Soledad de Lemus

Soledad de Lemus
University of Granada | UGR · Department of Social Psychology

PhD Social Psychology

About

67
Publications
50,787
Reads
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1,326
Citations
Citations since 2016
38 Research Items
987 Citations
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Introduction
I am an Assistant Professor of Social Psychology at the University of Granada (Spain). My research interests are social psychology of gender, prejudice and intergroup relations more broadly. In my research I focus on the perspective of advantaged (e.g., prejudice) as well as disadvantaged groups (e.g., resistance, coping), and potential cooperation between the two parts. I also investigate the implicit and explicit reactions to social identity threats.
Additional affiliations
September 2009 - September 2010
Cardiff University
Position
  • PostDoc Position
Description
  • Postdoctoral Research Fellow funded by the Spanish Government, working with Prof. Russell Spears on implicit resistance to sexism.
April 2009 - September 2010
University of Malaga
Position
  • Professor (Assistant)
January 2008 - December 2012
Universidad de Granada

Publications

Publications (67)
Article
Full-text available
Social role theory posits that binary gender gaps in agency and communion should be larger in less egalitarian countries, reflecting these countries’ more pronounced sex-based power divisions. Conversely, evolutionary and self-construal theorists suggest that gender gaps in agency and communion should be larger in more egalitarian countries, reflec...
Preprint
Global threats are often perceived as triggers of intergroup conflict and prejudice. However, threats that jointly affect in- and outgroup members can also enhance intergroup cooperation and decrease prejudice. In this research, we investigated how different appraisals of threat (to personal vs. social identity motives) and different forms of coope...
Article
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During the COVID-19 pandemic, institutions encouraged social isolation and non-interaction with other people to prevent contagion. Still, the response to an impending economic crisis must be through collective organization. In this set of pre-registered studies, we analyze two possible mechanisms of coping with collective economic threat: shared so...
Article
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Intimate partner violence (IPV) affects thousands of women around the world and is prevalent in the Global South. Unequal social structures perpetuate hierarchies and maintain women’s vulnerability to violence. Difficulties women face in accessing education, economic resources, and employment diminish their power in intimate relationships, increasi...
Article
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Even though taking part in elections is one of the most direct tools to influence the socio-political system, many people choose not to vote. Research shows that this problem is especially prevalent among those citizens who do not believe they have control over social and political issues, but the question remains as to what could encourage their v...
Article
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In spite of their subtle nature, subliminal cues of group devaluation can have profound effects on members of targeted groups. Across three studies, we examine factors that allow people to counteract subliminal cues of group devaluation. We do this in the context of Spanish–German intergroup relations following the 2008 financial crisis. Throughout...
Article
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Men as advantaged group members can be involved in actions against inequality. But how do women experience men’s confrontation of sexism? We examine how women perceive men’s egalitarian versus paternalistic confrontation of sexism. We hypothesized that women would be more likely to report empowerment and well-being (i.e., more happiness and less an...
Article
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Precarious manhood beliefs portray manhood, relative to womanhood, as a social status that is hard to earn, easy to lose, and proven via public action. Here, we present cross-cultural data on a brief measure of precarious manhood beliefs (the Precarious Manhood Beliefs scale [PMB]) that covaries meaningfully with other cross-culturally validated ge...
Article
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Violence against women (VAW) is currently one of the main problems in El Salvador, which leads the ranking of femicides in the world. We conducted the first national survey on VAW in El Salvador following the World Health Organization (WHO) methodology, to determine the impact of violence on women’s mental health ( N = 1,274). Women who had experie...
Article
Sexist language can trigger feelings of ostracism and negatively influence women’s motivation and identification. In this research, we test this hypothesis in two domains (academic: Study 1 [N = 107 Spanish high schoolers]; work: Study 2 [N = 164 Spanish university students]. We examine the underlying process that leads women and men to feel ostrac...
Preprint
Full-text available
Even though taking part in elections is one of the most direct tools to influence the socio-political system, many people choose not to vote. Research shows that this problem is especially prevalent among those citizens who do not believe they have control over social and political issues, but the question remains as to what could encourage their v...
Article
Men sometimes withdraw support for gender equality movements when their higher gender status is threatened. Here, we expand the focus of this phenomenon by examining it cross‐culturally, to test if both individual‐ and country‐level variables predict men's collective action intentions to support gender equality. We tested a model in which men's zer...
Article
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The relationships between subjective status and perceived legitimacy are important for understanding the extent to which people with low status are complicit in their oppression. We use novel data from 66 samples and 30 countries (N = 12,788) and find that people with higher status see the social system as more legitimate than those with lower stat...
Article
We investigated how sexism affected leadership in mixed-gender alpine climbing-dyads. We asked whether benevolent sexism would impair, and hostile sexism would increase (as a form of resistance) women’s leadership; and whether benevolent sexism would increase men’s leadership (as a form of paternalism). A correlational study assessed reported leadi...
Article
For feminists, a core goal is to promote the interests of women as a group. Across three studies, we examined whether the pursuit of such goals can lead feminists to use more divergent thinking styles. We measured identification with feminists, identification with women, and manipulated the extent to which a divergent thinking task was congruent wi...
Preprint
Full-text available
Sexist language can trigger feelings of ostracism and negatively influence women’s motivation and identification. In this research, we test this hypothesis in two domains (academic: Study 1 [N = 107 Spanish high schoolers]; work: Study 2 [N = 164 Spanish university students]. We examine the underlying process that leads women and men to feel ostrac...
Article
Full-text available
