Sonia De Gregorio Hurtado

Sonia De Gregorio HurtadoUniversidad Politécnica de Madrid | UPM · Departamento de Urbanística y Ordenación del Territorio

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· Architect, PhD with European Mention
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    The urban integrated approach promoted by the EU receives at present the name of "Integrated Sustainable Urban Development" (ISUD) and its study is of interest because it is the key idea of the political discourse of the Cohesion Policy for the period 2014-2020 in relation to urban issues. The aim of this project is to construct a model from which to evaluate the "integrated approach" in the programmes of urban regeneration launched in Spain and beyond as ISUD strategies (the so-called EDUSIs) during the programming period of the Cohesion Policy 2014-2020.
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    The main objective of the Action is to develop better representations of the urban systems interactions and dynamics as well as new configurations of urban areas so that they consume fewer resources, emit less pollution, are more resilient to the impacts of climate change and are more sustainable in general.
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    Desde que en 1990 la CEE publicara el «Libro Verde sobre el Medio Ambiente Urbano», la Unión Europea ha desarrollado un papel activo en la lucha contra los procesos de declive que afectan a las ciudades de los Estados miembros, un papel basado en contribuciones en forma de recomendaciones y comunicaciones, y de una labor de acción directa sobre las zonas urbanas financiada a través del Fondo de Cohesión, el FEDER y el FSE. Esta labor desembocó en 1994 en la creación de un instrumento específico para combatir la degradación urbana: la Iniciativa Comunitaria URBAN. En España, tanto la dimensión urbana de la política de la UE como, en particular, URBAN y URBAN II, han supuesto una aportación relevante en el ámbito de la regeneración de los barrios degradados. El presente artículo profundiza en la contribución que las dos fases de esta Iniciativa Comunitaria han hecho a la práctica de la regeneración de las áreas periféricas en el país, focalizando en las aportaciones generales que se han detectado a través del análisis de los proyectos URBAN desarrollados en las áreas periféricas de las ciudades españolas.
    The implementation of the urban policy of the EU in Spain has exerted a relevant influence in the country, contributing importantly to transform the scenario of urban regeneration. The main reason that explains this influence is the introduction of a new method (the so-called “URBAN method”) for urban regeneration that is collaborative, participative, integrated, and aimed to identify innovative solutions to tackle urban problems. This method has been applied in the country in the context of URBAN (1994-1999), URBAN II (2000-2006), and the Iniciativa Urbana (2007-2013). In the present it is being implemented by the municipalities that are developing the so-called ISUDS/EDUSI (Strategies of Sustainable Integrated Urban Development/ Estrategias de Desarrollo Urbano Sostenible Integrado) cofinanced by the FEDER during the period 2014-2020. The objective of this paper is to analyze the EDUSI call launched in 2015 under the light of the lessons learned through the experience provided by the implementation of URBAN, URBAN II and the Iniciativa Urbana in the country. In order to do this, the methodology builds on the review of the literature on the mentioned instruments, in order to understand what have been their main positive contributions and limitations. Once these elements are identified the second step consists in analysing if they are fostered (in the case of positive contributions) or avoided (in the case of limitations) in the EDUSI call, in order to understand if problems identified in the context of previous calls have been addressed. The results of the work allow understanding the level of evolution of the EDUSI call if compared with those launched in previous periods of the Cohesion Policy to implement the “URBAN method”, highlighting the lack of tradition in evaluation of public policies in the Spanish context, and providing policy recommendations in the field of urban regeneration for the mid term.
    The study tries to understand why and how Italian cities have started actions to reduce their contribution to climate change and become more resilient, investigating also the influence of national and international climate alliances (e.g. CoM_CE).
    During the last three decades, the European Union (EU) has paid growing attention to the key role that cities play in the development of the European territory and their potential contribution to tackling the economic, climate, environmental, demographic and social challenges that it continues to face. On the basis of this awareness, a complex policy-building process has taken place within EU institutions since the late 80s, a development that has led to the definition of a field of public policy that is referred to as the urban policy of the EU or the urban dimension of EU policy. As the EU formally does not have responsibility for urban as opposed to regional affairs this policy field has been formalized through the launch and implementation of a number of non-compulsory tools of different types particularly aimed to support Member States (MS), regions, cities, and other stakeholders to face the decline of their urban neigborhoods. This introductory article to TRIA 18 reviews this policy field aiming to contextualize the policy action mentioned, its outcomes and limitations. The objective of this issue of TRIA is contributing to a better understanding of the general scenario and to bring the attention of the scientific community, policy-makers and other stakeholders to the relevance of undertaking a critical analysis. It is considered crucial to making informed decisions on how the EU urban policy should evolve in the next programming period of the Cohesion Policy that is starting to be negotiated by the EC and the MS at the moment.
    The implementation of the urban policy of the EU in Spain has exerted a relevant influence in the country, contributing importantly to transform the scenario of urban regeneration. One of the main reason that explains this influence is the introduction of a method for urban regeneration that is area-based, integrated, collaborative, participative, strategic and aimed to put into practice innovative solutions to tackle urban decline from the mid-90s. This method has been applied in the country in the context of different initiatives launched at the national level- URBAN (1994-1999), URBAN II (2000-2006), and the Iniciativa Urbana (2007-2013)-, and is known and acknowledged by EU institutions as the “URBAN method”. It is also the reference on which in the present Spanish municipalities are developing the so-called Integrated Sustainable Urban Development Strategies (ISUDS ) cofinanced by the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF) during the period 2014-2020. This study analyzes the four mentioned instruments with the aim to understand the contribution that the urban policy of the EU has done to the policy field of urban regeneration in the country over the last 23 years. The results allow understanding the level of evolution in the implementation of integrated urban regeneration strategies in the framework of those instruments, focusing particularly on the limitations that they have found to implement the “URBAN method”. The study also provides policy recommendations that are considered relevant in the context of the current implementation of ISUDS by a relevant number of cities, and in the process of construction of the Urban Agenda for Spain in which the Central Government is working at the moment.
