Sonja Hartnack

Sonja Hartnack
University of Zurich | UZH

Dr. med. vet., Dipl. ECVPH

About

181
Publications
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Publications

Publications (181)
Article
Full-text available
Although preventable by vaccines, approximately 60′000 humans die due to canine transmitted rabies annually, mostly in Africa and Asia. The aim of this paper is to advocate for including animal health aspects into considerations of human health and human rights, and for equitable access to rabies vaccination for both animals and humans. An infringe...
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Background Bacterial corneal infections are common and potentially blinding diseases in all species. As antibiotic resistance is a growing concern, alternative treatment methods are an important focus of research. Photoactivated chromophore for keratitis-corneal crosslinking (PACK-CXL) is a promising oxygen radical-mediated alternative to antibioti...
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Pigeon paramyxovirus-1 (PPMV-1) is predominantly isolated from pigeons or doves and forms a separate group of viral strains within Avian Orthoavulavirus-1, the causative agent of Newcastle disease in poultry. Since the introduction of PPMV-1 into Europe in 1981, these strains have rapidly spread all over Europe, and are nowadays considered to be en...
Preprint
Background: When we talk about zoonoses, it is undeniable that we have a human and animal population that has been isolated in studies over time. Besides human and animal health, zoonoses also impact the economy and society. Therefore, the integration of the analysis in this area is essential to optimize resources in public health decisions. We hav...
Preprint
Zoonoses are diseases transmitted from (vertebrate) animals to humans. Control and prevention of these diseases require an appropriate way to measure health for prudent and well-balanced decisions in public health. We propose a framework that aims to explore, understand and open up a conversation about the non-monetary value of animals through envi...
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Introduction: The Entlebucher Mountain Dog is predisposed to ureteral ectopia and associated diseases of the urinary tract as well as the kidneys, which can have severe to lethal consequences. Due to the clustered occurrence of clinical signs in 11 % of Entlebucher Mountain dogs in the absence of a genetic test for ureteral ectopia, screening was...
Preprint
Safe and effective vaccines are crucial to control Covid-19 and to protect persons who are at high risk of complications or death. Test-negative design is a popular option for evaluating the effectiveness of Covid-19 vaccines, but the findings could be biased by several factors, including imperfect sensitivity and/or specificity of the test used fo...
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Rabies is a zoonotic disease that is mainly transmitted to humans through dog bites. It remains a major public health threat in many Asian and African countries, including Uganda. The main objective of this study was to investigate awareness, knowledge, and perceptions of communities toward human and dog health related to rabies prevention, as well...
Article
Purpose: To evaluate the outer retinal band thickness and choriocapillaris (CC) visibility in four distinct retinal regions in dogs and cats imaged with spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). To attempt delineation of a fovea-like region in canine and feline SD-OCT scans, aided by the identification of outer retinal thickness diffe...
Preprint
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Background Rapid diagnostics are vital for curving the transmission and control of COVID-19 pandemic. Although many commercially available antigen-based rapid diagnostic tests (Ag-RDTs) for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 are recommended by the WHO, their diagnostic performance has not yet been assessed in Ethiopia. So far, the vast majority of studies...
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This study compared the antimicrobial resistance (AMR) among commensal Escherichia coli in the fecal microbiota of young calves raised on organic and on conventional dairy farms in Switzerland. Further, fecal carriage of extended‐spectrum beta‐lactamase (ESBL) producing Enterobacteriaceae was assessed for calves from both farming systems. Where pos...
Article
Objective To investigate the effects of intramuscularly administered acepromazine or dexmedetomidine on buccal mucosa microcirculation in Beagle dogs. Study design Experimental, blinded, cross-over study. Animals A group of seven Beagle dogs aged 7.5 ± 1.4 years (mean ± standard deviation). Methods Microcirculation was assessed on buccal mucosa...
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Although veterinary ethics is required in veterinary curricula and part of the competencies expected of a trained veterinary surgeon according to the European Association of Establishments for Veterinary Education (EAEVE), knowledge concerning the effects of ethics teaching and tools evaluating moral judgement are scarce. To address this lack of to...
