Sriram Subramaniam

Sriram Subramaniam
University of British Columbia - Vancouver | UBC · Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology

Professor

About

310
Publications
36,158
Reads
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12,647
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Introduction
Sriram Subramaniam currently works at the Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of British Columbia - Vancouver. Sriram does research in Molecular Biology, Structural Biology and Cell Biology.
Additional affiliations
April 2018 - present
University of British Columbia - Vancouver
Position
  • Chair

Publications

Publications (310)
Article
Full-text available
Transmembrane protease, serine 2 (TMPRSS2) has been identified as key host cell factor for viral entry and pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2. Specifically, TMPRSS2 proteolytically processes the SARS-CoV-2 Spike (S) protein, enabling virus–host membrane fusion and infection of the airways. We present here a recombinant production strategy for enzymatically...
Preprint
The emergence of SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOCs) requires the development of next-generation biologics that are effective against a variety of strains of the virus. Herein, we characterize a human VH domain, F6, which we generated by sequentially panning large phage displayed VH libraries against receptor binding domains (RBDs) containing VOC...
Article
Full-text available
The Delta and Kappa variants of SARS-CoV-2 co-emerged in India in late 2020, with the Delta variant underlying the resurgence of COVID-19, even in countries with high vaccination rates. In this study, we assess structural and biochemical aspects of viral fitness for these two variants using cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM), ACE2-binding and antib...
Article
The newly reported Omicron variant is poised to replace Delta as the most prevalent severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variant across the world. Cryo–electron microscopy (cryo-EM) structural analysis of the Omicron variant spike protein in complex with human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) reveals new salt bridges a...
Preprint
Full-text available
The newly reported Omicron variant is poised to replace Delta as the most rapidly spread SARS-CoV-2 variant across the world. Cryo-EM structural analysis of the Omicron variant spike protein in complex with human ACE2 reveals new salt bridges and hydrogen bonds formed by mutated residues R493, S496 and R498 in the RBD with ACE2. These interactions...
Preprint
Full-text available
Mutations in the spike glycoproteins of SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern have independently been shown to enhance aspects of spike protein fitness. Here, we report the discovery of a novel antibody fragment (VH ab6) that neutralizes all major variants, with a unique mode of binding revealed by cryo-EM studies. Further, we provide a comparative analys...
Article
Full-text available
The recently emerged SARS-CoV-2 Beta (B.1.351) and Gamma (P.1) variants of concern (VoCs) include a key mutation (N501Y) found in the Alpha (B.1.1.7) variant that enhances affinity of the spike protein for its receptor, ACE2. Additional mutations are found in these variants at residues 417 and 484 that appear to promote antibody evasion. In contras...
Article
Full-text available
The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a receptor tyrosine kinase that couples the binding of extracellular ligands, such as EGF and transforming growth factor-α (TGF-α), to the initiation of intracellular signaling pathways. EGFR binds to EGF and TGF-α with similar affinity, but generates different signals from these ligands. To address th...
Article
Full-text available
Accurate chromosome segregation requires the proper assembly of kinetochore proteins. A key step in this process is the recognition of the histone H3 variant CENP-A in the centromeric nucleosome by the kinetochore protein CENP-N. We report cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM), biophysical, biochemical, and cell biological studies of the interaction b...
Preprint
The Delta and Kappa variants of SARS-CoV-2 co-emerged in India in late 2020, with the Delta variant underlying the resurgence of COVID-19, even in countries with high vaccination rates. In this study, we assess structural and biochemical aspects of viral fitness for these two variants using cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM), ACE2-binding and antib...
Article
Full-text available
The human AAA ATPase p97, a potential target for cancer therapeutics, plays a vital role in the clearing of misfolded proteins. p97 dysfunction is also known to play a crucial role in several neurodegenerative disorders, such as MultiSystem Proteinopathy 1 (MSP-1) and Familial Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS). However, the structural basis of it...
Preprint
The recently emerged SARS-CoV-2 South African (B. 1.351) and Brazil/Japan (P.1) variants of concern (VoCs) include a key mutation (N501Y) found in the UK variant that enhances affinity of the spike protein for its receptor, ACE2. Additional mutations are found in these variants at residues 417 and 484 that appear to promote antibody evasion. In con...
