Sophie Mavrogeni

Sophie Mavrogeni
Onassis Cardiac Surgery Center · Department of Cardiology

MD, PhD

About

371
Publications
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Publications

Publications (371)
Article
Objectives Cardiac Magnetic Resonance (CMR) imaging is increasingly used to evaluate cardiac involvement in Systemic Sclerosis (SSc). We assessed changes, including inflammatory and/or fibrotic myocardial lesions detected by CMR, following therapeutic interventions for SSc-associated symptomatic myocarditis. Methods In this retrospective study, my...
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The SARS-CoV-2 virus has caused a pandemic, infecting nearly 80 million people worldwide, with mortality exceeding six million. The average survival span is just 14 days from the time the symptoms become aggressive. The present study delineates the deep-driven vascular damage in the pulmonary, renal, coronary, and carotid vessels due to SARS-CoV-2....
Article
Normal cognitive function depends on a continuous and optimally regulated blood supply, and any pathology that further reduces cerebral blood perfusion in addition to that caused by aging could damage or destroy vulnerable neurons of the brain. Furthermore, glucose serves a crucial role as the primary fuel source for the mammalian brain and any dis...
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Heart failure (HF) patients frequently develop brain deficits that lead to cognitive dysfunction (CD), which may ultimately also affect survival. There is an important interaction between brain and heart that becomes crucial for survival in patients with HF. Our aim was to review the brain/heart interactions in HF and discuss the emerging role of c...
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Autoimmune rheumatic diseases (ARDs) involve multiple organs including the heart and vasculature. Despite novel treatments, patients with ARDs still experience a reduced life expectancy, partly caused by the higher prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD). This includes CV inflammation, rhythm disturbances, perfusion abnormalities (ischaemia/infa...
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Background: The previous COVID-19 lung diagnosis system lacks both scientific validation and the role of explainable artificial intelligence (AI) for understanding lesion localization. This study presents a cloud-based explainable AI, the "COVLIAS 2.0-cXAI" system using four kinds of class activation maps (CAM) models. Methodology: Our cohort co...
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Purpose: The role of erectile dysfunction (ED) has recently shown an association with the risk of stroke and coronary heart disease (CHD) via the atherosclerotic pathway. Cardiovascular disease (CVD)/stroke risk has been widely understood with the help of carotid artery disease (CTAD), a surrogate biomarker for CHD. The proposed study emphasizes a...
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Diabetes is one of the main causes of the rising cases of blindness in adults. This microvascular complication of diabetes is termed diabetic retinopathy (DR) and is associated with an expanding risk of cardiovascular events in diabetes patients. DR, in its various forms, is seen to be a powerful indicator of atherosclerosis. Further, the macrovasc...
Article
Hypertension is the most common causative factor of cardiac remodeling, which, in turn, has been associated with changes in brain and kidney function. Currently, the role of blood biomarkers as indices of cardiac remodeling remains unclear. In contrast, cardiac imaging, including echocardiography and cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR), has bee...
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Background: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is mainly detected in young, otherwise healthy, individuals. Cardiomyopathy and peripheral artery disease affecting these patients appears to be multifactorial. Prompt and potentially more effective implementation of therapeutic measures could be enabled by pre-symptomatic diagnosis of myocardial dysf...
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Microvascular wall abnormalities demonstrated by nailfold capillaroscopy in systemic sclerosis (SSc) may result in microhemorrhagic deposition of erythrocyte-derived iron. Such abnormalities precede fibrosis, which is orchestrated by myofibroblasts. Iron induces endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition in vitro, which is reversed by reactive oxygen sp...
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OBJECTIVES The aim of this study was to compare the costs of a noninvasive cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR)– guided strategy vs 2 invasive strategies with and without fractional flow reserve (FFR). BACKGROUND Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a major contributor to the public health burden. Stress perfusion CMR has excellent accuracy to detect CAD....
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(1) Background: COVID-19 computed tomography (CT) lung segmentation is critical for COVID lung severity diagnosis. Earlier proposed approaches during 2020–2021 were semiautomated or automated but not accurate, user-friendly, and industry-standard benchmarked. The proposed study compared the COVID Lung Image Analysis System, COVLIAS 1.0 (GBTI, Inc.,...
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This document is a position statement from the Society for Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance (SCMR) on recommendations for clinical utilization of cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) in women with cardiovascular disease. The document was prepared by the SCMR Consensus Group on CMR Imaging for Female Patients with Cardiovascular Disease and endo...
