Son Cao

Son Cao
High Energy Accelerator Research Organization | KEK · Institute of Particle and Nuclear Studies

Doctor of Philosophy
Building particle and neutrino lab at ICISE, Quy Nhon, Vietnam. Looking for collaborator, students to join T2K/ Super-K

About

133
Publications
16,456
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Introduction
My research interests lie in some of the opening questions in the field of neutrino physics: the origin of neutrino mass and their mass hierarchy, the search for the CP invariance violation and its connection to the matter-antimatter asymmetry in the Universe, the existence of the sterile neutrinos and its implication to the grand unified theory. Also, I find myself interested in beam profile and loss monitors.
Additional affiliations
November 2022 - November 2016
Kyoto Univeristy
Position
  • JSPS Postdoctoral researcher
April 2021 - present
Institute For Interdisciplinary Research in Science and Education
Position
  • Researcher
December 2016 - April 2021
High Energy Accelerator Research Organization
Position
  • Postdoctoral researcher

Publications

Publications (133)
Article
Due to a very low production rate of electron anti-neutrinos (ν̄e) via nuclear fusion in the Sun, a flux of solar ν̄e is unexpected. An appearance of ν̄e in solar neutrino flux opens a new window for the new physics beyond the standard model. In particular, a spin-flavor precession process is expected to convert an electron neutrino into an electro...
Article
Full-text available
The fact that neutrinos are massive has been the most crucial evidence of physics beyond the Standard Model of elementary particles. To date, we still do not know how neutrinos get mass and why their mass is much smaller than that of their charged fermion cousins. The precise determination of the neutrino mass spectrum has become one of the central...
Article
Full-text available
We have conducted a new search for the diffuse supernova neutrino background (DSNB) flux at Super-Kamiokande (SK), with a 22.5×2970−kton·day exposure from its fourth operational phase IV. With the new analysis we improve on the existing background reduction techniques and systematic uncertainties and take advantage of an improved neutron tagging al...
Article
In order to improve Super-Kamiokande’s neutron detection efficiency and to thereby increase its sensitivity to the diffuse supernova neutrino background flux, 13 tons of Gd2(SO4)3⋅8H2O (gadolinium sulfate octahydrate) was dissolved into the detector’s otherwise ultrapure water from July 14 to August 17, 2020, marking the start of the SK-Gd phase of...
Preprint
Full-text available
The fact that neutrinos are massive has been the most crucial evidence of physics beyond the Standard Model of elementary particles. To date, we still do not know how neutrinos get mass and why their mass is much smaller than that of their charged fermion cousins. The precise determination of the neutrino mass spectrum has become one of the central...
Preprint
Full-text available
In order to improve Super-Kamiokande's neutron detection efficiency and to thereby increase its sensitivity to the diffuse supernova neutrino background flux, 13 tons of Gd2(SO4)3*8H2O(gadolinium sulfate octahydrate) was dissolved into the detector's otherwise ultrapure water from July 14 to August 17, 2020, marking the start of the SK-Gd phase of...
Article
Full-text available
The Super-Kamiokande detector can be used to search for neutrinos in time coincidence with gravitational waves detected by the LIGO–Virgo Collaboration (LVC). Both low-energy (7–100 MeV) and high-energy (0.1–105 GeV) samples were analyzed in order to cover a very wide neutrino spectrum. Follow-ups of 36 (out of 39) gravitational waves reported in t...
Article
Full-text available
A search for neutrinos produced in coincidence with gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) was conducted with the Super-Kamiokande (SK) detector. Between December 2008 and March 2017, the Gamma-ray Coordinates Network recorded 2208 GRBs that occurred during normal SK operation. Several time windows around each GRB were used to search for coincident neutrino event...
Article
Full-text available
Leptonic CP violation search, neutrino mass hierarchy determination, and the precision measurements of oscillation parameters for a unitary test of the leptonic mixing matrix are among the major targets of the ongoing and future neutrino oscillation experiments. The work explores the physics reach for these targets by around 2027, when the third ge...
