Søren Kyllingsbæk

Søren Kyllingsbæk
University of Copenhagen · Department of Psychology

PhD

About

60
Publications
10,746
Reads
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2,589
Citations
Citations since 2017
7 Research Items
921 Citations
2017201820192020202120222023050100150
2017201820192020202120222023050100150
2017201820192020202120222023050100150
2017201820192020202120222023050100150
Introduction

Publications

Publications (60)
Article
In this paper, we propose a new mathematical model of retrieval of intentions from long-term memory. We model retrieval as a stochastic race between a plurality of potentially relevant intentions stored in long-term memory. Psychological theories are dominated by two opposing conceptions of the role of memory in temporally extended agency - as when...
Article
Full-text available
When a person decides to do something in the future, she forms an intention and her intention persists. Philosophers have thought about the rational requirement that an agent’s intention persists until its execution. But philosophers have neglected to think about the causal memory mechanisms that could enable this kind of persistence and its role i...
Article
Full-text available
Based on the simple what first comes to mind rule, the theory of visual attention (TVA; Bundesen, 1990) provides a comprehensive account of visual attention that has been successful in explaining performance in visual categorization for a variety of attention tasks. If the stimuli to be categorized are mutually confusable, a response rule based on...
Article
Full-text available
A physiologically based nonhomogeneous Poisson counter model of visual identification is presented. The model was developed in the framework of a Theory of Visual Attention (Bundesen, 1990; Kyllingsbæk, Markussen, & Bundesen, 2012) and meant for modeling visual identification of objects that are mutually confusable and hard to see. The model assume...
Article
The quality or precision of stimulus representations in visual working memory can be characterized by a power law, which states that precision decreases as a power of the number of items in memory, with an exponent whose magnitude typically varies in the range 0.5 to 0.75. The authors show that the magnitude of the exponent is an index of the atten...
Article
Full-text available
When identifying confusable visual stimuli, accumulation of information over time is an obvious strategy of the observer. However, the nature of the accumulation process is unresolved: for example it may be discrete or continuous in terms of the information encoded. Another unanswered question is whether or not stimulus sampling continues after the...
Article
Full-text available
A fundamental question concerning representation of the visual world in our brain is how a cortical cell responds when presented with more than a single stimulus. We find supportive evidence that most cells presented with a pair of stimuli respond predominantly to one stimulus at a time, rather than a weighted average response. Traditionally, the f...
Article
Full-text available
In the partial-report task, subjects are asked to report only a portion of the items presented. Selective attention chooses which objects to represent in short-term memory (STM) on the basis of their relevance. Because STM is limited in capacity, one must sometimes choose which objects are removed from memory in light of new relevant information. W...
Article
We investigated the capacity of visual short-term memory (VSTM) in a phase discrimination task that required judgments about the configural relations between pairs of black and white features. Sewell et al. (2014) previously showed that VSTM capacity in an orientation discrimination task was well described by a sample-size model, which views VSTM a...
Poster
Accurate information about the spatial location of objects during visual search influences the allocation of processing capacity to task-relevant and task-irrelevant information. According to Load theory (Lavie, 1995), processing capacity is allocated to stimuli presented at task-relevant locations and any remaining capacity spills-over to stimuli...
Article
Full-text available
Observers were trained to search for a particular horizontal string of three capital letters presented among similar strings consisting of exactly the same letters in different orders. The training was followed by a test in which the observers searched for a new target that was identical to one of the former distractors. The new distractor set cons...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Background / Purpose: Here we test critical assumption of capacity allocation in Load Theory: Is the precise location information available pre-attentively to guide allocation of processing resources in an accurate way? Or alternatively, is precise location information only available at a slower rate and thus not pre-attentively? Main conclus...
Article
Full-text available
The human attention system helps us cope with a complex environment by supporting the selective processing of information relevant to our current goals. Understanding the perceptual, cognitive, and neural mechanisms that mediate selective attention is a core issue in cognitive neuroscience. One prominent model of selective attention, known as load...