    Urban issues have been targeted by European Union (EU) policy action during the last three decades. The launch and implementation of the URBAN (1994–1999) and URBAN II Community Initiatives (2000–2007) introduced an innovative way of addressing urban challenges in many Member States, resulting in a relevant advancement in the field of urban regeneration. With the end of the URBAN Community Initiative for the programming period 2007–2013, the urban dimension of EU policy was mainstreamed in the Operational Programmes of the Member States, giving them the chance to implement integrated urban regeneration initiatives in their cities by putting into practice the “URBAN method”. This work stems from the recognition of the relevant contribution that the EU urban policy, and particularly the two rounds of URBAN, have made to urban regeneration in Spain, and aims to understand how the “URBAN method” was developed in the new scenario for 2007–2013 through the Iniciativa Urbana (the initiative launched by the Spanish Government to continue the transformative trend started by URBAN). This study focuses on understanding how this new instrument assumed and fostered the collaborative, integrated and innovative approach of URBAN as advised by the European Commission (EC). It also aims to understand whether through this instrument, the urban dimension of EU policy is contributing to face the traditional problems inherent to urban regeneration in the country. In order to achieve the mentioned objectives, this study analyzes the launch of the Iniciativa Urbana (IU) by the Ministry of Finance on a national scale in 2007 and two IU programmes implemented in the region of Madrid (Leganés-La Fortuna and Madrid-Villaverde) through the development of case studies. The study shows that the Iniciativa Urbana is not making relevant progress if compared with the programmes undertaken under URBAN II regarding the development of integrated, collaborative and innovative urban regeneration strategies. It also shows that it is leaving unsolved and partially unaddressed traditional problems regarding action in the urban environment in the country. The conclusions contribute to a reflection on the framework of the development of the Urban Agenda for Spain (at the moment in progress) and to a first assessment of the mainstreaming of the urban dimension in EU policies from 2007 in the context of the Member States.
    Cities are on the focus of policy action in the European Union (EU) from the '80s. The relevance of the urban issue within the UE has evolved through a complex process that has led to the definition of the urban dimension of the EU policy. The development of this process has given place to the construction of a concept of "sustainable/integrated urban development" encoded in the policy tools launched through the years by the European Commission (EC) and other relevant stakeholders. In 1999 entered into force the Treaty of Amsterdam, which brought a new insight regarding gender issues at EU level, as it introduced for the first time the concept of gender mainstreaming. This work addresses the question: Has the urban dimension of the EU policy integrated the gender perspective vision embraced by the Treaty of Amsterdam? The study undertakes the analysis of the discourse adopted by written policy tools launched in the EU context from 1997 (year in which the Treaty was signed) to the present in order to understand if the gender perspective has been mainstreamed in the urban policy of the EU. The analysis developed shows that the gender dimension has been excluded from the definition of the policy problem (contradicting the Treaty of Amsterdam and subsequent legislation). The outputs of the research allow shedding light on this issue with the aim of bringing it to debate. This is considered particularly important in the current situation, in which the Members States are starting to implement the initiatives for sustainable urban development co-funded by the Structural Funds¹ in this period of the Cohesion Policy (2014-2020).
    ENGLISH: The European Union (EU) adopted gender mainstreaming in the Treaty of Amsterdam as the strategy to reach equality between women and men. The mandate of the Treaty and subsequent legislation has led to the implementation of this vision in some of the policy areas, while others have just begun to introduce this approach. Research work developed by the author of this article has identified that the urban policy of the EU has not integrated the gender perspective in the terms expressed by the Treaty in the policy documents launched until 2013 (De Gregorio, 2014 and 2017). This article presents the continuation of that study, focusing on the construction process of the Urban Agenda for the European Union from 2013, with the objective of understanding if it has introduced factors of transformation concerning the gender approach assumed in the new policy documents, and particularly in the Pact of Amsterdam (programmatic framework of the Urban Agenda). In order to achieve its goal this study uses a mixed-knowledge methodology. The analysis identifies that the policy process addressesed has integrated the gender dimension in the policy discourse of the Pact, meaning an important change in the traditional approach. Its integration is not sufficient in terms of consistency and visibility, but it has a real potential to mainstream gender in the Urban Agenda for the EU. To achieve that it would be necessary to make the issue more visible and to integrate gender expertise and guidelines for action in the work of the partnerships that are giving contentto the priority topics of the Urban Agenda for the European Union// ITALIANO: L’Unione Europea (UE) ha adottato l’integrazione di genere nel Trattato di Amsterdamcome strategia per raggiungere la parità tra donne e uomini. Il mandato del Trattato e della seguente legislazione ha portato alla realizzazione di questa visione in alcuni dei settori di intervento, mentre altri hanno appena iniziato a introdurre questo approccio. Il lavoro di ricerca sviluppato dall’autrice di questo articolo ha evidenziato che la politica urbana della UE non ha integrato la prospettiva di genere nei termini espressi dal Trattato nei documenti politici emanati fino al 2013 (De Gregorio, 2014 e 2017). Questo articolo presenta il prosieguo di tale studio, concentrandosi sul processo di costruzione dell’Agenda Urbana per l’Unione Europea dal 2013, con l’obiettivo di capire se ha introdotto fattori di trasformazione per quanto riguarda l’approccio di genere assunto nei nuovi documenti di indirizzo politico, e in particolare nel Patto di Amsterdam (quadro programmatico dell’Agenda Urbana). Al fine di raggiungere tale obiettivo questo studio utilizza una metodologia di conoscenza mista. L’analisi mette in evidenza che il processo politico attuato ha integrato la dimensione di genere nel discorso politico del Patto, il che significa un importante cambiamento rispetto all’approccio tradizionale. La sua integrazione non è sufficiente in termini di coerenza e visibilità, ma ha un potenziale reale di integrazione dell’approccio di genere nell’Agenda Urbana per l’Unione Europea. Per ottenere ciò sarebbe necessario rendere la questione più visibile ed integrare competenze di genere elinee guida per l’azione nel lavoro delle partnership che stanno dando contenuto ai temi prioritari dell’Agenda Urbana per l’Unione Europea.
    The transportation sector is one of the largest sources of EU’s greenhouse gas emissions. In 2011, transportation represented approximately 25 percent of total EU’s greenhouse gas emissions. Urban mobility accounts for 40% of all CO2 emissions of road transport and up to 70% of other pollutants from transport. As, transportation and mobility play a crucial part both in urban economics and the quality of life, it is of great significance to ensure a low carbon transportation sector, so as to deal with the threat that climate change poses to urban areas. This study examines the factors that affect the production of carbon dioxide (CO2) as well as of air pollutants, in 9 major European cities, aiming to provide a comprehensive overview of the actual knowledge on the atmospheric pollution from public transportation systems. CO2 emissions as well as air pollutants, such as CO, HC, PM, NOx are calculated for the diesel and CNG bus fleets of the European cities under study. Finally the environmental benefits, in terms of CO2 and CO, HC, PM, NOx emissions reductions, from the penetration of different biodiesel blends (from B10 to B100) to the bus fleets are estimated.