Article
Full-text available
This paper reports the first T2K measurement of the transverse kinematic imbalance in the single-π+ production channel of neutrino interactions. We measure the differential cross sections in the muon-neutrino charged-current interaction on hydrocarbon with a single π+ and at least one proton in the final state, at the ND280 off axis near detector o...
Article
Full-text available
The T2K experiment reports updated measurements of neutrino and antineutrino oscillations using both appearance and disappearance channels. This result comes from an exposure of 14.9(16.4)×1020 protons on target in neutrino (antineutrino) mode. Significant improvements have been made to the neutrino interaction model and far detector reconstruction...
Preprint
Full-text available
Multi-Pixel Photon Counter (MPPC) has been recently emerged and realized as a great type of Silicon Photomultiplier to replace or compensate for the conventional vacuum-based Photomultiplier tubes. MPPC provides many striking features such as high electrical gain, outstanding photon detection efficiency, fast timing response, immunity to the magnet...
Article
Full-text available
We report measurements of the flux-integrated ν̄μ and ν̄μ + νμ charged-current crosssections on water and hydrocarbon targets using the T2K anti-neutrino beam, with a mean beam energy of 0.86 GeV. The signal is defined as the (anti-) neutrino chargedcurrent interaction with one induced μ} and no detected charged pion nor proton. These measurements...
Preprint
Full-text available
This paper reports the first T2K measurement of the transverse kinematic imbalance in the single-$\pi^+$ production channel of neutrino interactions. We measure the differential cross sections in the muon-neutrino charged-current interaction on hydrocarbon with a single $\pi^+$ and at least one proton in the final state, at the ND280 off-axis near...
Article
Full-text available
We report measurements by the T2K experiment of the parameters θ23 and Δm322, which govern the disappearance of muon neutrinos and antineutrinos in the three-flavor PMNS neutrino oscillation model at T2K’s neutrino energy and propagation distance. Utilizing the ability of the experiment to run with either a mainly neutrino or a mainly antineutrino...
Article
Full-text available
As a baryon number violating process with ΔB=2, neutron-antineutron oscillation (n→n¯) provides a unique test of baryon number conservation. We have performed a search for n→n¯ oscillation with bound neutrons in Super-Kamiokande, with the full dataset from its first four run periods, representing an exposure of 0.37 Mton−years. The search used a mu...
Preprint
Full-text available
The T2K experiment reports updated measurements of neutrino and antineutrino oscillations using both appearance and disappearance channels. This result comes from an exposure of $14.9~(16.4) \times 10^{20}$ protons on target in neutrino~(antineutrino) mode. Significant improvements have been made to the neutrino interaction model and far detector r...
Preprint
A search for neutrinos produced in coincidence with Gamma-Ray Bursts(GRB) was conducted with the Super-Kamiokande (SK) detector. Between December 2008 and March 2017, the Gamma-ray Coordinates Network recorded 2208 GRBs that occurred during normal SK operation. Several time windows around each GRB were used to search for coincident neutrino events....
Article
Full-text available
We have searched for proton decay via p→e+π0 and p→μ+π0 modes with the enlarged fiducial volume data of Super-Kamiokande from April 1996 to May 2018, which corresponds to 450 kton·years exposure. We have accumulated about 25% more livetime and enlarged the fiducial volume of the Super-Kamiokande detector from 22.5 kton to 27.2 kton for this analysi...
Article
Full-text available
We present a search for an excess of neutrino interactions due to dark matter in the form of weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) annihilating in the Galactic center or halo based on the data set of Super-Kamiokande-I, -II, -III and -IV taken from 1996 to 2016. We model the neutrino flux, energy, and flavor distributions assuming WIMP self-...
Article
Full-text available
A bstract The electron (anti-)neutrino component of the T2K neutrino beam constitutes the largest background in the measurement of electron (anti-)neutrino appearance at the far detector. The electron neutrino scattering is measured directly with the T2K off-axis near detector, ND280. The selection of the electron (anti-)neutrino events in the plas...