Preprint
This study compared the antimicrobial resistance (AMR) among commensal Escherichia coli in the fecal microbiota of young calves raised on organic and on conventional dairy farms in Switzerland. Further, fecal carriage of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producing Enterobacteriaceae was assessed for calves from both farming systems. Where pos...
Article
Introduction: As part of the national strategy on antibiotic resistance (StAR), a therapy guide for the prudent prescription of antimicrobial agents in animals was developed. To facilitate its implementation in the veterinary practice, the therapy recommendations contained therein have been translated to the user-friendly decision support Antibiot...
Article
Objective To measure the effects on microcirculation of medetomidine alone (MED) or combined with vatinoxan (MVX). Study design Randomized cross-over, blinded, experimental study. Animals A group of eight healthy purpose-bred Beagle dogs. Methods Each dog was given 1 mg m⁻² medetomidine alone (MED) intramuscularly (IM) or combined with 20 mg m⁻²...
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Background One of the emerging themes in epidemiology is the use of interval estimates. Currently, three interval estimates for confidence (CI), prediction (PI), and tolerance (TI) are at a researcher's disposal and are accessible within the open access framework in R. These three types of statistical intervals serve different purposes. Confidence...
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Background Despite their indispensability in human medicine, fluoroquinolones (FQ) are used for the treatment of bacterial infections in farm animals which increases the risk of transferring FQ-resistant bacteria into the environment and via the food chain to humans. The objectives of this observational study were to follow-up of the presence of qu...
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Free roaming domestic dogs (FRDD) are the main vectors for rabies transmission to humans worldwide. To eradicate rabies from a dog population, current recommendations focus on random vaccination with at least 70% coverage. Studies suggest that targeting high-risk subpopulations could reduce the required vaccination coverage, and increase the likeli...
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The interferon-γ assay has been used worldwide as an ancillary test for the diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis (bTB). This study aimed to describe, based on the bTB-free status in Switzerland, the difference of applying a more stringent cutoff point of 0.05 compared with 0.1 for bTB surveillance. Moreover, the effect of time between blood collection...
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Background: Hand hygiene (HH) is one of the most important measures to prevent healthcare-associated infections. Data on HH compliance in companion animal veterinary institutions in Europe are sparse. Methods: This observational study assessed HH according to WHO standards in three large and two medium-sized clinics and two primary care practice...
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The objective was to estimate the diagnostic accuracy of real time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA) tests for COVID-19, depending on the time post symptom onset. Based on the cross-classified results of RT-PCR and LFIA, we used Bayesian latent class models (BLCMs), which do not require a gold standard for the e...
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Dogs play a major role in public health because of potential transmission of zoonotic diseases, such as rabies. Dog roaming behavior has been studied worldwide, including countries in Asia, Latin America, and Oceania, while studies on dog roaming behavior are lacking in Africa. Many of those studies investigated potential drivers for roaming, which...
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In rodent models the use of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) under anesthesia is common. The anesthetic protocol might influence fMRI readouts either directly or via changes in physiological parameters. As long as those factors cannot be objectively quantified, the scientific validity of fMRI in rodents is impaired. In the present syste...
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Background: The increasing threat of bacterial resistance promotes the need for antibiotic stewardship programs to foster responsible antimicrobial use. Therefore, guidelines for prudent use supported by an online stewardship tool (AntibioticScout.ch) were introduced in Switzerland in December 2016. They recommend (with decreasing preference) a fi...
Article
Chlamydia pecorum is an obligate intracellular pathogen with a wide host range including livestock such as sheep, cattle, goats, and pigs as well as wildlife species such as koalas. Chlamydial polyarthritis is an economically important disease resulting in swollen joints, lameness, stiffness, and weight loss in young sheep. In the present study, ti...
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Background: To understand brain function in health and disease, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is widely used in rodent models. Because animals need to be immobilised for image acquisition, fMRI is commonly performed under anaesthesia. The choice of anaesthetic protocols and may affect fMRI readouts, either directly or via changing ph...