Preprint
Full-text available
The human AAA ATPase p97, a potential cancer target, plays a vital role in clearing misfolded proteins. p97 dysfunction is also known to play a crucial role in several neurodegenerative disorders. Here, we present cryo-EM structural analyses of four disease mutants p97R155H, p97R191Q, p97A232E, p97D592N, as well as p97E470D, implicated in resistanc...
Preprint
Full-text available
Transmembrane protease, serine 2 (TMPRSS2) has been identified as key host cell factor for viral entry and pathogenesis of SARS-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). Specifically, TMPRSS2 proteolytically processes the SARS-CoV-2 Spike (S) Protein, enabling virus-host membrane fusion and infection of the lungs. We present here an efficient recombinant product...
Article
Full-text available
The SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein is a focal point for vaccine immunogen and therapeutic antibody design, and also serves as a critical antigen in the evaluation of immune responses to COVID-19. A common feature amongst enveloped viruses such as SARS-CoV-2 and HIV-1 is the propensity for displaying host-derived glycans on entry spike proteins. Simi...
Article
Full-text available
The recently reported “UK variant” (B.1.1.7) of SARS-CoV-2 is thought to be more infectious than previously circulating strains as a result of several changes, including the N501Y mutation. We present a 2.9-Å resolution cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) structure of the complex between the ACE2 receptor and N501Y spike protein ectodomains that sho...
Preprint
The recently reported “UK variant” of SARS-CoV-2 is thought to be more infectious than previously circulating strains as a result of several changes, including the N501Y mutation. We present a 2.9-Å resolution cryo-EM structure of the complex between the ACE2 receptor and N501Y spike protein ectodomains that shows Y501 inserted into a cavity at the...
Article
Full-text available
Malaria parasites use the RhopH complex for erythrocyte invasion and channel-mediated nutrient uptake. As the member proteins are unique to Plasmodium spp., how they interact and traffic through subcellular sites to serve these essential functions is unknown. We show that RhopH is synthesized as a soluble complex of CLAG3, RhopH2, and RhopH3 with 1...
Preprint
The SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein is a focal point for vaccine immunogen and therapeutic antibody design, and also serves as a critical antigen in the evaluation of immune responses to COVID-19. A common feature amongst enveloped viruses such as SARS-CoV-2 and HIV-1 is the propensity for displaying host-derived glycans on entry spike proteins. Simi...
Preprint
The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a receptor tyrosine kinase that couples the binding of extracellular ligands, such as EGF and transforming growth factor-a (TGF-α), to the initiation of intracellular signaling pathways 1–3 . EGFR binds to EGF and TGF-α with similar affinity but exhibits biased agonism, generating different signals fro...
Article
Full-text available
Novel COVID-19 therapeutics are urgently needed. We generated a phage-displayed human antibody VH domain library from which we identified a high-affinity VH binder ab8. Bivalent VH, VH-Fc ab8, bound with high avidity to membrane-associated S glycoprotein and to mutants found in patients. It potently neutralized mouse-adapted SARS-CoV-2 in wild-type...
Article
Data Management Pipeline at the National Cryo-EM Facility - Matt Hutchison, Thomas Edwards, Joseph Finney, Helen Wang, Adam Wier, Ulrich Baxa, Sriram Subramaniam
Article
Full-text available
We report the determination of the structure of Escherichia coli β-galactosidase at a resolution of ∼1.8 Å using data collected on a 200 kV CRYO ARM microscope equipped with a K3 direct electron detector. The data were collected in a single 24 h session by recording images from an array of 7 × 7 holes at each stage position using the automated data...
Article
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The application of cryo-EM methods to study SARS-CoV-2 proteins provides a convincing demonstration of the power of cryo-EM in the arsenal of structural biology.
Article
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Malaria is a devastating disease caused by a protozoan parasite. It affects over 300 million individuals and results in over 400 000 deaths annually, most of whom are young children under the age of five. Hexokinase, the first enzyme in glucose metabolism, plays an important role in the infection process and represents a promising target for therap...