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Background: Atherosclerosis is the primary cause of the cardiovascular disease (CVD). Several risk factors lead to atherosclerosis, and altered nutrition is one among those. Nutrition has been ignored quite often in the process of CVD risk assessment. Altered nutrition along with carotid ultrasound imaging-driven atherosclerotic plaque features can...
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Background: For COVID-19 lung severity, segmentation of lungs on computed tomography (CT) is the first crucial step. Current deep learning (DL)-based Artificial Intelligence (AI) models have a bias in the training stage of segmentation because only one set of ground truth (GT) annotations are evaluated. We propose a robust and stable inter-variabil...
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Background: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) increases the risk for abnormalities of the cardiac structure and function, which may lead to heart failure (HF). Studying the association between circulating biomarkers and echocardiographic parameters is important to screen patients with RA with a higher risk of cardiac dysfunction. Aim: To study the associat...
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Introduction: Primary heart involvement in systemic sclerosis may cause morpho-functional and electrical cardiac abnormalities and is a common cause of death. The absence of a clear definition of primary heart involvement in systemic sclerosis limits our understanding and ability to focus on clinical research. We aimed to create an expert consensus...
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Introduction Primary heart involvement in systemic sclerosis may cause morpho-functional and electrical cardiac abnormalities and is a common cause of death. The absence of a clear definition of primary heart involvement in systemic sclerosis limits our understanding and ability to focus on clinical research. We aimed to create an expert consensus...
Article
Background With the number of people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) steadily increasing, cardiovascular disease has emerged as a leading cause of non-HIV related mortality. People living with HIV (PLWH) appear to be at increased risk of coronary artery disease and heart failure (HF), while the underlying mechanism appears to be mult...
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Background: COVID-19 lung segmentation using Computed Tomography (CT) scans is important for the diagnosis of lung severity. The process of automated lung segmentation is challenging due to (a) CT radiation dosage and (b) ground-glass opacities caused by COVID-19. The lung segmentation methodologies proposed in 2020 were semi- or automated but not...
Article
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in the United States of America and globally. Carotid arterial plaque, a cause and also a marker of such CVD, can be detected by various non-invasive imaging modalities such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computer tomography (CT), and ultrasound (US). Charact...
Article
Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the top ten leading causes of death worldwide. Atherosclerosis disease in the arteries is the main cause of the CVD, leading to myocardial infarction and stroke. The two primary image-based phenotypes used for monitoring the atherosclerosis burden is carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) and plaque area (PA). Earl...
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Background Heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (heFH) is a genetic disorder leading to premature coronary artery disease (CAD). We hypothesized that the subclinical pathophysiologic consequences of hypercholesterolemia may be detected before the occurrence of clinically overt CAD by stress testing and myocardial strain imaging. Patients-Met...
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Increased cardiac fat depots are metabolically active tissues that have a pronounced pro-inflammatory nature. Increasing evidence supports a potential role of cardiac adiposity as a determinant of the substrate of atrial fibrillation and ventricular arrhythmias. The underlying mechanism appears to be multifactorial with local inflammation, fibrosis...
Article
Wilson’s disease (WD) is caused by copper accumulation in the brain and liver, and if not treated early, can lead to severe disability and death. WD has shown white matter hyperintensity (WMH) in the brain magnetic resonance scans (MRI) scans, but the diagnosis is challenging due to (i) subtle intensity changes and (ii) weak training MRI when using...
Article
COVID-19 has infected 77.4 million people worldwide and has caused 1.7 million fatalities as of December 21, 2020. The primary cause of death due to COVID-19 is Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS). According to the World Health Organization (WHO), people who are at least 60 years old or have comorbidities that have primarily been targeted ar...
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Cardiovascular (CV) complications represent the first non-graft-related cause of death and the third overall cause of death among patients undergoing liver transplantation (LT). History of coronary artery disease is related to increased CV mortality following LT. Although it is of paramount importance to stratify CV risk in pre-LT patients, there i...
Chapter
Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance (CMR) offers accurate and highly reproducible tissue characterization, beyond cardiac function. Late gadolinium enhancement (LGE), although represents a noninvasive biopsy for fibrosis quantification, it is unable to detect diffuse myocardial disease. Native T1 mapping and extracellular volume fraction (ECV) are ab...
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Artificial Intelligence (AI), in general, refers to the machines (or computers) that mimic "cognitive" functions that we associate with our mind, such as "learning" and "solving problem". New biomarkers derived from medical imaging are being discovered and are then fused with non-imaging biomarkers (such as office, laboratory, physiological, geneti...