    Globally, efforts are underway to reduce anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions and to adapt to climate change impacts at the local level. However, there is a poor understanding of the relationship between city strategies on climate change mitigation and adaptation and the relevant policies at national and European level. This paper describes a comparative study and evaluation of cross-national policy. It reports the findings of studying the climate change strategies or plans from 200 European cities from Austria, Belgium, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Ireland, Italy, Netherlands, Spain and the United Kingdom. The study highlights the shared responsibility of global, European, national, regional and city policies. An interpretation and illustration of the influences from international and national networks and policy makers in stimulating the development of local strategies and actions is proposed. It was found that there is no archetypical way of planning for climate change, and multiple interests and motivations are inevitable. Our research warrants the need for a multi-scale approach to climate policy in the future, mainly ensuring sufficient capacity and resource to enable local authorities to plan and respond to their specific climate change agenda for maximising the management potentials for translating environmental challenges into opportunities.
    Cities are where most of the overall primary energy is consumed, GHG emissions are released [1] and where people are more and more frequently affected by the adverse effects of climate change [2]. On the other hand, cities are the ideal framework for implementing low-carbon policies [3] and adaptation strategies through a strategic planning process shared with citizens and local stakeholders [4]. All these challenges converging in cities require integrated solutions to pick up the challenge of climate change, assuming a leading role in the transition pathway towards a more sustainable future [5]. This study presents the state-of-art of the urban climate action plans developed in two countries, Spain and Italy, which share similarities on many levels (i.e. cultural, geographical, climate vulnerabilities, urban configurations and institutional framework). In particular, the study analyses the climate actions undertaken by a sample of 26 and 32 Spanish and Italian cities respectively, which are included in the Eurostat Urban Audit database, as described in [6-8]. The study tries to understand why and how cities have started action to reduce their contribution to climate change and become more resilient, investigating also the influence of national and international climate alliances. The willingness and preparedness of these cities to cope with climate change is investigated through an in-depth analysis of mitigation and adaptation plans and programs in the selected cities in terms of emission targets set, emissions accountability methods adopted, topics included and actions taken. A careful review of the main institutional, socio-economic, environmental and vulnerability characteristics of the 58 analyzed cities allows to shed light on the potential barriers and opportunities to the development of urban climate change plans in these two Mediterranean countries. Keywords: Urban climate planning; Mitigation; Adaptation; Spain; Italy References 1. R.E.H. Sims, R.N. Schock, A. Adegbululgbe, J. Fenhann, I. Konstantinaviciute, W. Moomaw, H.B. Nimir, B. Schlamadinger, J. Torres-Martínez, C. Turner, Y. Uchiyama, S.J.V. Vuori, N. Wamukonya, X. Zhang, (2007), Energy supply. In Climate Change 2007: Mitigation. Contribution of Working Group III to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [B. Metz, O.R. Davidson, P.R. Bosch, R. Dave, L.A. Meyer (eds)], Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA. https://www.ipcc.ch/pdf/assessment-report/ar4/wg3/ar4-wg3-chapter4.pdf 2. Handmer, John, et al. (2012) Changes in Impacts of Climate Extremes: Human Systems and Ecosystems, Managing the Risks of Extreme Events and Disasters to Advance Climate Change Adaptation. Ed. Christopher B. Field, Vicente Barros, Thomas F. Stocker, and Qin Dahe. 1st ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, Cambridge Books Online, pp. 231-290. 3. Gouldson, A., Colenbrander, S., Sudmant, A., Godfrey, N., Millward-Hopkins, J., Fang, W. and Zhao, X., (2015). Accelerating Low-Carbon Development in the World’s Cities. Contributing paper for Seizing the Global Opportunity: Partnerships for Better Growth and a Better Climate. New Climate Economy, London and Washington, DC. Available at: http://newclimateeconomy.report/misc/working-papers. 4. Geels, F.W., (2011), The role of the cities in technological transitions: Analytical clarifications and historical examples, in: Bulkeley, H., Broto, V.C., Hodson, M. and Marvin, S. (eds.), Cities and Low Carbon Transitions , Routledge: New York, pp. 13-28. 5. Reckien D., Flacke J., Dawson R.J., Heidrich O., Olazabal M., Foley A., Hamann J.J.P., Orru H., Salvia M., De Gregorio Hurtado S., Geneletti D., Pietrapertosa F., (2014). Climate change response in Europe: what's the reality? Analysis of adaptation and mitigation plans from 200 urban areas in 11 countries. Climatic Change No. 122, pp. 331-340. 6. S. De Gregorio Hurtado, M. Olazabal, M. Salvia, F. Pietrapertosa, E. Olazabal, D. Geneletti, V. D’Alonzo, E. Feliú, S. Di Leo, D. Reckien, (2014), Implications of governance structures in urban climate action: evidence from Italy and Spain. BC3 Working Paper Series 2014-02. Basque Centre for Climate Change (BC3). Bilbao, Spain. 7. Olazabal, M., S. De Gregorio, E. Olazabal, F. Pietrapertosa, M. Salvia, D. Geneletti, V. D’Alonzo, E. Feliú, S. di Leo, D. Reckien, (2014), How Italian and Spanish Cities are tackling climate change? A local comparative study. BC3 Working Paper Series 2014-03. Basque Centre for Climate Change (BC3). Bilbao, Spain. 8. De Gregorio Hurtado S., Olazabal M., Salvia M., Pietrapertosa F., Olazabal E., Geneletti D., D’Alonzo V., Di Leo S., Reckien D. (2015) Understanding how and why cities engage with climate policy: An analysis of local climate action in Spain and Italy. In press on Tema. Journal of Land Use, Mobility and Environment.