Article
The National Cryo-Electron Microscopy Facility (NCEF) at the National Cancer Institute was launched in May of 2017 to provide free and rapid access to high resolution cryo-EM data collection to United States researchers working on problems of broad general relevance to cancer biology. The decision about suitability of projects for data collection i...
Article
Full-text available
Ehrlichia chaffeensis , a cholesterol-rich and cholesterol-dependent obligate intracellular bacterium, partially lacks genes for glycerophospholipid biosynthesis. We found here that E. chaffeensis is dependent on host glycerolipid biosynthesis, as an inhibitor of host long-chain acyl CoA synthetases, key enzymes for glycerolipid biosynthesis, signi...
Article
In this article, we review some of the recent developments in instrumentation and methods that have led to the rise of cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) in the life sciences community, and consider how researchers in the materials community might benefit from these advances. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is compared with scanning transmis...
Article
Raf kinases are important cancer drug targets. Paradoxically, many B-Raf inhibitors induce the activation of Raf kinases. Cryo-EM structural analysis of a phosphorylated B-Raf kinase domain dimer in complex with dimeric 14-3-3, at a resolution of ~3.9 Å, shows an asymmetric arrangement in which one kinase is in a canonical “active” conformation. Th...
Article
Full-text available
ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling factors of SWI/SNF2 family including ISWI, SNF2, CHD1 and INO80 subfamilies share a conserved but functionally non-interchangeable ATPase domain. Here we report cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) structures of the nucleosome bound to an ISWI fragment with deletion of the AutoN and HSS regions in nucleotide-free co...
Article
Full-text available
The RNA-guided Cas9 endonuclease from Streptococcus pyogenes is a single-turnover enzyme that displays a stable product state after double-stranded-DNA cleavage. Here, we present cryo-EM structures of precatalytic, postcatalytic and product states of the active Cas9–sgRNA–DNA complex in the presence of Mg2+. In the precatalytic state, Cas9 adopts t...
Article
The NCI National Cryo-EM Facility - Volume 25 Supplement - Ulrich Baxa, Thomas J. Edwards, Adam D. Wier, Helen Wang, T. Matt Hutchison, Joseph E. Finney, Sriram Subramaniam
Article
Full-text available
Focused Ion Beam Scanning Electron Microscopy (FIB-SEM) is an imaging approach that enables analysis of the 3D architecture of cells and tissues at resolutions that are 1-2 orders of magnitude higher than that possible with light microscopy. The slow speeds of data collection and manual segmentation are two critical problems that limit the more ext...
Article
In recent years, cryo electron microscopy (cryo-EM) technology has been transformed with the development of better instrumentation, direct electron detectors, improved methods for specimen preparation, and improved software for data analysis. Analyses using single-particle cryo-EM methods have enabled determination of structures of proteins with si...
Article
Full-text available
LSD1 and LSD2 are homologous histone demethylases with opposite biological outcomes related to chromatin silencing and transcription elongation, respectively. Unlike LSD1, LSD2 nucleosome-demethylase activity relies on a specific linker peptide from the multidomain protein NPAC. We used single-particle cryoelectron microscopy (cryo-EM), in combinat...
Preprint
Full-text available
Focused Ion Beam Scanning Electron Microscopy (FIB-SEM) is an imaging approach that enables analysis of the 3D architecture of cells and tissues at resolutions that are 1-2 orders of magnitude higher than that possible with light microscopy. The slow speeds of data collection and analysis are two critical problems that limit more extensive use of F...
Article
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Cryo-EM has seen unabated growth and adoption in the last three years. Continued support at institutional, regional and national levels is essential to sustain its evolution.
Article
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In the PDF version of this Article, owing to a typesetting error, an incorrect figure was used for Extended Data Fig. 5; the correct figure was used in the HTML version. This has been corrected online.
Article
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Voltage-activated potassium (Kv) channels open to conduct K⁺ ions in response to membrane depolarization, and subsequently enter non-conducting states through distinct mechanisms of inactivation. X-ray structures of detergent-solubilized Kv channels appear to have captured an open state even though a non-conducting C-type inactivated state would pr...