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Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic chronic inflammatory disease that affects synovial joints and has various extra-articular manifestations, including atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD). Patients with RA experience a higher risk of CVD, leading to increased morbidity and mortality. Inflammation is a common phenomenon in RA and CVD. T...
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Chronic kidney disease (CKD) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) together result in an enormous burden on global healthcare. The estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) is a well-established biomarker of CKD and is associated with adverse cardiac events. This review highlights the link between eGFR reduction and that of atherosclerosis progression...
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Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is an autoimmune disorder characterized by arterial, venous, and/or small vessel thrombosis, pregnancy morbidity, and persistently elevated levels of antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL). Cardiovascular disease (CVD) in APS can present as heart valvular disease (HVD), macro-micro-coronary artery disease (CAD), myocardia...
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Autoimmune rheumatic diseases (ARD) and neuromuscular disorders can affect a number of organs [...]
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Non-compaction cardiomyopathy (NCM) is a heterogeneous myocardial disease that can finally lead to heart failure, arrhythmias, and/or embolic events. Therefore, early diagnosis and treatment is of paramount importance. Furthermore, genetic assessment and counseling are crucial for individual risk assessment and family planning. Echocardiography is...
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Recent findings Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of mortality and poses challenges for healthcare providers globally. Risk-based approaches for the management of CVD are becoming popular for recommending treatment plans for asymptomatic individuals. Several conventional predictive CVD risk models based do not provide an accurate CV...
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Background Malignant arrhythmias due to cardiac involvement are a frequent cause of death in systemic sclerosis (SSc). Cardiac involvement, which is linked to both ischaemic and non-ischaemic fibrotic deposition, is often subclinical. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) is the non-invasive gold standard for myocardial tissue characterization an...
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Introduction Cardiac involvement in systemic sclerosis (SSc) accounts for 26–36% of deaths. This most frequently manifests as ventricular rhythm disturbances (VRDs), eventually culminating in sudden cardiac death. However, no specific guidelines exist for implantation of cardioverter defibrillators (ICD) in SSc patients. Parametric cardiovascular m...
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The perception that women represent a low risk population for cardiovascular (CV) disease (CVD) needs to be reconsidered. Starting from risk factors, women are more likely to be susceptible to unhealthy behaviors and risk factors that have different impact on CV morbidity and mortality compared to men. Despite the large body of evidence as regards...
Article
Wilson's disease (WD) is caused by the excessive accumulation of copper in the brain and liver, leading to death if not diagnosed early. WD shows its prevalence as white matter hyperintensity (WMH) in MRI scans. It is challenging and tedious to classify WD against controls when comparing visually, primarily due to subtle differences in WMH. This Le...
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Purpose of review: Autoimmune rheumatic diseases (ARDs) affect 8% of the population and approximately 78% of patients are women. Myocardial disease in ARDs is the endpoint of various pathophysiologic mechanisms including atherosclerosis, valvular disease, systemic, myocardial, and/or vascular inflammation, as well as myocardial ischemia and replac...
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The presentation and identification of cardiovascular disease in women pose unique diagnostic challenges compared to men, and underrecognized conditions in this patient population may lead to clinical mismanagement. This article reviews the sex differences in cardiovascular disease, explores the diagnostic and prognostic role of cardiovascular magn...
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Takotsubo syndrome (TTS) is an acute and mostly reversible cardiomyopathy that mimics an acute coronary syndrome with left ventricular (LV) systolic dysfunction without relevant obstructive coronary artery disease. Its prevalence is probably underestimated and reaches 1.2–2% in patients with acute coronary syndrome undergoing coronary catheterizati...
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Psoriatic arthritis (PsA) patients are at a higher risk of systemic inflammatory sequelae, leading to microalbuminuria, cardiovascular (CVD) and neuropsychiatric (NPD) disease. Our aim is to present the existing literature about the relationship between CVD, kidney and NPD in PsA. The literature evaluation of PsA revealed that chronic T-cell activa...
Article
Artificial intelligence (AI) has penetrated the field of medicine, particularly the field of radiology. Since its emergence, the highly virulent coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has infected over 10 million people, leading to over 500,000 deaths as of July 1st, 2020. Since the outbreak began, almost 28,000 articles about COVID-19 have been publi...
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Background and Purpose . Atherosclerotic plaque tissue rupture is one of the leading causes of strokes. Early carotid plaque monitoring can help reduce cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Manual ultrasound plaque classification and characterization methods are time-consuming and can be imprecise due to significant variations in tissue character...