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Background: Although mid back pain (MBP) is a common condition that causes significant disability, it has received little attention in research and knowledge about trajectories and prognosis of MBP is limited. The purpose of this study was to identify trajectories of MBP and baseline risk factors for an unfavorable outcome in MBP patients undergoi...
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With great interest we read the article from Dramé et al. 1 “Should RT‐PC be considered as gold standard in the diagnosis of Covid‐19” questioning the conclusions from Cassaniti et al.². We agree with the argument that considering RT‐PCR as gold standard when evaluating a new test will inevitably lead to biased test accuracy estimates of the new te...
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Background: Antimicrobial stewardship activities are essential to improve prudent antimicrobial use. The aim of the present study was to evaluate changes in antimicrobial prescriptions in cats after the introduction of prudent use guidelines promoted by an online antimicrobial stewardship tool (AntibioticScout.ch) in Switzerland. Data from 792 cat...
Article
Objective To evaluate the incidence of tranexamic acid (TXA)‐induced nausea and vomiting after the prophylactic use of 2 antiemetics, ondansetron and maropitant, compared with saline. Design Prospective, blinded, placebo‐controlled, randomized, crossover study. Setting University research facility. Animals Eight adult, purpose‐bred Beagles. Int...
Preprint
Full-text available
The objective of this work was to estimate the diagnostic accuracy of RT-PCR and Lateral flow immunoassay tests (LFIA) for COVID-19, depending on the time post symptom onset. Based on the cross-classified results of RT-PCR and LFIA, we used Bayesian latent class models (BLCMs), which do not require a gold standard for the evaluation of diagnostics....
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Purpose: To evaluate visual streak (VS) identification on spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) scans in awake rabbits. To report thickness measurements in the VS and adjacent retina on OCT B-scans and histologic sections and to assess inter-method bias, precision and repeatability between OCT and histology. Methods: Vertical SD-...
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Objective To assess the effect of perioperative pregabalin on pain behavior in dogs after intervertebral disc surgery. Study design Prospective, randomized, controlled clinical trial with a blinded observer. Animals Forty‐six client‐owned dogs undergoing intervertebral disc surgery. Methods Dogs were randomly assigned to two groups, with the pla...
Article
The use of horses in competitive sports receives increasing criticism from the public, mainly due to the potential for injury. However, it is unclear if orthopaedic and other health issues are more common in competition horses when compared to leisure horses. The aim of this study was to assess husbandry, use, and orthodpeadic health in Swiss ridin...
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Bayesian network (BN) modeling is a rich and flexible analytical framework capable of elucidating complex veterinary epidemiological data. It is a graphical modeling technique that enables the visual presentation of multi-dimensional results while retaining statistical rigor in population-level inference. Using previously published case study data...
Article
Fourth-generation cephalosporins can select for extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae in horses, but it is unknown to what extent this occurs compared to penicillin/gentamicin combination treatment. The objective was to evaluate the effect of different antimicrobial treatments on faecal shedding and diversity of ESBL-pro...
Article
Domestic dogs are the main source of human rabies deaths – approximately 60,000 annually occurring mostly in Africa and Asia. The World Health Organisation and its partners declared “zero human deaths due to canine rabies by 2030” as a strategic goal. In the context of rabies control, an ethical case scenario from the perspective of a veterinary of...
Article
Die veränderten Mensch-Tier-Beziehungen, die gestiegenen gesellschaftlichen Anforderungen an das Tierwohl sowie die hohen moralischen Erwartungen an den Tierarztberuf führen sowohl bei Tierärzten und Tierärztinnen als auch bei Studierenden zu ethischen Herausforderungen. Die so entstehenden Dilemmata erfordern die Entwicklung einer veterinärmedizin...
Article
Objective: To compare the prevalence rates and severity of acquired urinary incontinence (AUI) between dogs spayed with laparoscopic and open laparotomy approaches. Study design: Retrospective matched-pair cohort study. Animals: In total, 1285 privately owned dogs spayed >5 years previously were included in the study. Methods: Laparoscopical...