Article
The National Cryo-EM Facility - Volume 24 Supplement - Ulrich Baxa, Thomas J. Edwards, Helen Wang, Matt Hutchison, Sriram Subramaniam
Article
Full-text available
G-protein-coupled receptors comprise the largest family of mammalian transmembrane receptors. They mediate numerous cellular pathways by coupling with downstream signalling transducers, including the hetrotrimeric G proteins Gs (stimulatory) and Gi (inhibitory) and several arrestin proteins. The structural mechanisms that define how G-protein-coupl...
Article
Full-text available
The advent of direct electron detectors has enabled the routine use of single-particle cryo-electron microscopy (EM) approaches to determine structures of a variety of protein complexes at near-atomic resolution. Here, we report the development of methods to account for local variations in defocus and beam-induced drift, and the implementation of a...
Article
Full-text available
(Cell Reports 19, 487–496; April 18, 2017) In the originally published version of this article, Armel Femnou's name was misspelled as Armel Fenmou in the author list. This has now been corrected. The authors regret this error.
Article
Over the past few years, the advances in technology and methods that have revolutionized cryo-EM are allowing for key insights in a variety of areas in biology, and microbiology is no exception. A wide range of important macromolecular assemblies in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, as well as intact viruses, have now become accessible to investiga...
Article
Full-text available
Designing volume visualizations showing various structures of interest is critical to the exploratory analysis of volumetric data. The last few years have witnessed dramatic advances in the use of convolutional neural networks for identification of objects in large image collections. Whereas such machine learning methods have shown superior perform...
Article
Full-text available
Accurate chromosome segregation requires the proper assembly of kinetochore proteins. A key step in this process is the recognition of the histone H3 variant CENP-A in the centromeric nucleosome by the kinetochore protein CENP-N. We report cryo-EM, biophysical, biochemical, and cell biological studies of the interaction between the CENP-A nucleosom...
Article
The pace at which cryo-EM is being adopted as a mainstream tool in structural biology has continued unabated over the past year. Initial successes in obtaining near-atomic resolution structures with cryo-EM were enabled to a large extent by advances in microscope and detector technology. Here, we review some of the complementary technical improveme...
Article
Prokaryotic cells possess CRISPR-mediated adaptive immune systems that protect them from foreign genetic elements, such as invading viruses. A central element of this immune system is an RNA-guided surveillance complex capable of targeting non-self DNA or RNA for degradation in a sequence- and site-specific manner analogous to RNA interference. Alt...
Article
A substantial proportion of influenza-related childhood deaths are due to infection with influenza B viruses, which co-circulate in the human population as two antigenically distinct lineages defined by the immunodominant receptor binding protein, haemagglutinin. While broadly cross-reactive, protective monoclonal antibodies against the haemaggluti...
Article
Full-text available
The integration of cellular and molecular structural data is key to understanding the function of macromolecular assemblies and complexes in their in vivo context. Here we report on the outcomes of a workshop that discussed how to integrate structural data from a range of public archives. The workshop identified two main priorities: the development...
Article
Graphical Abstract Highlights d Mitochondrial networks are functionally linked through intermitochondrial junctions d Regional mitochondrial subnetworks proactively limit spread of local dysfunction d Dysfunctional mitochondria are electrically separated from the network in seconds d Physical network separation involves mitochondrial retraction In...
Article
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Mitochondrial network connectivity enables rapid communication and distribution of potential energy throughout the cell. However, this connectivity puts the energy conversion system at risk, because damaged elements could jeopardize the entire network. Here, we demonstrate the mechanisms for mitochondrial network protection in heart and skeletal mu...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Estimation of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) has become an integral part of wireless communication systems, particularly in cognitive radio systems. The knowledge of the SNR at any time is essential because it has a significant influence on the performance of the system. Approximating this parameter can help better calculate the occupancy level of...
Article
A number of methods for ultrastructural imaging by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) in three dimensions (3D) have been developed over the last decade. These techniques, which we collectively term 3D SEM, offer 2D imaging of quality approaching that attainable by traditional transmission electron microscopy, but with fine resolution in the third d...