tangible interaction with the digital world in physical space. To this end, we demonstrate an interface that displays user-defined patterns dynamically using liquid metal droplets as programmable micro robots on a flat surf...
Conference Paper
Usability has a distinct subjective component, yet surprisingly little is known about its neural basis and relation to the neuroanatomy of aesthetics. To begin closing this gap, we conducted two functional magnetic resonance imaging studies in which participants were shown static webpages (in the first study) and videos of interaction with webpages...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Interaction in VR involves large body movements, easily inducing fatigue and discomfort. We propose Erg-O, a manipulation technique that leverages visual dominance to maintain the visual location of the elements in VR, while making them accessible from more comfortable locations. Our solution works in an open-ended fashion (no prior knowledge of th...
Conference Paper
We present two realizations of TastyFloats, a novel system that uses acoustic levitation to deliver food morsels to the users' tongue. To explore TastyFloats' associated design framework, we first address the technical challenges to successfully levitate and deliver different types of foods on the tongue. We then conduct a user study, assessing the...
Conference Paper
We present a programmable liquid matter which can dynamically transform its 2D shape into a variety of forms and present unique organic animations based on spatio-temporally controlled electric fields. We deployed a EGaIn (Gallium indium eutectic alloy) liquid metal as our smart liquid material since it features a superior electric conductivity in...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In this paper, we demonstrate a method for the dynamic 2D transformation of liquid matter and present unique organic animations based on spatio-temporally controlled electric fields. In particular, we deploy a droplet of liquid metal (Gallium indium eutectic alloy) in a 7x7 electrode array prototype system, featuring an integrated image tracking sy...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The screen in our laptops or the white surface of a projector screen are common examples of displays that we use in our daily life to visualize information. Here, we propose to use levitated particles above these displays to enrich the presented information. By means of acoustic or magnetic levitation we show that it is possible to move a particle...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The ability to control acoustic fields offers many possible applications in loudspeaker design, ultrasound imaging, medical therapy, and acoustic levitation. Sound waves are currently shaped using phased array systems, even though the complex electronics required are expensive and hinder widespread use. Here we show how to control, direct, and mani...
Conference Paper
In this panel, we will discuss the current state of Spatial User Interfaces (SUI), and the new research challenges that await us. The discussion will start on the topic of field studies, and practical applications of SUI technologies in the wild. Most current research focuses on controlled settings, therefore exploring how these technologies can be...
Article
We present a study of children collaborating around interactive tabletops in three different countries: India, the United Kingdom and Finland. Our data highlights the key distinctive physical strategies used by children when performing collaborative tasks during this study. Children in India employ dynamic positioning with frequent physical contact...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Touchless interfaces allow users to view, control and manipulate digital content without physically touching an interface. They are being explored in a wide range of application scenarios from medical surgery to car dashboard controllers. One aspect of touchless interaction that has not been explored to date is the Sense of Agency (SoA). The SoA re...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
We present MistForm, a shape changing fog display that can support one or two users interacting with either 2D or 3D content. Mistform combines affordances from both shape changing interfaces and mid-air displays. For example, a concave display can maintain content in comfortable reach for a single user, while a convex shape can support several use...
Conference Paper
Many finger sensing input devices now support proximity input, enabling users to perform in-air gestures. While near-surface interactions increase the input vocabulary, they lack tactile feedback, making it hard for users to perform gestures or to know when the interaction takes place. Sparkle stimulates the fingertip with touchable electric arcs a...
Conference Paper
Many users value the ability to have quick and frequent sight of their mobiles when in public settings. However, in doing so, they expose themselves to potential risks, ranging from being targets of robbery to the more subtle social losses through being seen to be rude or inattentive to those around them. In nature, some animals can blend into thei...
Data
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Data
Supplementary Figures, Supplementary Notes and Supplementary Table
Article
Full-text available
Controlling acoustic fields is crucial in diverse applications such as loudspeaker design, ultrasound imaging and therapy, or acoustic particle manipulation. The current approaches use fixed lenses or expensive phased arrays. Here, using a process of analogue-to-digital conversion and wavelet decomposition, we develop the notion of quantal meta-sur...