Conference Paper
Background / Purpose: Do pre-stimulus spontaneous brain activity explain inter-trial variability in performance within and between participants? Main conclusion: At low stimulus intensities, inter-trial phase-locking in the alpha-band at occipital electrodes explains between-participant variability in identification performance.
Article
Studies on the temporal dynamics of attention have shown that the report of a masked target (T2) is severely impaired when the target is presented with a delay (stimulus onset asynchrony) of less than 500 ms after a spatially separate masked target (T1). This is known as the attentional dwell time. Recently, we have proposed a computational model o...
Article
The Theory of Visual Attention (TVA; Bundesen, 1990) allows one to measure distinct visual attention parameters, such as the temporal threshold for visual perception, visual processing capacity, and visual short-term memory (VSTM) capacity. It has long been assumed that visual processing capacity and VSTM capacity parameters are nearly constant fro...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: Inattentive behaviour is a defining characteristic of ADHD. Researchers have wondered about the nature of the attentional deficit underlying these symptoms. The primary purpose of the current study was to examine this attentional deficit using a novel paradigm based upon the Theory of Visual Attention (TVA). Method: The TVA paradigm e...
Article
Habekost, T., Vogel, A., Rostrup, E., Bundesen, C., Kyllingsbaek, S., Garde, E., Ryberg, C. & Waldemar, G. (2012). Visual processing speed in old age. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology. Mental speed is a common concept in theories of cognitive aging, but it is difficult to get measures of the speed of a particular psychological process that are no...
Article
Full-text available
Attentional dwell time (AD) defines our inability to perceive spatially separate events when they occur in rapid succession. In the standard AD paradigm, subjects should identify two target stimuli presented briefly at different peripheral locations with a varied stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA). The AD effect is seen as a long-lasting impediment in...
Article
In the attentional dwell time paradigm by Duncan, Ward, and Shapiro (1994) , two backward masked targets are presented at different spatial locations and separated by a varying time interval. Results show that report of the second target is severely impaired when the time interval is less than 500 ms which has been taken as a direct measure of atte...
Article
Full-text available
Changes in sustained attention, attentional selectivity, and attentional capacity were examined in a sample of 113 participants between the ages of 12 and 75. To measure sustained attention, we employed the sustained-attention-to-response task (Robertson, Manly, Andrade, Baddeley, & Yiend, Neuropsychologia 35:747-58, 1997), a short continuous-perfo...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Background / Purpose: To test a simple Poisson counter model of identification and the effect of contrast. Main conclusion: The Poisson Counter Model provided a close fit to individual data on identification of Landolt rings with varying contrast.
Article
The intraparietal sulcus (IPS) has been implicated in selective attention as well as visual short-term memory (VSTM). To contrast mechanisms of target selection, distracter filtering, and access to VSTM, we combined behavioral testing, computational modeling and functional magnetic resonance imaging. Sixteen healthy subjects participated in a chang...
Article
Visual short-term memory (VSTM) has traditionally been thought to have a very limited capacity of around 3-4 objects. However, recently several researchers have argued that VSTM may be limited in the amount of information retained rather than by a specific number of objects. Here we present a study of the effect of long-term practice on VSTM capaci...
Article
Full-text available
The Theory of Visual Attention (TVA; Bundesen, 1990) provides a quantitative account of visual attentional selectivity and capacity but does not include a parameter relating to sustained attention. We conducted two studies to examine the relationship between sustained attention and the TVA parameters relating to selectivity and capacity. In the fir...
Article
We identify two biases in the traditional use of Bundesen’s Theory of Visual Attention (TVA) and show that they can be substantially reduced by introducing trial-by-trial variability in the model. We analyze whole and partial report data from a comprehensive empirical study with 347 participants and elaborate on Bayesian model selection theory for...
Article
The authors propose and test a simple model of the time course of visual identification of briefly presented, mutually confusable single stimuli in pure accuracy tasks. The model implies that during stimulus analysis, tentative categorizations that stimulus i belongs to category j are made at a constant Poisson rate, v(i, j). The analysis is contin...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper we take a step towards single-trial behavioral modeling within a Theory of Visual Attention (TVA). In selective attention tasks, such as the Partial Report paradigm, the subject is asked to ignore distractors and only report stimuli that belong to the target class. Nothing about a distractor is observed directly in the subject's overt...
