Sonia Zicari

Sonia Zicari
Ospedale Pediatrico Bambino Gesù | Bambino Gesù · Department of Pediatric Medicine

PhD

About

40
Publications
4,955
Reads
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1,229
Citations
Additional affiliations
May 2018 - present
Ospedale Pediatrico Bambino Gesù
Position
  • Researcher
December 2017 - April 2018
Henry M Jackson Foundation
Position
  • Researcher
August 2012 - August 2017
National Institutes of Health
Position
  • PostDoc Position
Education
September 2009 - September 2012
Università degli Studi di Brescia
Field of study
  • Microbiology
October 2003 - July 2009

Publications

Publications (40)
Article
Full-text available
Background Identifying subphenotypes within heterogeneous diseases may have an impact in terms of therapeutic options. In this study, we aim to assess different subphenotypes in children living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1), according to the clinical, virological, and immunological characteristics. Methods We collected clinical and soc...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction HIV infection causes pathological changes in the natural killer (NK) cell compartment that can be only partially restored by antiretroviral therapy (ART). We investigated NK cells phenotype and function in children with perinatally acquired HIV (PHIV) and long-term viral control (five years) due to effective ART in a multicentre cross-...
Preprint
BACKGROUND: Despite SARS-CoV-2 immunizations have started in most countries, children are not currently included in the vaccination programs, thus it remains crucial to define their anti-SARS-CoV-2 immune response in order to minimize the risk for other epidemic waves. This study seeks to provide a description of the virology ad anti-SARS-CoV-2 imm...
Article
Full-text available
As the global COVID-19 pandemic progresses, it is paramount to gain knowledge on adaptive immunity to SARS-CoV-2 in children to define immune correlates of protection upon immunization or infection. We analyzed anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies and their neutralizing activity (PRNT) in 66 COVID-19-infected children at 7 (±2) days after symptom onset. Indi...
Article
Full-text available
The number of patients affected by chronic diseases with special vaccination needs is burgeoning. In this scenario, predictive markers of immunogenicity, as well as signatures of immune responses are typically missing even though it would especially improve the identification of personalized immunization practices in these populations. We aimed to...
Article
Full-text available
The C-promoter binding factor-1 (CBF-1) is a potent and specific inhibitor of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 LTR promoter. Here, we demonstrate that the knockdown of endogenous CBF-1 in latently infected primary CD4+ T cells, using specific small hairpin RNAs (shRNA), resulted in the reactivation of latent HIV proviruses. Chromatin immuno...
Article
Full-text available
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection is typically very mild and often asymptomatic in children. A complication is the rare multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) associated with COVID-19, presenting 4-6 weeks after infection as high fever, organ dysfunction, and strongly elevated markers of inflammat...
Preprint
Full-text available
SARS-CoV2 infection is typically very mild and often asymptomatic in children. A complication is the rare Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C) associated with COVID-19, presenting 4-6 weeks after infection as high fever and organ dysfunction and strongly elevated markers of inflammation. The pathogenesis is unclear but has overlapp...
Article
Perinatally HIV-infected children (PHIV), despite successful antiretroviral therapy, present suboptimal responses to vaccinations compared to healthy-controls (HC). Here we investigated phenotypic and transcriptional signatures of H1N1-specific B-cells (H1N1-Sp) in PHIV, differentially responding to trivalent-influenza-vaccine (TIV), and HC. Patien...
Article
Full-text available
Despite reductions in mortality from the use of highly effective antiretroviral therapy (HAART), the presence of latent or transcriptionally silent proviruses prevents HIV cure/eradication. We have previously reported that DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) facilitates HIV transcription by interacting with the RNA polymerase II (RNAP II) complex...
Article
Full-text available
Natural Killer (NK) cells play a critical role in host defense against viral infections. The mechanisms of recognition and killing of virus-infected cells mediated by NK cells are still only partially defined. Several viruses induce, on the surface of target cells, the expression of molecules that are specifically recognized by NK cell-activating r...
Article
Full-text available
Routine vaccination is among the most effective clinical interventions to prevent diseases as it is estimated to save over 3 million lives every year. However, the full potential of global immunization programs is not realised because population coverage is still suboptimal. This is also due to the inadequate immune response and paucity of informat...
Article
Full-text available
Despite effective antiretroviral therapy (ART), people living with HIV (PLWH) still present persistent chronic immune activation and inflammation. This condition is the result of several factors including thymic dysfunction, persistent antigen stimulation due to low residual viremia, microbial translocation and dysbiosis, caused by the disruption o...
Article
Full-text available
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) released by virus-infected cells typically incorporate host and viral components inside the vesicles (cargo molecules). Here, we investigated if human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) proteins are incorporated in EV outer membrane released by HCMV-infected cells. We separated EVs from HCMV using an iodixanol step-gradient and fou...
Article
Cells productively infected with HIV-1 release virions along with extracellular vesicles (EVs) whose biogenesis, size, and physical properties resemble those of retroviruses. Here, we found that a significant number of EVs (exosomes) released by HIV-1 infected cells carry gp120 (Env), a viral protein that mediates virus attachment and fusion to tar...
Preprint
Despite the use of highly effective antiretroviral therapy (HAART), the presence of latent or transcriptionally silent proviruses prevents cure and eradication of HIV infection. These transcriptionally silent proviruses are well protected from both the immune system and HAART regimens. Thus, in order to tackle the problem of latent HIV reservoirs,...
Preprint