Article
Objective: To assess the differences in the pharmacokinetic profiles of S-ketamine, R-ketamine and their metabolites, S-norketamine and R-norketamine, and to measure relevant physiologic variables after intravenous administration of racemic (RS) ketamine or S-ketamine alone in Beagle dogs sedated with medetomidine. Study design: Experimental, bl...
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Background: Lameness in dairy cows has been an ongoing concern of great relevance to animal welfare and productivity in modern dairy production. Many studies have examined associations between various factors related to housing, management, and the individual animal and the occurrence of lameness. The objective of this systematic review was to ans...
Article
The objective of this study was to improve prediction of the probability of conception in dairy cows with clinical endometritis by means of a combination of examination results. For this purpose, a total of 1386 dairy cows were screened for clinical endometritis and data from 286 cows were collected including the calving history, puerperal or concu...
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Background Multi-drug resistant bacteria are seen increasingly and there are gaps in our understanding of the complexity of antimicrobial resistance, partially due to a lack of appropriate statistical tools. This hampers efficient treatment, precludes determining appropriate intervention points and renders prevention very difficult. Methods We re-...
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In rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus L.), pododermatitis is a chronic multifactorial skin disease that appears mainly on the plantar surface of the hind legs. This presumably progressive disease can cause pain leading to poor welfare, yet the progression of this disease has not been thoroughly assessed on the level of individual animals. The aim of th...
Article
West Nile virus (WNV) is an important zoonotic pathogen maintained in a natural transmission cycle between mosquitoes and birds as reservoir hosts. In dead-end hosts, such as humans, infection may result in fatal neurologic disease translating into disease and death-related suffering and increased health care costs. In humans, WNV may also be trans...
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Benefits and risks of spaying on the behaviour of female dogs are controversially discussed. Increased aggressiveness and male urinary behaviour were postulated to be the consequence of masculinization after spaying in some female dogs. To investigate if spaying or its timing relative to the onset of puberty may have a masculinization effect, urina...
Article
In rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus L.), pododermatitis is a chronic multifactorial skin disease that appears mainly on the plantar surface of the hind legs. In later stages, it causes pain leading to poor welfare of affected animals. Pododermatitis is commonly observed in commercial rabbit production in breeding does housed with wire mesh flooring....
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Background Functional hemodynamic parameters such as stroke volume and pulse pressure variation (SVV and PPV) have been shown to be reliable predictors of fluid responsiveness in mechanically ventilated patients. Today, different minimally- and non-invasive hemodynamic monitoring systems measure functional hemodynamic parameters. Although some of t...
Article
Objective: During assisted ventilation and spontaneous breathing, functional haemodynamic parameters, including stroke volume variation (SVV) and pulse pressure variation (PPV), are of limited value to predict fluid responsiveness, and the passive leg raising (PLR) manoeuvre has been advocated as a surrogate method. We aimed to study the predictiv...
Article
Diagnostic tests are of vital importance in a number of veterinary fields and are essential for decision-making by veterinary practioners, researchers and the veterinary authorities. The development and evaluation of laboratory diagnostic tests as well as the interpretation of test results engage a number of different veterinary disciplines includi...
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Background In Europe the principal definitive host for Echinococcus multilocularis, causing alveolar echinococcosis in humans, is the red fox (Vulpes vulpes). Obtaining reliable estimates of the prevalence of E. multilocularis and relevant risk factors for infection in foxes can be difficult if diagnostic tests with unknown test accuracies are used...
Article
Objective: The aim of this study was to analyze the accuracy, precision, and trending ability of the following 4 pulse wave analysis devices to measure continuous cardiac output: PiCCO2 ([PCCO]; Pulsion Medical System, Munich, Germany); LiDCORapid ([LCCO]; LiDCO Ltd, London, UK); FloTrac/Vigileo ([FCCO]; Edwards Lifesciences, Irvine, CA); and Nexf...
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T-lymphocytes are considered to play an essential role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease. The goal of this study was an objective determination of the distribution of gastrointestinal CD3+ lymphocytes in a standardized dog population as a gold standard for further investigations. Full thickness biopsies were obtained from seven diff...