Article
The allocation of visual processing capacity is a key topic in studies and theories of visual attention. The load theory of Lavie (1995) proposes that allocation happens in two steps where processing resources are first allocated to task-relevant stimuli and secondly remaining capacity 'spills over' to task-irrelevant distractors. In contrast, the...
Article
Full-text available
The neural theory of visual attention and short-term memory (NTVA) proposed by Bundesen, Habekost, and Kyllingsbæk (2005) is reviewed. In NTVA, filtering (selection of objects) changes the number of cortical neurons in which an object is represented so that this number increases with the behavioural importance of the object. Another mechanism of se...
Article
Studies of the time course of visual attention have identified a temporary functional blindness to the second of two spatially separated targets: attending to one visual stimulus may lead to impairments in identifying a second stimulus presented between 200 to 500 ms after the first. This phenomenon is known as attentional dwell time (e.g. Duncan,...
Article
Despite a vast body of research, it remains unclear whether a singleton captures attention even if the singleton is of no relevance to the task. The present study addressed the question of how the presence of a color singleton influences the efficiency of target selection in a partial report experiment with poststimulus masks. Subjects reported the...
Article
Full-text available
While there is growing evidence that some dyslexic children suffer from a deficit in simultaneously processing multiple visually displayed elements, the precise nature of the deficit remains largely unclear. The aim of the present study is to investigate possible cognitive impairments at the source of this deficit in dyslexic children. The visual p...
Article
Full-text available
The change detection paradigm is a popular way of measuring visual short-term memory capacity. Using the paradigm, researchers have found evidence for a capacity of about four independent visual objects, confirming classic estimates that were based on the number of items that could be reported. Here, we determine the reliability of capacity measure...
Article
Several studies have explored the nature and in particular the limitations of human visual short-term memory (VSTM) (e.g. Luck & Vogel, 1997). A VSTM capacity limit of about 3 to 4 objects has been found, thus confirming results from earlier studies (e.g. Sperling, 1960). However, Alvarez and Cavanagh (2004) have argued that VSTM capacity is more d...
Article
Full-text available
Direct measurements of the effects of spatial separation between stimuli in whole report from brief visual displays are reported. The stimuli were presented on the periphery of an imaginary circle centered on fixation. In Experiment 1, each display showed two capital letters (letter height approximately equal 1.3 degrees, width approximately equal...
Article
Full-text available
Observers given brief exposures of pairs of colored bars and asked to report both the color and the orientation of each bar showed evidence of stochastic independence between reports of the 4 features (2 colors and 2 orientations). The authors also found virtually perfect stochastic independence between reports of colors and directions of motion of...
Article
Full-text available
Quantitative modeling of psychological data is both technically and mathematically challenging. The present article introduces a user friendly and flexible program package that enables quantitative fits of Bundesen's (1990) theory of visual attention to behavioral data from whole and partial report experiments. The program package is based on new c...
Article
Full-text available
Based on a 'Theory of Visual Attention' (TVA), whole and partial report of brief letter arrays is presented as a diagnostic tool to estimate four clinically significant attentional components: perceptual processing speed, visual working memory storage capacity, efficiency of top-down control, and spatial distribution of attention. The procedure use...
Article
Full-text available
The present study investigated the usability of whole and partial report of briefly displayed letter arrays as a diagnostic tool for the assessment of attentional functions. The tool is based on Bundesen's (1990, 1998, 2002; Bundesen et al., 2005) theory of visual attention (TVA), which assumes four separable attentional components: processing spee...
Article
Full-text available
A neural theory of visual attention (NTVA) is presented. NTVA is a neural interpretation of C. Bundesen's (1990) theory of visual attention (TVA). In NTVA, visual processing capacity is distributed across stimuli by dynamic remapping of receptive fields of cortical cells such that more processing resources (cells) are devoted to behaviorally import...
Article
Previous studies have shown that MT (i.e., the MT-complex) is activated during visual perception of apparent motion. To further explore the function of MT, we measured activation in MT by positron emission tomography (PET) using a broad range of stroboscopic stimulus events in which (a) the frame rate was so fast that observers perceived stimulus f...