    Cities significantly contribute to climate change while at the same time have government capacity to efficiently act in the fields of mitigation and adaptation. Their climate capacity is being increasingly recognized by international institutions and has been pointed out as crucial in the multi-level government scenario of the European Union (EU). Addressing the challenges of climate change at urban level is a complex issue which requires a holistic approach to strategic urban planning. Understanding why and how cities start action can help to identify the barriers they face when addressing climate change, and how national governments, regions and international bodies can support local authorities in their climate fight. This work aims to contribute to the provision of knowledge necessary to have a better and deeper insight in urban climate action. The study investigates the state-of-art of urban climate plans in two countries, Spain and Italy, which share similarities on many levels (i.e. cultural, geographical, climate vulnerabilities, urban configurations and institutional framework). The research analyses 26 Spanish cities and 32 Italian cities included in the Eurostat Urban Audit (UA), focusing on the actions taken by big and medium municipalities in reducing their contribution to climate change and to become more resilient to changing weather patterns. The results of the analysis show a trend towards an increasing awareness on climate mitigation (highly focused on energy efficiency and the promotion of cleaner energy sources), while adaptation remains an incipient local policy area in both countries. The analysis identifies also the beneficial influence of national and international climate city networks.
    Este trabajo lleva a cabo un análisis de la aportación que las dos fases de la Iniciativa Comunitaria URBAN de la Unión Europea (UE) han hecho a la práctica de la regeneración urbana en España desde la perspectiva de la Planificación Colaborativa. La adopción de esta última como marco conceptual ha provisto la base teórica desde la que se ha analizado URBAN, a través de la realización de un estudio que ha profundizado en el contexto histórico y el debate teórico desde los que se pusieron las bases metodológicas de este instrumento para afrontar la degradación urbana. El trabajo analiza la materialización de la dimensión colaborativa de los programas URBAN y URBAN II implementados en España. Los resultados alcanzados por los programas, considerados a la luz de la profundización en la práctica de la regeneración urbana del país, han permitido llegar a conclusiones sobre la aportación que la dimensión colaborativa de URBAN ha hecho al contexto español y señalar la línea de investigación que supone la continuación del camino emprendido por la Tesis Doctoral en la que se enmarca este trabajo. ABSTRACT: This work analyses the contribution that the two rounds of the URBAN Community Initiative of the European Union have made to the urban regeneration practice in Spain from the perspective of Collaborative Planning. The adoption of Collaborative Planning as conceptual framework has provided the theoretical base from which to analyze URBAN, through the development of a study that has delved into the historical context and the theoretical debate that laid the methodological foundations of this approach to fight urban degradation. The work analyses the implementation of the collaborative approach in the URBAN and URBAN II programs developed in Spain. The results achieved by the programs, considered in light of the development of the practice of urban regeneration in the Spanish scenario, have led to conclusions about the contribution that the collaborative dimension of URBAN has made to the Spanish context and have resulted in the identification of the line of research that represent the continuation of the path taken by this work and the Thesis in which it is contextualized.
    Índice1 Introducción2 Metodología3 Marco conceptual: la planificación colaborativa 3.1 El Nuevo Institucionalismo y el enfoque comunicativo: la propuesta de Planificación Colaborativa de Patsy Healey 3.2 El enfoque colaborativo para la transformación de la gobernanza en la Iniciativa Comunitaria URBAN4 Formación y lanzamiento de la Iniciativa Comunitaria URBAN en el contexto de la Política Urbana de la Unión Europea5 La práctica de la Regeneración Urbana en España6 La Iniciativa Comunitaria URBAN en España7 La Iniciativa Comunitaria URBAN II en España8 Conclusiones9 Bibliografía10 Anexo: entrevistas y cuestionariosResumenEste trabajo lleva a cabo un análisis de la aportación que las dos fases de la Iniciativa Comunitaria URBANde la Unión Europea (UE) han hecho a la práctica de la regeneración urbana en España desde la perspectiva de la Planificación Colaborativa. La adopción de esta última como marco conceptual ha provisto la base teórica desde la que se ha analizado URBAN, a través de la realización de un estudio que ha profundizado en el contexto histórico y el debate teórico desde los que se pusieron las bases metodológicas de este instrumento para afrontar la degradación urbana. El trabajo analiza la materialización de la dimensión colaborativa de los programas URBAN y URBAN II implementados en España. Los resultados alcanzados por los programas, considerados a la luz de la profundización en la práctica de la regeneración urbana del país, han permitido llegar a conclusiones sobre la aportación que la dimensión colaborativa de URBAN ha hecho al contexto español y señalar la línea de investigación que supone la continuación del camino emprendido por la Tesis Doctoral en la que se enmarca este trabajoPalabras claveRegeneración urbana / Políticas urbanas / Planificación colaborativa / Iniciativa Comunitaria URBAN / Unión EuropeaAbstractThis work analyses the contribution that the two rounds of the URBAN Community Initiative of the European Union have made to the urban regeneration practice in Spain from the perspective of Collaborative Planning. The adoption of Collaborative Planning as conceptual framework has provided the theoretical base from which to analyze URBAN, through the development of a study that has delved into the historical context and the theoretical debate that laid the methodological foundations of this approach to fight urban degradation. The work analyses the implementation of the collaborative approach in the URBAN and URBAN II programs developed in Spain. The results achieved by the programs, considered in light of the development of the practice of urban regeneration in the Spanish scenario, have led to conclusions about the contribution that the collaborative dimension of URBAN has made to the Spanish context and have resulted in the identification of the line of research that represent the continuation of the path taken by this work and the Thesis in which it is contextualized.Keywords:Urban regeneration / Urban policies / Colaborative urban planning / URBAN Community Initiative / European Union
    Este trabajo analiza la contribución de la política de vivienda social a la introducción del urbanismo de género en la ciudad de Viena, sobre la base de la identificación de dicha política como un factor que ha jugado un papel clave a ese respecto. El foco del análisis ha permitido detectar como el carácter social de dicha política fue central para que la ciudad “abriera” su práctica urbanística a nuevos enfoques al iniciar la década de los 90, buscando alternativas a la planificación “tradicional” desde donde volver a reorientar la acción pública a satisfacer las necesidades de los ciudadanos. Es en ese momento cuando se empieza a introducir la perspectiva de género en la producción de vivienda social y espacio público, llevando a cabo un conjunto de actuaciones que pusieron pronto de relieve los resultados positivos de este planteamiento. El presente trabajo profundiza en ese proceso, focalizando en los instrumentos que ponen en evidencia la aportación de la política social de vivienda al urbanismo de género, y aporta un conjunto de conclusiones. Las mismas ponen de relieve la importancia de radicar localmente, a través del reforzamiento de la dimensión social, las políticas dirigidas a alcanzar el interés general, para que estas perduren en el tiempo y mantengan en el foco a los ciudadanos. También revelan como la introducción de la perspectiva de género en la producción de vivienda y espacio público ha permitido a la ciudad de Viena perfeccionar el enfoque social de estas políticas e introducir innovación. Abstract This work analyses the contribution of the social housing policy to the introduction of gender sensitive planning in Vienna, on the basis of the identification of this policy as a factor that has played a major role regarding gender and urban planning in Vienna. The focus of the study has allowed to identify how the social dimension of this policy was crucial, as it contributed to the “open-minded” vision from which the city started, at the beginning of the decade of the 90’s, to look for alternatives to “traditional” city-planning in order to re-focus public action on citizens needs. It was at that moment when the Municipality started to introduce the gender perspective in the production of social housing and public space, developing a set of actions that demonstrated the beneficial results of this approach. This work analyses the mentioned process, focusing on the instruments that provide evidence on the contribution of the social housing policy to gender sensitive planning, and provides a set of conclusions. The conclusions reveal the relevance of giving place to locally rooted policies addressed to achieve public interest, through the reinforcement of the social dimension, in order to endure over time and maintain the focus on citizens. They also reveal how the introduction of the gender perspective in the production of housing and public space has allowed the city of Vienna to improve the social approach in the context of these policies and to introduce innovation.