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Background: Statistically derived cardiovascular risk calculators (CVRC) that use conventional risk factors, generally underestimate or overestimate the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) or stroke events primarily due to lack of integration of plaque burden. This study investigates the role of machine learning (ML)-based CVD/stroke risk calcula...
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Background: Vascular age (VA) has recently emerged for CVD risk assessment and can either be computed using conventional risk factors (CRF) or by using carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) derived from carotid ultrasound (CUS). This study investigates a novel method of integrating both CRF and cIMT for estimating VA [so-called integrated VA (IVA)...
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The prevention of sudden cardiac death (SCD) in cardiomyopathies (CM) remains a challenge. The current guidelines still favor the implantation of devices for the primary prevention of SCD only in patients with severely reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and heart failure (HF) symptoms. The implantation of an implantable cardioverter-...
Conference Paper
Objectives: Conventional risk factors (CRF) do not explain the morphological variations in atherosclerotic plaque, which can, however, be captured using carotid ultrasound (CUS) imaging modality. Stroke risk stratification using the manual assessment of CRF and CUS images is a time-consuming process and may lead to intra- or inter-operator variabil...
Article
The objectives of this study are to (1) examine the “10-year cardiovascular risk” in the common carotid artery (CCA) versus carotid bulb using an integrated calculator called “AtheroEdge Composite Risk Score 2.0” (AECRS2.0) and (2) evaluate the performance of AECRS2.0 against “conventional cardiovascular risk calculators.” These objectives are met...
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Cardiac involvement in systemic sclerosis (SSc-CI) may be either primary or secondary to pathologic processes in other organs. In contrast to other autoimmune rheumatic diseases, primary SSc-CI preferentially manifests as non-ischemic myocardial fibrosis, with or without myocardial inflammation and minimal involvement of epicardial coronary arterie...
Conference Paper
Objectives: Vascular age (VA) is a more accurate biomarker of cardiovascular disease (CVD) compared to chronological age (CA). VA can either be computed using conventional risk factors (CRF) or by using carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT). This study investigates the effect of combining both CRF and cIMT on the VA. Further, the study proposes an...
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Purpose of review: To present the interaction between brain/heart and emphasize the role of combined brain/heart magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and other seronegative spondyloarthropathies (SNA). Recent findings: Both traditional cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors and intrinsic RA/SNA features...
Article
Motivation The early screening of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) can lead to effective treatment. Thus, accurate and reliable atherosclerotic carotid wall detection and plaque measurements are crucial. Current measurement methods are time-consuming and do not utilize the power of knowledge-based paradigms such as artificial intelligence (AI). We pre...
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Aims: T1-mapping is considered a surrogate marker of acute myocardial inflammation. However, in diffuse cutaneous systemic sclerosis (dcSSc) this might be confounded by coexisting myocardial fibrosis. We hypothesized that T1-based indices should not by themselves be considered as indicators of myocardial inflammation in dcSSc patients. Methods/re...
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Pre-participation sports examination (PPE) is a frequent reason for consultation. However, the exact role of cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) in PPE remains undefined. The additive value of CMR in adolescent athletes with ventricular rhythm disturbances (VRDs) was investigated. We prospectively recruited and evaluated with CMR 50 consecutive...
Article
Background: Recently, a 10-year image-based integrated calculator (called AtheroEdge Composite Risk Score-AECRS1.0) was developed which combines conventional cardiovascular risk factors (CCVRF) with image phenotypes derived from carotid ultrasound (CUS). Such calculators did not include Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD)-based biomarker called estimated...
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We evaluated the association between automatically measured carotid total plaque area (TPA) and the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), a biomarker of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Automated average carotid intima–media thickness (cIMTave) and TPA measurements in carotid ultrasound (CUS) were performed using AtheroEdge (AtheroPoint). Pears...
Article
Diabetes and atherosclerosis are the predominant causes of stroke and cardiovascular disease (CVD) both in low- and high-income countries. This is due to the lack of appropriate medical care or high medical costs. Low-cost 10-year preventive screening can be used for deciding an effective therapy to reduce the effects of atherosclerosis in diabetes...
Conference Paper
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Background: Coronary artery disease (CAD) remains the leading cause of death in industrialized countries, and thus, its public health burden is important. Perfusion cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) is generally accepted as an excellent method to detect and monitor obstructive CAD. Few studies have so far addressed its economic impact and cost-effec...