Article
Full-text available
We report the final measurement of the neutrino oscillation parameters Δ m 2 32 and sin 2 θ 23 using all data from the MINOS and MINOS + experiments. These data were collected using a total exposure of 23.76 × 10 20 protons on target producing ν μ and ¯ ν μ beams and 60.75 kt yr exposure to atmospheric neutrinos. The measurement of the disappearanc...
Preprint
Full-text available
Leptonic CP violation search, neutrino mass hierarchy determination, and precision measurement of oscillation parameters for an unitary test of the neutrino mixing matrix are among the major targets of the ongoing and future neutrino oscillation experiments. The work explores the physics reach for these targets by around 2027, when the 3rd generati...
Preprint
Full-text available
We report measurements by the T2K experiment of the parameters $\theta_23$ and $\Delta m^2_{32}$ which govern the disappearance of muon neutrinos and antineutrinos in the three-flavor PMNSneutrino oscillation model at T2K's neutrino energy and propagation distance. Utilizing the ability of the experiment to run with either a mainly neutrino or a ma...
Article
Full-text available
Searches for electron antineutrino, muon neutrino, and muon antineutrino disappearance driven by sterile neutrino mixing have been carried out by the Daya Bay and MINOS+ collaborations. This Letter presents the combined results of these searches, along with exclusion results from the Bugey-3 reactor experiment, framed in a minimally extended four-n...
Article
Full-text available
Searches for electron antineutrino, muon neutrino, and muon antineutrino disappearance driven by sterile neutrino mixing have been carried out by the Daya Bay and MINOS + collaborations. This Letter presents the combined results of these searches, along with exclusion results from the Bugey-3 reactor experiment, framed in a minimally extended four-...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
A Beam Induced Fluorescence (BIF) monitor is under development for non-destructively monitoring the future MW-power proton beam at the neutrino extraction beamline at J-PARC. The 30 GeV protons are bombarded onto a graphite target, producing one of the most intense neutrino beams in the world for the Tokai-to-Kamioka (T2K) long-baseline neutrino os...
Article
Full-text available
This paper reports the first differential measurement of the charged-current ν¯μ interaction cross section on water with no pions in the final state. The unfolded flux-averaged measurement using the T2K off-axis near detector is given in double-differential bins of μ+ momentum and angle. The integrated cross section in a restricted phase space is σ...
Poster
Full-text available
Recent T2K data indicates a CP violation in the neutrino oscillations and mildly favours the normal neutrino mass hierarchy. This work explores the physics potentials with a combined sensitivity of T2K-II, NOνA, and JUNO experiments. T2K-II, a proposed run extension up to 2026 by T2K collaboration, is sensitive to CP violation at a level of 3σ or h...
Article
Full-text available
This paper reports the first simultaneous measurement of the double differential muon neutrino charged-current cross section on oxygen and carbon without pions in the final state as a function of the outgoing muon kinematics, made at the ND280 off-axis near detector of the T2K experiment. The ratio of the oxygen and carbon cross sections is also pr...
Article
Full-text available
This paper presents the first combined measurement of the double-differential muon neutrino and antineutrino charged-current cross sections with no pions in the final state on hydrocarbon at the off-axis near detector of the T2K experiment. The data analyzed in this work comprise 5.8×1020 and 6.3×1020 protons on target in neutrino and antineutrino...
Preprint
Full-text available
We report measurements of the flux-integrated $\bar{\nu}_\mu$ and $\bar{\nu}_\mu+\nu_\mu$ charged-current cross-sections on water and hydrocarbon targets using the T2K anti-neutrino beam, with a mean neutrino energy of 0.86 GeV. The signal is defined as the (anti-)neutrino charged-current interaction with one induced $\mu^\pm$ and no detected charg...
Article
Full-text available
Electron antineutrino appearance is measured by the T2K experiment in an accelerator-produced antineutrino beam, using additional neutrino beam operation to constrain parameters of the Pontecorvo-Maki-Nakagawa-Sakata (PMNS) mixing matrix. T2K observes 15 candidate electron antineutrino events with a background expectation of 9.3 events. Including i...