    During the last decade there has been in Spain a relevant development of plans and tools that aim to achieve a more sustainable urban mobility. The momentum that has fuelled this trend stems from a number of socio-economic and environmental factors, among which it is worth noting the recognition of environmental quality and efficient transport as key aspects of quality of life, social cohesion and competitiveness of cities in the global framework. In Spain this recognition coincided with the decentralization process that resulted of the institutional architecture established by the Constitution of 1978. Under this framework the Autonomous Communities (regions) and the municipalities received government responsibilities that before had remained within the scope of responsibility of the Central Government. That was the case of urban policies and therefore also of urban mobility policies, a context where since the eighties the Municipalities, Autonomous Communities (both through direct competences) and the Central Government (through indirect competences) have become active agents. The number of relevant institutional levels has been extended through the action of the European Union, that from the beginning of the nineties has pointed out urban mobility as a relevant policy issue. This multiplicity of institutional actors has been joined by other stakeholders, who have started to participate, or to demand their right to participate, in the decision-making processes and the implementation of mobility policies (citizens; economic, social and environmental stakeholders, etc.). This work addresses the issue of sustainable urban mobility from the observation of the complexity introduced by the presence of this significant number of actors in the scenario described, analyzing the activity and the tools developed by the Central Government, Autonomous Communities and cities from the perspective of governance. The objective is to understand the governance approach that sustains the action of institutional stakeholders in Spain, considering that the guidelines assumed in the international framework regarding sustainability point out to the inclusion in the decision-making processes of the relevant actors and the cooperation between levels of government as conditions to achieve governance models compatible with the sustainability and policy effectiveness. As a result the aim of this study is to understand to what extend the Spanish framework is being able to promote and sustain the transformation of the governance model in the context of sustainable urban mobility, in order to evolve towards a model able to adapt to the new conditions that require greater collaboration and participation, more inclusiveness and a greater degree of legitimacy and transparency in the decision-making and the implementation of policies. The knowledge that has been reached in relation to this issue has helped to describe the present scenario and a number of recommendations that can strengthen future policies and instruments to be implemented in the medium term. It aims as well to serve as a turning point to encourage reflection and the debate on the issue from the perspective of governance.
    Gender mainstreaming in urban planning leads to gender sensitive planning, an approach that has as main objective to achieve cities more sensible to the needs and expectations of different social groups and, particularly, to those of women. Gender mainstreaming is a central strategic discipline of urban planning in Vienna, a city which is implementing a vision that is increasingly attracting the interest of academics. The action developed has been recognized as a good practice by UN-Habitat and other stakeholders,and is increasingly being pointed out as a reference in urban sensitive planning by the literature. One of the main reasons that explain this attention lays in the fact that Vienna has been successful in implementing asustained experience regarding gender mainstreaming that is recognized as reaching “real” results in a field where similar initiatives in other urban contexts have “misbehaved”. The acknowledgment of this and other difficulties leads to the valorization of the activity undertaken in Vienna and to a question that focuses on the genealogy and the construction of the policy process: What factors allowed Vienna to implement this vision successfully? This work addresses this question with the aim of reflecting on the factors/conditions that created in Vienna the political, technical and social environment that favored the introduction and consolidation of the gender sensitive approach in urban planning to achieve a fair city. By answering these questions the study aims to understand the process, with the objective of identifying crucial factors that have resulted in a city that today offers a high quality of life for all.
    Urban areas are pivotal to global adaptation and mitigation efforts. But how do cities actually perform in terms of climate change response? This study sheds light on the state of urban climate change adaptation and mitigation planning across Europe. Europe is an excellent test case given its advanced environmental policies and high urbanization. We performed a detailed analysis of 200 large and medium-sized cities across 11 European countries and analysed the cities’ climate change adaptation and mitigation plans. We investigate the regional distribution of plans, adaptation and mitigation foci and the extent to which planned greenhouse gas (GHG) reductions contribute to national and international climate objectives. To our knowledge, it is the first study of its kind as it does not rely on self-assessment (questionnaires or social surveys). Our results show that 35 % of European cities studied have no dedicated mitigation plan and 72 % have no adaptation plan. No city has an adaptation plan without a mitigation plan. One quarter of the cities have both an adaptation and a mitigation plan and set quantitative GHG reduction targets, but those vary extensively in scope and ambition. Furthermore, we show that if the planned actions within cities are nationally representative the 11 countries investigated would achieve a 37 % reduction in GHG emissions by 2050, translating into a 27 % reduction in GHG emissions for the EU as a whole. However, the actions would often be insufficient to reach national targets and fall short of the 80 % reduction in GHG emissions recommended to avoid global mean temperature rising by 2 °C above pre-industrial levels.
