# Sonja Franke-ArnoldUniversity of Glasgow | UofG · School of Physics and Astronomy

Sonja Franke-Arnold

Professor

## About

175

Publications

49,161

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10,464

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Introduction

Sonja Franke-Arnold currently works at the School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow. Sonja does research in Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics, Optics and Quantum Physics. She is currently working on the generation and detection of structured light, and in particular on its interaction with atomic vapours.

Additional affiliations

September 2005 - present

## Publications

Publications (175)

In the era of next generation electronic technologies, the pursuit of reconfigurable circuitry is one of the key strategies for enhancing performance and functionality. The prevailing approach involves utilising individual components with dual functionality to provide reconfigurability. While valuable, this method remains an interim solution, neces...

We show that Skyrmions provide a natural language and tool with which to describe and model structured light fields. These fields are characterised by an engineered spatial variation of the optical field amplitude, phase and polarisation. In this short presentation there is scope only for dealing with the simplest (and perhaps most significant) of...

Cylindrical vector (CV) beams have sparked considerable interest due to their extraordinary vectorial properties, desirable for applications ranging from microscopy to high energy physics. Increasing demand for cost-effective, small-footprint photonics has fueled the development of photonic integrated circuits (PICs) capable of generating structure...

The skyrmion number of paraxial optical skyrmions can be defined solely via their polarization singularities and associated winding numbers, using a mathematical derivation that exploits Stokes’s theorem. It is demonstrated that this definition provides a robust way to extract the skyrmion number from experimental data, as illustrated for a variety...

Optical paraxial skyrmions are associated with simple rational maps, which can be derived entirely from their topological structure. Such maps, used as seeds for experimental realizations, outline the rules for generating isolated skyrmions or multi-skyrmions and lay the mathematical foundation for the exploration of skyrmion nucleation and annihil...

A simple mathematical expression based on rational maps to describe all optical paraxial skyrmion known to date, including Néel‐type and Bloch‐type skyrmions, bimerons, and anti‐skyrmions, is introduced. This expression is derived solely from topological considerations and outlines the rules that fully polarized paraxial light fields must obey to q...

We define the Skyrmion number of a paraxial optical Skyrmion solely via their polarization singularities and associated winding numbers, using a mathematical derivation that exploits Stokes's theorem. We demonstrate that this definition provides a robust way to extract the Skyrmion number from experimental data, illsutrated for a variety of optical...

While the uncertainty principle for linear position and linear momentum, and more recently for angular position and angular momentum, is well established, its radial equivalent has so far eluded researchers. Here we exploit the logarithmic radial position, ln r , and hyperbolic momentum, P H , to formulate a rigorous uncertainty principle for the r...

We introduce a simple mathematical expression based on rational maps to construct ideal paraxial optical skyrmions fields including Neel-type and Bloch-type skyrmions, anti-skyrmions, bimerons and multi-skyrmions, including skyrmion lattices. We review the rules that fully polarized paraxial light fields must obey to be considered as optical skyrmi...

Geometric phases are ubiquitous in physics; they act as memories of the transformation of a physical system. In optics, the most prominent examples are the Pancharatnam-Berry phase and the spin-redirection phase. Recent technological advances in phase and polarization structuring have led to the discovery of additional geometric phases of light. Th...

Optical aberrations place fundamental limits on the achievable resolution with focusing and imaging. In the context of structured light, optical imperfections and misalignments and perturbing media such as turbulent air, underwater and optical fibre distort the amplitude and phase of the light’s spatial pattern. Here we show that polarization inhom...

We present a numerical study of the intensity and polarization structure of vector helical Ince-Gaussian (VHIG) modes, which present a distinct subclass of vector Ince-Gaussian modes with defined parameter settings. The intensity profile of VHIG beams has an elliptic hollow structure, while the polarization distribution shows multiple single-charge...

Vector vortex beams, featuring independent spatial modes in orthogonal polarization components, offer an increase in information density for emerging applications in both classical and quantum communication technology. Recent advances in optical instrumentation have led to the ability of generating and manipulating such beams. Their tomography is g...

Vector vortex beams, featuring independent spatial modes in orthogonal polarization components, offer an increase in information density for emerging applications in both classical and quantum communication technology. Recent advances in optical instrumentation have led to the ability of generating and manipulating such beams. Their tomography is g...

We numerically investigate the transfer of optical information from a vector-vortex control beam to an unstructured probe beam, as mediated by an atomic vapour. The right and left circular components of these beams drive the atomic transitions of a double- V system, with the atoms acting as a spatially varying circular birefringent medium. Modeling...

Sonja Franke-Arnold discusses the first experimental generation of light with orbital angular momentum three decades ago and outlines the subsequent advances.

We numerically investigate the transfer of optical information from a vector-vortex control beam to an unstructured probe beam, as mediated by an atomic vapour. The right and left circular components of these beams drive the atomic transitions of a double-$V$ system, with the atoms acting as a spatially varying circular birefringent medium. Modelli...

Geometric phases are ubiquitous in physics; they act as memories of the transformation of a physical system. In optics, the most prominent examples are the Pancharatnam-Berry phase and the spin-redirection phase. Additional geometric phases of light have recently been discovered, following technological advances in phase and polarization structurin...