Article
Full-text available
The charge-conjugation and parity-reversal (CP) symmetry of fundamental particles is a symmetry between matter and antimatter. Violation of this CP symmetry was first observed in 19641, and CP violation in the weak interactions of quarks was soon established2. Sakharov proposed3 that CP violation is necessary to explain the observed imbalance of ma...
Preprint
Full-text available
This paper reports the first simultaneous measurement of the double differential muon neutrino charged-current cross section on oxygen and carbon without pions in the final state as a function of the outgoing muon kinematics, made at the ND280 off-axis near detector of the T2K experiment. The ratio of the oxygen and carbon cross sections is also pr...
Article
Full-text available
A search for proton decay into three charged leptons has been performed by using 0.37 Mton·years of data collected in Super-Kamiokande. All possible combinations of electrons, muons, and their antiparticles consistent with charge conservation were considered as decay modes. No significant excess of events has been found over the background, and low...
Preprint
Full-text available
The electron (anti-)neutrino component of the T2K neutrino beam constitutes the largest background in the measurement of electron (anti-)neutrino appearance at the far detector. The electron neutrino scattering is measured directly with the T2K off-axis near detector, ND280. The selection of the electron (anti-)neutrino events in the plastic scinti...
Preprint
Full-text available
This paper presents the first combined measurement of the double-differential muon neutrino and antineutrino charged-current cross sections with no pions in the final state on hydrocarbon at the off-axis near detector of the T2K experiment. The data analyzed in this work comprise 5.8$\times$10$^{20}$ and 6.3$\times$10$^{20}$ protons on target in ne...
Article
Full-text available
Used for both proton decay searches and neutrino physics, large water Cherenkov (WC) detectors have been very successful tools in particle physics. They are notable for their large masses and charged particle detection capabilities. While current WC detectors reconstruct charged particle tracks over a wide energy range, they cannot efficiently dete...
Article
Full-text available
We report the measurements of the single and double differential cross section of muon neutrino charged-current interactions on carbon with a single positively charged pion in the final state at the T2K off-axis near detector using 5.56×1020 protons on target. The analysis uses data control samples for the background subtraction and the cross secti...
Article
Full-text available
Neutrino- and antineutrino-oxygen neutral-current quasielasticlike interactions are measured at Super-Kamiokande using nuclear deexcitation γ rays to identify signal-like interactions in data from a 14.94(16.35)×1020 protons-on-target exposure of the T2K neutrino (antineutrino) beam. The measured flux-averaged cross sections on oxygen nuclei are ⟨σ...
Preprint
Full-text available
Electron antineutrino appearance is measured by the T2K experiment in an accelerator-produced antineutrino beam, using additional neutrino beam operation to constrain parameters of the PMNS mixing matrix. T2K observes 15 candidate electron antineutrino events with a background expectation of 9.3 events. Including information from the kinematic dist...
Preprint
Full-text available
Neutrino- and antineutrino-oxygen neutral-current quasielastic-like interactions are measured at Super-Kamiokande using nuclear de-excitation $\gamma$-rays to identify signal-like interactions in data from a $14.94 \ (16.35)\times 10^{20}$ protons-on-target exposure of the T2K neutrino (antineutrino) beam. The measured flux-averaged cross sections...
Preprint
We report a search for astronomical neutrinos in the energy region from several GeV to TeV in the direction of the blazar TXS0506+056 using the Super-Kamiokande detector following the detection of a 100 TeV neutrino from the same location by the IceCube collaboration. Using Super-Kamiokande neutrino data across several data samples observed from Ap...
Preprint
Full-text available
The current laws of physics do not explain the observed imbalance of matter and antimatter in the universe. Sakharov proposed that an explanation would require the violation of CP symmetry between matter and antimatter. The only CP violation observed so far is in the weak interactions of quarks, and it is too small to explain the matter-antimatter...
Article
Full-text available
We report a measurement of the flux-integrated νμ charged-current cross sections on water, hydrocarbon, and iron in the T2K on-axis neutrino beam with a mean neutrino energy of 1.5 GeV. The measured cross sections on water, hydrocarbon, and iron are σH2OCC=(0.840±0.010(stat.)+0.10−0.08(syst.))×10−38cm2/nucleon, σCHCC=(0.817±0.007(stat.)+0.11−0.08(s...