Article
Search for a colour-form conjunction target can be facilitated by presenting one set of distractors prior to the second set of distractors and the target: the preview benefit (Watson & Humphreys, 1997). The early presentation of one set of distractors enables them to be efficiently filtered from search. We report two studies investigating the time...
Article
Full-text available
Whole report of brief letter arrays is used to analyse basic attentional deficits in dorsal and ventral variants of simultanagnosia. Using Bundesen's Theory of Visual Attention (TVA), a number of previous theoretical suggestions are formalised and tested, including primary deficit in processing more than one display element, attentional stickiness,...
Article
Full-text available
Observers were presented with brief exposures of pairs of colored objects (letters) and asked to report both the color and the shape of each object. Several observers showed strikingly clear evidence of nearly perfect stochastic independence between reports of the four features (two colors and two shapes). For instance, the probability that the sha...
Article
Full-text available
Attentional effects in the visual pathways were investigated by contrasting the distribution of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) measured by H(2)(15)O positron emission tomography (PET) during performance of a shape-matching task with the distribution of rCBF during a less demanding color-matching task. The two tasks were performed using the sam...
Article
Numerous brain functions, such as awareness of surroundings, control of movements, thoughts, and memory have always been a kind of mystery, which has provoked human curiosity and thus inspired research in many areas. The present paper gives an overview on imaging research of the human brain's functions. The historical progress is briefly reviewed w...
Article
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) lesion load is widely used in the clinical evaluation of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS), but little is known about the associated changes in cortical activation. For this purpose, we studied the association between the corticocerebral metabolic rate of glucose (CMRglc) and the MRI T2-weighted total lesion are...
Article
Full-text available
Shiffrin and Schneider (1977, Experiment 4d) reported that after consistent training in search for particular alphanumeric characters, presentation of one of these characters (former targets) as a distractor impeded detection of simultaneously presented current targets. Even if presented in an irrelevant display location, the former target appeared...
Article
Full-text available
Shiffrin and Schneider (1977, Experiment 4d) reported that after consistent training in search for particular alphanumeric characters, presentation of one of these characters (former targets) as a distractor impeded detection of simultaneously presented current targets. Even if presented in an irrelevant display location, the former target appeared...
Article
Full-text available
Visual comparison between different-sized objects with respect to shape can be done by encoding one of the objects as a mental image, transforming the image to the size format of the other object, and then testing for a match (Bundesen, C., & Larsen, A. [1975]. Visual transformation of size. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and...
Article
The present study investigated the effect of attention on brain activation in a dichotic listening situation. Dichotic listening is a technique to study laterality effects in the auditory sensory modality. Two different stimuli were presented simultaneously, one in each ear. Twelve subjects listened to lists of consonant-vowel syllables, or short m...
Article
To study the association between the cortical cerebral metabolic rate of glucose (CMRglc), MRI T2-weighted total lesion area (TLA), cognitive dysfunction, and neurologic disability in MS. MRI lesion load is widely used in the clinical evaluation of the MS patient but little is known about the associated changes in cortical activation. Twenty-three...
Article
Dichotic listening means that two different stimuli are presented at the same time, one in each ear. This technique is frequently used in experimental and clinical studies as a measure of hemispheric specialization. The primary aim of the present study was to record regional changes in the distribution of cerebral blood flow (CBF) with the 15O-PET...
Article
Full-text available
Subjects were presented with briefly exposed visual displays of words that were common first names with a length of four to six letters. In the main experiment, each display consisted of four words: two names shown in red and two shown in white. The subject's task was to report the red names (targets), but ignore the white ones (distractors). On so...

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Projects

Project (1)
Project
We study how human agents remember what they have decided to do. The major aim is to develop a computational model of how intentions are selected and retrieved from memory. The fundamental idea is that selecting intentions from long-term memory is a selection problem similar to selection problems in visual attention.