We describe and demonstrate how 3D magnetic field alignment can be inferred from single absorption images of an atomic cloud. While optically pumped magnetometers conventionally rely on temporal measurement of the Larmor precession of atomic dipoles, here a cold atomic vapor provides a spatial interface between vector light and external magnetic fi...

An electric field propagating along a non-planar path can acquire geometric phases. Previously, geometric phases have been linked to spin redirection and independently to spatial mode transformation, resulting in the rotation of polarisation and intensity profiles, respectively. We investigate the non-planar propagation of scalar and vector light f...

DOI:https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevA.104.049901

We propose and demonstrate an experimental implementation for the observation of magnetic fields from spatial features of absorption profiles in a warm atomic vapor. A radially polarized vector beam that traverses atomic vapor will generate an absorption pattern with a petal-like structure by the mediation of a transverse magnetic field (TMF). The...

We propose and demonstrate an experimental implementation for the observation of magnetic fields from spatial features of absorption profiles in a warm atomic vapor. A radially polarized vector beam that traverses an atomic vapor will generate an absorption pattern with petal-like structure by the mediation of a transverse magnetic field (TMF). The...

An electric field propagating along a non-planar path can acquire geometric phases. Previously, geometric phases have been linked to spin redirection and independently to spatial mode transformation, resulting in the rotation of polarisation and intensity profiles, respectively. We investigate the non-planar propagation of scalar and vector light f...

We experimentally investigate the optical storage of perfect optical vortex (POV) and spatially multimode perfect optical vortex (MPOV) beams via electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in a hot vapor cell. In particular, we study the role that phase gradients and phase singularities play in reducing the blurring of the retrieved images due...

We experimentally investigate the optical storage of perfect optical vortex (POV) and spatially multimode perfect optical vortex (MPOV) beams via electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in a hot vapor cell. In particular, we study the role that phase gradients and phase singularities play in reducing the blurring of the retrieved images due...

Optical aberrations have been studied for centuries, placing fundamental limits on the achievable resolution in focusing and imaging. In the context of structured light, the spatial pattern is distorted in amplitude and phase, often arising from optical imperfections, element misalignment, or even from dynamic processes due to propagation through p...

We describe and demonstrate how 3D magnetic field alignment can be inferred from single-shot absorption images of an atomic cloud. While optically pumped magnetometers conventionally rely on temporal measurement of the Larmor precession of atomic dipoles, here cold atomic vapours provide a spatial interface between vector light and external magneti...

Studying the conversion between transverse light modes via four-wave mixing in a heated rubidium vapor, we demonstrate and explain a transfer between azimuthal and radial mode numbers. They relate to orthogonal modal dimensions, which one would not normally expect to interact. While angular momentum conservation in this nonlinear process dictates t...

We show that a class of vector vortex beams possesses a topological property that derives both from the spatially varying amplitude of the field and its varying polarization. This property arises as a consequence of the inherent skyrmionic nature of such beams and is quantified by the associated skyrmion number. We illustrate this idea for some of...

Manipulating symmetry environments of metal ions to control functional properties is a fundamental concept of chemistry. For example, lattice strain enables control of symmetry in solids through a change in the nuclear positions surrounding a metal centre. Light–matter interactions can also induce strain but providing dynamic symmetry control is re...

Research on spatially structured light has seen an explosion in activity over the past decades, powered by technological advances for generating such light and driven by questions of fundamental science as well as engineering applications. In this review, the authors highlight their work on the interaction of vector light fields with atoms, and mat...

We investigate the conversion between transverse mode structures in four-wave mixing in a heated rubidium vapour. While angular momentum conservation in this nonlinear process dictates the selection rules for the angular quantum number, the role of the radial quantum number is more esoteric. We demonstrate experimentally that a clean Laguerre-Gauss...

Research on spatially-structured light has seen an explosion in activity over the past decades, powered by technological advances for generating such light, and driven by questions of fundamental science as well as engineering applications. In this review we highlight work on the interaction of vector light fields with atoms, and matter in general....

In recent time there has been an increasing amount of interest in developing novel techniques for the generation of complex vector light beams. Amongst these, digital holography stands out as one of the most flexible and versatile with almost unlimited freedom in the generation of scalar and complex vector light fields featuring arbitrary polarisat...

When focusing a light beam at high numerical aperture, the resulting electric field profile in the focal plane depends on the transverse polarisation profile, as interference between different parts of the beam needs to be taken into account. It is well known that radial polarised light produces a longitudinal polarisation component and can be focu...

In recent time there has been an increasing amount of interest in developing novel techniques for the generation of complex vector light beams. Amongst these, digital holography stands out as one of the most flexible and versatile with almost unlimited freedom to generate scalar and vector light beams with arbitrary polarisation distributions and s...

Complex vectorial light fields, nonseparable in their polarization and spatial degree of freedom, are of relevance in a wide variety of research areas encompassing microscopy, metrology, communication, and topological studies. Controversially, they have been suggested as analogs to quantum entanglement, raising fundamental questions on the relation...