Article
Full-text available
This paper reports on the search for heavy neutrinos with masses in the range 140<MN<493 MeV/c2 using the off-axis near detector ND280 of the T2K experiment. These particles can be produced from kaon decays in the standard neutrino beam and then subsequently decay in ND280. The decay modes under consideration are N→ℓα±π∓ and N→ℓα+ℓβ−ν(−)(α,β=e,μ)....
Preprint
Full-text available
We report the measurements of single and double differential cross section of muon neutrino charged-current interactions on carbon with a single positively charged pion in the final state at the T2K off-axis near detector using $5.56\times10^{20}$ protons on target. The analysis uses data control samples for the background subtraction and the cross...
Preprint
Full-text available
Used for both proton decay searches and neutrino physics, large water Cherenkov (WC) detectors have been very successful tools in particle physics. They are notable for their large masses and charged particle detection capabilities. While current WC detectors reconstruct charged particle tracks over a wide energy range, they cannot efficiently dete...
Preprint
Full-text available
This paper reports the first differential measurement of the charged-current $\overline{\nu}_{\mu}$ interaction cross section on water with no pions in the final state. The unfolded flux-averaged measurement using the T2K off-axis near detector is given in double differential bins of $\mu^+$ momentum and angle. The integrated cross section in a res...
Preprint
Full-text available
Supernova detection is a major objective of the Super-Kamiokande (SK) experiment. In the next stage of SK (SK-Gd), gadolinium (Gd) sulfate will be added to the detector, which will improve the ability of the detector to identify neutrons. A core-collapse supernova will be preceded by an increasing flux of neutrinos and anti-neutrinos, from thermal...
Preprint
Full-text available
In this document, technical details of the upgrade plan of the J-PARC neutrino beamline for the extension of the T2K experiment are described. T2K has proposed to accumulate data corresponding to $2\times{}10^{22}$ protons-on-target in the next decade, aiming at an initial observation of CP violation with $3\sigma$ or higher significance in the cas...
Article
Full-text available
A new event reconstruction algorithm based on a maximum likelihood method has been developed for Super-Kamiokande. Its improved kinematic and particle identification capabilities enable the analysis of atmospheric neutrino data in a detector volume 32% larger than previous analyses and increase the sensitivity to the neutrino mass hierarchy. Analys...
Article
Full-text available
We perform a search for light sterile neutrinos using the data from the T2K far detector at a baseline of 295 km, with an exposure of 14.7(7.6)×1020 protons on target in neutrino (antineutrino) mode. A selection of neutral-current interaction samples is also used to enhance the sensitivity to sterile mixing. No evidence of sterile neutrino mixing i...
Preprint
Full-text available
We report a measurement of the flux-integrated ν µ charged-current cross sections on water, hydrocarbon, and iron in the T2K on-axis neutrino beam with a mean neutrino energy of 1.5 GeV. The measured cross sections on water, hydrocarbon, and iron are σ H2O CC = (0.840±0.010(stat.) +0.10 −0.08 (syst.))×10 −38 cm 2 /nucleon, σ CH CC = (0.817±0.007(st...
Preprint
Full-text available
We report a measurement of the flux-integrated $\nu_{\mu}$ charged-current cross sections on water, hydrocarbon, and iron in the T2K on-axis neutrino beam with a mean neutrino energy of 1.5 GeV. The measured cross sections on water, hydrocarbon, and iron are $\sigma^{\rm{H_{2}O}}_{\rm{CC}}$ = (0.840$\pm 0.010$(stat.)$^{+0.10}_{-0.08}$(syst.))$\time...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
A Beam Induced Fluorescence (BIF) monitor is being developed as an essential part of the monitor update toward MW beam power operation at the J-PARC neutrino beamline. By measuring the fluorescence light from proton-gas interactions , the BIF monitor will be used as a continuous and non-destructive diagnostic tool for monitoring the proton beam pro...