    Cities are on the focus of the policy action of the European Union from the 80’s because: more than 70% of the European population lives in urban areas; cities remain the EU primary source of wealth creation and social and cultural development and, main centres of social inequality, social exclusion, and environmental problems. On the basis of the relevance of the urban issue, within the UE has taken place a complex process that has led to the definition of what we could call today the “Urban Policy of the European Union”. The development of such process has given place to the construction of a concept of “sustainable/integrated urban development” that has been encoded in the documents and instruments published and launched through the years by the European Commission and other relevant stakeholders. During that process entered into force the Treaty of Amsterdam (1999), which brought a new insight regarding gender issues at Community level, as it introduced for the first time in the Treaties the concept of gender mainstreaming How did gender mainstreaming transform the urban policy? The analysis of the documents and the instruments launched by different institutions and stakeholders of the EU from 1997 (year in which the Treaty of Amsterdam was signed) shows that the gender dimension was not introduced in the urban policy of the Union at that moment. In fact, under this point of view, it is possible to identify during the first decade of the century a continuation of the main guidelines that had been proposed before the Treaty, and an approach that failed to introduce the gender issue. The review of the documents launched by the EC at the beginning of the current decade shows that they fail again to mainstream gender in urban policies, while other topics (for example: energy and climate change) have been integrated in the evolved concept of sustainable urban development expressed in the last policy documents of the EC. The paper proposed for the Engendering Cities Conference undertakes the mentioned analysis, showing that gender issues are not explicitly taken into consideration; the extent to which they could be hidden under a “social cohesion, social equality and equal opportunities” rhetorical discourse is up to study and debate in the research work in which this contribution is framed.
    Durante el periodo 2004-2011 la Administración General del Estado (AGE) ha llevado a cabo una acción en el ámbito de la movilidad urbana que no tiene precedentes en el marco español. Entre los factores que han favorecido esta acción es destacable la influencia de la Unión Europea (UE), frente a la cual el Gobierno Central tiene que desempeñar el papel de mediador entre las instituciones comunitarias y las regionales. Aunque la AGE no tiene competencias directas para actuar en este ámbito de política, ha desarrollado un conjunto de actuaciones que, evitando invadir responsabilidades de los niveles inferiores de gobierno, la han permitido ejercer una acción que la identifican como un agente relevante. Este trabajo lleva a cabo una revisión de esa acción, focalizando en los mecanismos utilizados, con el fin de entender en qué medida podría haber dado lugar a un proceso de transformación de la gobernanza al abrir un espacio de actuación a la AGE en relación a la movilidad urbana, basado en la concertación con las Comunidades Autónomas y las Ciudades. Los resultados a los que se llega permiten afirmar que el papel jugado ha contribuido a consolidar la movilidad urbana como un ámbito de política y ha producido efectos en las administraciones autonómicas y en las Ciudades. Pone de relieve, asimismo, la existencia de limitaciones inherentes a la arquitectura institucional, a la cultura política y a los procesos de toma de decisiones que han cercenado los resultados de la acción desarrollada. ABSTRACT: During the period 2004-2011 the General Administration of the State has acted as a relevant stakeholder in the field of urban and metropolitan mobility. Its performance has been driven, among other factors, by the influence of the European Union (EU) as it has to play a role of mediator between the EU and regional institutions. According to the allocation of government responsibilities established by the Spanish Constitution, the Central Government has no direct powers to act in this policy area. As a result it has developed during the period under analysis a number of actions based on mechanisms that preserve the responsibilities of the lower tiers of government. On the basis of this action this work identifies the General Administration of the State as a significant actor in the field of urban mobility during the period 2004-2011. This article undertakes a review of the action developed, focusing on the mechanisms used in order to understand to what extend it could have led to a transformation of the governance that makes possible the action of the General Administration of the State in the field of urban mobility based on collaboration with Regions and Cities. The outputs of the research confirm that the role played by the Central Government has contributed significantly to strengthen urban mobility as a policy area, producing effects on the regional administrations and the cities. Besides, the results highlight the inherent limitations of the institutional architecture, the culture of organizations and the decision-making processes, that have importantly limited the effect of the action developed.
    The URBAN Community Initiative has been so far the most specific instrument of the Urban Ppolicy in the European Union. It was developed during two consecutive programming periods of the Cohesion Policy (the period 1994-1999, under the name of URBAN, and the 2000- 2006, under the name of URBAN II). Its progress in Spain, as in other Member States, has made an important contribution to the practice of urban regeneration. Its scope has been established by the country circumstances, which have acted in accordance with the situation, limiting or fostering the introduction of the methodological approach considered by this Community Initiative. From this awareness the paper analyzes the contribution made by URBAN to the field of urban regeneration in Spain. The research has been developed stemming from the contextualization of URBAN in the framework of the EU urban policy, thus to characterize and understand its methodological elements and to analyse, afterwards, its application to the Spanish case (through a general approach to the URBAN programmes (1994-1999) and the development of case studies of the URBAN II programmes). The analysis of the results achieved by the Spanish programmes has produced some conclusions about the contribution made by URBAN to the Spanish context of urban regeneration and the lessons that has entailed its implementation. These conclusions are proposed as a contribution to the current discussion on the extension of the EU urban policy for the new budget period 2014-2020.
    Cities are widely recognised as being pivotal to fight climate change. They magnify the drivers of climate change, experience the impacts and also concentrate the highest room for action. Although urban areas are broadly claimed to be climate leaders, there is no archetype of right actions given the highly contextual differences among them. Yet, the how and why cities respond to global environmental challenges in the context of increasingly competitive economies needs further research. In this paper we aim at advancing in this regard by assessing the state of the art on urban climate actions in two European Mediterranean Countries: Spain and Italy that face similar climate change challenges. Based on an extensive review of documents, we analyse mitigation and adaptation plans of 26 Spanish and 32 Italian Urban Audit cities, as representative samples. Our results show relevant differences between Spanish and Italian cities in terms of the starting time of their climate actions as well their implementation. We concur with existing literature in that mitigation is more advanced than adaptation actions and take evidence in both countries and we also demonstrate that international and national networking initiatives are being instrumental in engaging cities in climate action.
    Cities are widely recognised as being pivotal to fight climate change. Cities magnify the drivers of climate change, experience the impacts and also concentrate the highest room for action. Given the 70% of the global emissions that cities are responsible for, national governments are unable to meet their international commitments for addressing mitigation and adaptation without the action and cooperation of cities. In turn, the capacity of local governments to address climate change is largely determined by the institutional architecture within which they are integrated. As a result, the relationship between the different arenas of authority and the integration of cities in national and international networks is considered critical in shaping the global capacity to govern climate change. This work aims to understand how multi-level climate governance and alliances of cities (national and international) are influencing the climate change capacity and performance of municipalities. This has been done by focusing on two national contexts of the European Union, Italy and Spain, in which climate policy, multi-level governance frameworks, the effects of the national and international networks of cities, and the climate response of cities are analysed through an extensive review of scientific and grey literature, and institutional documents. The results concur with existing literature on the importance of constructing collaborative multi-level climate frameworks at the national scale, that fully integrate the local level, in order to support cities to develop consistent climate action and raise awareness of the responsibility they have in this policy field.