The C-promoter binding factor-1 (CBF-1) is a potent and specific inhibitor of the HIV-1 LTR promoter. Here we demonstrate that the knockdown of endogenous CBF-1 in latently infected primary CD4+ T cells, using specific small hairpin RNAs (shRNA), resulted in the reactivation of latent HIV proviruses. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays usin...
Article
Full-text available
HIV and M. tuberculosis are two intersecting epidemics making the search for new dual action drugs against both pathogens extremely important. Here, we report on the synthesis and suppressive activities of five dual-targeted HIV/TB compounds. These compounds constitute heterodimers of AZT, as anti-HIV molecules, and 5-arylaminouracil derivatives or...
Article
Full-text available
Lactobacillus species, which dominate vaginal microbiota of healthy reproductive-age women, lower the risks of sexually transmitted infections, including the risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) acquisition. The exact mechanisms of this protection remain to be understood. Here, we investigated these mechanisms in the context of human cervico-...
Article
Full-text available
Cells release small extracellular vesicles (EVs) into the surrounding media. Upon virus infection cells also release virions that have the same size of some of the EVs. Both virions and EVs carry proteins of the cells that generated them and are antigenically heterogeneous. In spite of their diversity, both viruses and EVs were characterized predom...
Article
Full-text available
Unprotected sexual intercourse with HIV-infected men is the major cause of new infections. HIV virions are released into semen by various cells of the male genital tract as well as by infected monocytes and lymphocytes present in semen. Some of these virions may attach to the surface of cells, infected or uninfected. We investigated whether cells c...
Article
Purpose: Extracellular vesicles (EV), such as exosomes, are important mediators of intercellular communication and have been implicated in modulation of the immune system. We investigated if EV released from retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) modulate immune responses in vitro. Methods: Extracellular vesicles were isolated from ARPE-19 cultures st...
Article
Full-text available
High-throughput techniques are needed to analyze individual virions to understand how viral heterogeneity translates into pathogenesis since in bulk analysis the individual characteristics of virions are lost. Individual Dengue virions (DENV) undergo a maturation that involves a proteolytic cleavage of prM precursor into virion-associated M protein...
Article
The ability of HIV to infect cells depends on the "functional" conformation of envelope spike glycoproteins (Env). However, other non-functional Env conformations are also displayed on virions. Determination of whether functional and non-functional forms of Env are co-displayed requires analysis of individual virions. We have applied a recently dev...
Article
Full-text available
Several 5-aminouracil derivatives that have previously been shown to inhibit Mycobacterium tuberculosis growth at concentrations of 5–40 μg/mL are demonstrated to act also as noncompetitive non-nucleoside inhibitors of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase without causing toxicity in vitro (MT-4 cells) and ex vivo (human tonsillar tissue).
Article
AIDS-related lymphomas are high grade and aggressively metastatic with poor prognosis. Lymphangiogenesis is essential in supporting proliferation and survival of lymphoma, as well as tumor dissemination. Data suggest that aberrant lymphangiogenesis relies on action of HIV-1 proteins rather than on a direct effect of the virus itself. HIV-1 matrix p...
Article
Therapeutic vaccination is a promising novel approach to treat HIV-1 infected people by boosting or redirecting immune system to neutralize critical HIV-1 antigens whose biological effects are relevant in the context of viral pathogenesis. With the aim to induce neutralizing antibodies to the matrix protein p17 we have developed a peptide-based imm...
Data
Overview of the cytokine profiles of PHA-stimulated PBMC incubated for 24 h with medium only or with 500 µg/ml of PMEO-DAPym, adefovir or tenofovir. Supernatants from PHA-stimulated PBMC cultures derived from healthy donors were collected and cytokine levels were measured by the Bio-Plex array system. (TIF)
Data
Overview of the cytokine profiles of PBMC incubated for 24 h with medium only or with 500 µg/ml of PMEO-DAPym, adefovir or tenofovir. Supernatants from PBMC cultures derived from healthy donors were collected and cytokine levels were measured by the Bio-Plex array system. (TIF)
Article
Full-text available
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is often accompanied by infection with other pathogens, in particular herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2). The resulting coinfection is involved in a vicious circle of mutual facilitations. Therefore, an important task is to develop a compound that is highly potent against both viruses to suppress their...
Article
Current leukaemia therapy focuses on increasing chemotherapy efficacy. Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) have been proposed for carrying and delivery drugs to improve killing of cancer cells. We have shown that MSCs loaded with Paclitaxel (PTX) acquire a potent anti-tumour activity. We investigated the effect of human MSCs (hMSCs) and mouse SR4987 l...
Article
Full-text available
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a very angiogenic and malignant cancer. Conventional chemotherapy is poorly effective because of the abnormal structural organization of HCC-infiltrating vessels. In previous work, we demonstrated that HCC angiogenesis is driven by transforming growth factor beta-1(TGF-β1)/CD105 axis, stimulating liver-derived micr...
Article
Diets in which fat is significantly provided by olive oil and are relatively rich in vegetables, have been associated with a low incidence of cardiovascular diseases, mostly due to the presence of several phenolic compounds which have anti-oxidant and antiinflammatory properties. [1]. In this work, we describe the anti-inflammatory effect of 3,4-DH...
Article
Lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs) interact with different immune cells, including T cells within lymph nodes (LNs). However, direct interactions of LECs with immune cells have yet to be investigated. In vitro studies were performed to characterize primary cultures of human LECs derived from LNs in their capacity of interacting with T cells. The re...
Article
Human metapneumovirus (hMPV) is a pathogen of the respiratory tract with a worldwide distribution. The purpose of this study was to identify hMPV as the cause of acute respiratory diseases in children admitted at Spedali Civili, a public hospital in Brescia, Italy. Eight hundred forty-six nasopharyngeal aspirate samples negative for the presence of...

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