Vector vortex beams possess a topological property that derives both from the spatially varying amplitude of the field and also from its varying polarization. This property arises as a consequence of the natural Skyrmionic nature of such beams and is quantified by the associated Skyrmion number. We now illustrate this idea for some of the simplest...

DOI:https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.122.139402

Light’s polarisation contains information about its source and interactions, from distant stars to biological samples. Polarimeters can recover this information, but reliance on birefringent or rotating optical elements limits their wavelength range and stability. Here we present a static, single-shot polarimeter based on a Fresnel cone - the direc...

Complex vectorial light fields, non-separable in their polarization and spatial degree of freedom, are of relevance in a wide variety of fields encompassing microscopy, metrology, communication and topological studies. Controversially, they have been suggested as analogues to quantum entanglement, raising fundamental questions on the relation betwe...

Laguerre-Gauss beams, and more generally the orbital angular momentum of light (OAM) provide valuable research tools for optical manipulation, processing, imaging and communication. High-efficiency frequency conversion of OAM is possible via four-wave mixing in rubidium vapour. Conservation of the OAM in the two pump beams determines the total OAM...

Light's polarisation contains information about its source and interactions, from distant stars to biological samples. Polarimeters can recover this information, but reliance on birefringent or rotating optical elements limits their wavelength range and stability. Here we present a static, single-shot polarimeter based on a Fresnel cone - the direc...

The interaction of spatially structured light fields with atomic media can generate spatial structures inscribed in the atomic populations and coherences, allowing for example the storage of optical images in atomic vapours. Typically, this involves coherent optical processes based on Raman or EIT transitions. Here we study the simpler situation of...

Laguerre-Gauss beams, and more generally the orbital angular momentum of light (OAM) provide valuable research tools for optical manipulation, processing, imaging and communication. Here we explore the high-efficiency frequency conversion of OAM in a four-wave mixing process in rubidium vapour. Conservation of the OAM in the two pump beams determin...

The interaction of spatially structured light fields with atomic media can generate spatial structures inscribed in the atomic populations and coherences, allowing for example the storage of optical images in atomic vapours. Typically, this involves coherent optical processes based on Raman or EIT transitions. Here we study the simpler situation of...

At Glasgow we routinely use a variety of techniques to imprint structure in the spatial amplitude, phase and polarization of a light beam. This allows us to generate vector vortex beams at high fidelity, with applications in polarimetry and strong focusing. Vector vortex beams can also induce magnetic dipole moments in an atomic medium, in our case...

Spatial structuring of the intensity, phase and polarisation of light is useful in a wide variety of modern applications, from microscopy to optical communications. This shaping is most commonly achieved using liquid crystal spatial light modulators (LC-SLMs). However, the inherent chromatic dispersion of LC-SLMs when used as diffractive elements p...

Phase only spatial light modulators (SLMs) have become the tool of choice for shaped light generation, allowing the creation of arbitrary amplitude and phase patterns. These patterns are generated using digital holograms and are useful for a wide range of applications as well as for fundamental research. There have been many proposed methods for op...

Any coherent interaction of light and atoms needs to conserve energy, linear momentum and angular momentum. What happens to an atom’s angular momentum if it encounters light that carries orbital angular momentum (OAM)? This is a particularly intriguing question as the angular momentum of atoms is quantized, incorporating the intrinsic spin angular...

We report the first use of a ring cavity to both enhance the output power and dramatically narrow the linewidth ($<1\,$MHz) of blue light generated by four wave mixing in a rubidium vapour cell. We find that the high output power available in our cavity-free system leads to power broadening of the generated blue light linewidth. Our ring cavity rem...

We investigate the orbital angular momentum correlation of a photon pair created in a spontaneous para metric down-conversion process. We show how the conservation of the orbital angular momentum in this process results from phase matching in the nonlinear crystal.

We propose an interferometric method for measuring the orbital angular momentum of single photons. We demonstrate its viability by sorting four different orbital angular momentum states, and are thus able to encode two bits of information on a single photon. This new approach has implications for entanglement experiments, quantum cryptography and h...

Whether in art or for QR codes, images have proven to be both powerful and efficient carriers of information. Spatial light modulators allow an unprecedented level of control over the generation of optical fields by using digital holograms. There is no unique way of obtaining a desired light pattern however, leaving many competing methods for holog...

The reflection of light is governed by the laws first described by Augustin-Jean Fresnel: on internal reflection, light acquires a phase shift, which depends on its polarization direction with respect to the plane of incidence. For a conical reflector, the cylindrical symmetry is echoed in an angular variation of this phase shift, allowing us to cr...

Supplementary Figures 1-5 and Supplementary Notes 1-3.

Beams with polarisation structure are interesting due to their ability to produce unconventional light fields. Here we show that a simple glass cone can create such beams and we explore the mechanisms behind this, as well as its potential uses.

The theoretical basis leading to the creation of a light field with a hexagonal honeycomb structure resembling graphene is considered along with its experimental realization and its interaction with atoms. It is argued that associated with such a light field is an optical dipole potential which leads to the diffraction of the atoms, but the details...