    Highlights� � After accessing and contacting local authorities we reviewed approved and/or published urban climate change mitigation and adaptation plans from 200 cities in 11 European countries, and statistically analysed the plans’ regional distribution across countries and cities’ commitment in international climate networks. � Climate change response of European cities, i.e. the number of officially approved urban adaptation and mitigation plans or those in process of development, is uneven across the 200 cities and 11 countries investigated. � Based on a representative sample of cities in terms of city size and regional, as well as population covered in each country, the analysis yields a strong North-South divide. � About two-third of cities investigated have a mitigation plan; only about one third has an adaptation plan. � International climate networks seem conducive; the Covenant of Mayors Initiative of the European Commission is the most successful, particularly with respect to mitigation. � There are no climate networks on the international level, such as the Covenant of Mayors, dedicated to adaptation of climate change, which is highly needed.
    -Explores causes and consequences of the influence of multi-level climate governance, i.e. interaction and integration of climate action developed by the different tiers of government (national, regional and local) in two EU countries: Italy and Spain. -Conclusions are drawn based on detailed compilation, review and analyses of climate change policies, strategies, plans and implementation programmes of 32 Italian cities and 26 Spanish cities. -The research identifies the importance of constructing collaborative multi-level climate frameworks at the national scale, that fully integrate the local level, in order to support cities to develop consistent climate action and raise awareness of the responsibility they have in this policy field.
    -Focus on the urban planning and strategic policy documents related to climate change actions, i.e. adaptation or mitigation efforts, across 32 Italian cities. -The mitigation actions contained in the climate plans are further investigated through cluster analysis to aggregate cities in homogenous groups in policy strategies and mitigation actions. -We found that there are not clear geographic patterns of cities’ responses across Northern and Southern regions or within large and small cities. -The cities and their plans show different levels of ambition to reduce emissions (i.e. mitigation targets), reflecting the different political commitment of Italian local authorities.
    Objetivo Partiendo de la consolidacion de la entrada de la movilidad urbana durante el ultimo decenio en la agenda de todos los niveles de gobierno, de la constatacion del reparto de competencias en materia de movilidad entre los mismos y el rol clave que han de desempenar las Comunidades Autonomas, como nivel intermedio de gobierno en este y otros ambitos de politica, este trabajo tiene como objetivo identificar las politicas de Movilidad Urbana Sostenible desarrolladas por el nivel regional durante el periodo 2004-2011 y caracterizarlas desde la perspectiva de la gobernanza multinivel . El articulo se inscribe en el marco conceptual de la Movilidad Urbana Sostenible, en el que se ha profundizado en el proyecto de investigacion en el que se enmarca. Metodologia Para alcanzar el mencionado objetivo se ha hecho una revision de la accion desarrollada por las Comunidades Autonomas en los distintos ambitos de politica desde los que su incidencia en la movilidad de las ciudades de su territorio ha sido mas relevante. Tras identificar esos ambitos, se ha profundizado en ellos a traves de la revision de planes, directrices, estrategias y otros documentos institucionales ya aprobados o en proceso de desarrollo. Tambien se ha revisado literatura cientifica y literatura gris. Se ha puesto el foco en detectar instrumentos colaborativos orientados a dar lugar a la colaboracion entre diferentes niveles de gobierno. Una vez detectados los principales instrumentos de politica se han caracterizado desde la perspectiva de la gobernanza multinivel. Conclusiones El trabajo desarrollado ha permitido identificar una tendencia del nivel regional hacia una mayor colaboracion con el nivel local a lo largo de dicho periodo, mientras que no se observa el mismo interes por crear instrumentos para la colaboracion con la Administracion General del Estado en torno a este tema. Las conclusiones a las que se llega ponen de relieve la necesidad de avanzar hacia una mayor colaboracion interinstitucional en este ambito en el pais para dar lugar a politicas de movilidad urbana y metropolitana mas sostenibles, coherentes y eficaces. Originalidad Una revision de las politicas de movilidad urbana (incluyendo las relativas a la movilidad metropolitana) desarrolladas por las Comunidades Autonomas no habia sido hasta ahora abordada en el marco espanol desde la perspectiva propuesta por este trabajo. El mismo se propone como una contribucion a la reflexion y al debate sobre el tema abordado, estando dirigido a decisores politicos, a otros actores institucionales, al ambito academico y a todos aquellos actores interesados en este campo de actuacion.
    Coordinated actions at urban level are necessary for promoting a low carbon economy and a greener and more efficient use of resources in compliance with the EU's integrated climate change and energy policy. Several initiatives have been undertaken at European level in the latest years to support local authorities moving towards more sustainable development patterns, reducing urban GHG emissions and making cities more resilient to climate change. Smart cities are at the heart of this process and their efforts are driven by a large number of initiatives such as the SET-Plan “Smart Cities and Communities Initiative” and the Covenant of Mayors. In Italy, at now 2180 towns and cities have signed up to the Covenant of Mayors (CoM) committing to submit their Sustainable Energy Action Plans (SEAPs). In the meanwhile several independent initiatives have been carried out on smart-related issues by local governments boosted also by two calls for bids on smart cities issued in 2012 by the Italian Ministry of Education, Higher Education and Research. This paper investigates the 32 Italian cities included in the EUROSTAT Urban Audit database providing an overview of their involvement in climate networks and cities’ alliances and analyzing and comparing the urban planning and strategic policy documents related to climate change actions, i.e. adaptation or mitigation. Mitigation plans in the analyzed cities are further investigated through cluster analysis to aggregate cities in homogenous groups as concerns policy strategies and mitigation actions.
    English: This work analyses the contribution that the urban policy of the European Union (EU), and in particular the two rounds of the URBAN Community Initiative , as its most especific instrument, have made to the urban regeneration practice in Spain from the perspective of Collaborative Planning. The adoption of Collaborative Planning as a conceptual framework has provided the theoretical base, the focus and the guiding principle from which to analyse the urban dimension of European policies, and particularly URBAN, through the development of a study that has delved into the historical context and the theoretical debate that laid the methodological foundations of this approach to fight urban degradation launched by the European Commission in 1994. This has included the study of the British scenario of urban regeneration, in which the research has found the reference point on which URBAN was largely conceived. The work described has allowed this Community Initiative to be characterised as a tool of urban regeneration which involved the adoption of a collaborative approach, whose ultimate aim was the transformation of governance. It has also laid the foundations on which the analysis of the implementation of the collaborative approach in the URBAN and URBAN II programmes developed in Spain has been based. The results attained by the programmes considered in light of the development of the practice of urban regeneration in the Spanish scenario, have led to conclusions about the contribution that the collaborative dimension of URBAN has made to the Spanish context and have resulted in the identification of a number of lines of research that represent the continuation of the path taken by this Thesis. __________________________________________________________________________ Español: Este trabajo lleva a cabo un análisis de la aportación que las políticas urbanas de la Unión Europea (UE), y en particular las dos fases de la Iniciativa Comunitaria URBAN , han hecho a la práctica de la regeneración urbana en España desde la perspectiva de la Planificación Colaborativa. La adopción de la Planificación Colaborativa como marco conceptual ha provisto la base teórica, el punto de vista e hilo conductor desde el que se ha analizado la dimensión urbana de las políticas comunitarias, poniendo el foco específicamente en URBAN, a través de la realización de un estudio que ha profundizado en el contexto histórico y el debate teórico desde los que se pusieron las bases metodológicas de esta forma de incidir en la degradación urbana, propuesta por la Comisión Europea en 1994. Esto ha llevado a profundizar en el escenario británico de la regeneración urbana, en el que la investigación ha encontrado la referencia sobre la que en gran medida se gestó esta Iniciativa Comunitaria. El trabajo descrito ha permitido caracterizar URBAN como un instrumento de regeneración urbana que conlleva la asunción de un enfoque colaborativo, que en última instancia tiene como objetivo la transformación de la gobernanza. Asimismo, ha sentado las bases sobre las que se ha fundamentado el análisis de la materialización de la dimensión colaborativa de los programas URBAN y URBAN II implementados en España. Los resultados alcanzados por los programas, considerados a la luz de la profundización en la práctica de la regeneración urbana del país, han permitido llegar a conclusiones sobre la aportación que la dimensión colaborativa de URBAN ha hecho al contexto español y señalar un conjunto de líneas de investigación que suponen la continuación del camino emprendido por esta Tesis Doctoral.
    Este trabajo profundiza en las acciones e instrumentos que constituyen la política de regeneración urbana desarrollada por el Gobierno Central a lo largo de la última década en España, poniendo el foco en su dimensión participativa. Se trata de herramientas que intentan desde su metodología y presupuestos de actuación devolver a la ciudadanía y los actores locales un papel activo en los procesos de regeneración. El análisis del enfoque participativo de los mismos se ha realizado desde el marco teórico de la Planificación Colaborativa.El trabajo ha puesto de manifiesto que en los últimos años se ha dado un interés creciente por parte de la Administración Central por generar mecanismos y proveer directrices dirigidas a los gobiernos regionales y locales, para que estos pongan en marcha procesos de participación en el contexto de la regeneración de los barrios urbanos. La tendencia detectada presenta avances relevantes junto con limitaciones, en gran medida relacionadas con la cultura política y otros aspectos inherentes a la realidad española.
    Since 1990, when the EEC published the «Green Paper on the Urban Environment», the European Union has carried out an active role fighting against decline in European cities, through contributions that have consisted on recommendations, guidelines and a direct action on the deprived urban areas financed through the Cohesion Fund, the ERDF and the ESF. This task has led to the definition of a specific instrument to fight against urban decline in 1994: the URBAN Community Initiative. In Spain, the urban dimension of the EU policy and particularly URBAN and URBAN II have made a relevant contribution to the revitalization of deprived neighbourhoods. This article addresses the question of how and to what extent the influence of URBAN has transformed the urban regeneration practice in the peripheral areas of the country.
    Analysis of the implementation of the URBAN Community Initiative in Spain and its influence on the field of urban regeneration in the country.
    En España, la alta actividad constructora de los últimos años ligada al sector de los centros comerciales y el escaso grado de integración de la mayor parte de estos equipamientos en el tejido urbano ponen de manifiesto que se hace necesario recapacitar sobre los procesos que rigen su aparición. Para entender la dinámica que determina su distribución territorial, se ha llevado a cabo un repaso histórico de la evolución del sector en España que permitirá un acercamiento a la situación actual. A continuación se ha profundizado en el caso de la Comunidad de Madrid, tratando de entender cuales son los mecanismos de control que se ejercen desde los ámbitos autonómico y municipal sobre su aparición. Las conclusiones ponen de manifiesto que no se están aprovechando las potencialidades inherentes a la actividad comercial. Potencialidades que algunos países europeos están utilizando para generar áreas de nueva centralidad y recuperar barrios degradados. Abstract: In Spain the high activity in the construction sector of the past years, linked to the sector of the development of shopping centers and the limited amount of integration of the majority of these developments into the urban fabric, express the need to reflect upon the operations their emergence in our cities. In order to understand the dynamics which govern the location of shopping centres, a historical review of this sector's development in Spain has been carried out which will allow a better understanding of the current situation. This is followed by a more detailed description and analysis of the current scenario using the case of the autonomous region of Madrid and attempting to understand the control mechanisms which are applied to the large retail areas at autonomous and municipal level. The findings highlight that the inherent commercial activity's potentials aren't used to revitalize and improve our cities. These potentials are being used in some European countries in order to generate areas in terms of new central location and recover outdated neighbourhoods.
    En marzo de 1996, se puso en servicio la primera agencia española especializada en la promoción de vehículos compartidos para desplazarse al centro de trabajo o estudio: el Centro de Viaje Compartido (CVC) de la Universidad Politécnica de Madrid. Dirigido a proporcionar gratuitamente compañeros de viaje a conductores que deseen compartir vehículo, el CVC ha desarrollado simultáneamente la labor de organizar operativamente sus tareas, diseñando protocolos y formularios, adaptando el equipo y el software, difundiendo y promoviendo la idea de compartir coche, etc, con una labor de estudio de los factores que influyen en los conductores en relación a la idea de compartir coche, a través de la realización de diversas encuestas y el estudio de su propia base de datos, de cara a conocer mejor su demanda potencial y mejorar la eficacia de sus métodos de promoción y operación. En el presente trabajo, el equipo del CVC expone el proceso de puesta en marcha del centro, los protocolos y documentos de funcionamiento, el sistema de "matching" utilizado, así como los resultados obtenidos y las conclusiones del estudio de los factores que influyen la actitud para compartir. Para analizar estos factores, se revisa la literatura americana especializada y se comparan las actitudes declaradas en las encuestas con los resultados registrados en el centro, encontrándose notables diferencias.
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