The role of men in fighting gender inequality is a controversial issue. Literature has shown that advantaged group members can promote social change but also perpetuate status quo. We conducted three studies to examine two motivational processes that may lead men to confront sexism: an egalitarian path and a paternalistic one. Studies 1–3 revealed...
Preprint
Full-text available
We investigated how sexism affected leadership in mixed-gender alpine climbing-dyads. We asked whether benevolent sexism would impair, and hostile sexism would increase (as a form of resistance) women’s leadership; and whether benevolent sexism would increase men’s leadership (as a form of paternalism). A correlational study assessed reported leadi...
Article
Full-text available
Uncontrollability has been often associated with impaired or rigid cognitive processing. However, perceived stability of uncontrollable events modulated some of these detrimental effects on cognition. We investigated whether the experience of sequential control loss and restoration can enhance cognitive flexibility. We manipulated uncontrollability...
Article
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Traditional roles are problematic for women because they constrain their life choices. Therefore, women have a vested interest in challenging them. We argue that women can resist pervasive traditional roles by showing automatic ingroup bias. In two studies we used an associative procedure to expose two groups of women to stereotypical vs. counter-s...
Article
When personal control is threatened, people often turn to their own group and show negativity towards others. In three studies, we tested an alternative prediction that the salient lack of personal control (vs. control) experienced in the context of unemployment can lead to connectedness and more positive perception of similar others (e.g., members...
Article
Full-text available
Violence against women is currently one of the major problems in El Salvador. However, the country lacks existing data to address this issue. The recent coming into effect of the Ley Especial Integral para una Vida Libre de Violencia para las Mujeres (LEIV) [Comprehensive Law for a Life Free of Violence Against Women] urgently calls for the dimensi...
Article
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The present research examines whether individuation and categorization processes influence trust decisions about strangers at first and across repeated interactions. In a partial replication of the study reported by Cañadas et al. (2015), participants played an adaptation of the multi-round trust game paradigm and had to decide whether or not to co...
Article
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We examine women’s responses to subliminal gender stereotypes, that is, stereotypes present outside conscious awareness. Previous research suggests that subtle stereotypes elicit acceptance and assimilation, but we predict that subliminal exposure to gender stereotypes will trigger resistance in some women. Specifically, we expect resistance to occ...
Article
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Across four studies, we examine multiple identities in the context of gender and propose that women's attitudes toward gender group membership are governed by two largely orthogonal dimensions of gender identity: identification with women and identification with feminists. We argue that identification with women reflects attitudes toward the conten...
Article
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Although women who highly identify with other women are more susceptible to stereotype threat effects, women's identification might associate with greater leadership aspirations contingent on (1) counter-stereotype salience and (2) feminist identification. When gender counter-stereotypes are salient, women's identification should associate with gre...
Article
How do individuals deal with group disadvantage when their fellow in-group members conceive it as legitimate? Integrating research on the normative conflict model (Packer, 2008, Pers. Soc. Psychol. Rev., 12, 50) and collective action, we expect high identifiers to reject the in-group norm of legitimacy that justifies the inequality, and to assert t...
Article
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Economic crises can threaten individuals’ sense of control. At the same time, these crises often result in collective responses, such as class-based protest (e.g., the 99%), but also nationalism or xenophobia. We investigated how personal consequences of economic crises lead to both intragroup and intergroup responses and the role of control for th...
Chapter
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Social resistance is defined as a group’s opposition to economic, political, and social circumstances that perpetuate social disadvantage, or status differences within society. Social identity researchers (SIT; Tajfel & Turner, 1979), amongst others, have theorized about the psychological processes underlying social resistance ( Reicher, 2004 ; Spe...
Article
In this research, we examined how people cope with threats to personal control related to the global economic crisis. Three studies (one correlational and two experimental) tested the prediction that blaming social outgroups could serve as a means to restore a threatened sense of personal control. We found that outgroup blaming attributions are rel...
Article
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We propose that reactance to threats to individual freedom can be broadened to include threats to group identity and its associated values and norms. In two studies we primed women and men with (counter)stereotypical roles and measured implicit activation of reactance vs. acceptance goals, task persistence, and support for system justification beli...
Article
Radical action against social disadvantage is highly consequential but has been far less studied than moderate collective action. But who supports such extreme actions and why? In two studies, we examine the relation between group identification and support for radical action in disadvantaged groups. Paradoxically, low identifiers are more willing...
Research
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Recently, there has been a growing interest in not only understanding the processes underlying responses to disadvantage, and ways of reducing prejudice, but also to gain insight into how experiences of prejudice and social disadvantage affect the need to address one's disadvantage. Our goal in this issue is to discuss how and when low status group...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this study was to analyse the influence of romantic relationships on adolescents’ sexism. We primed some of the participants with their past and/or present relationship experiences before assessing their sexism. A sample of 130 adolescents (67 boys and 63 girls) from Spanish high schools participated in the study. Half of them were asked...
Chapter
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In this chapter we provide an overview of the main internal and external factors proposed by social and evolutionary psychologists to explain the development of prejudice and stereotypes from childhood. We focus particularly on gender prejudice and empirical evidence obtained from studies conducted in Spain. Gender relations differ from other inter...
Article
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We present an intervention to reduce gender prejudice in future professionals of social sciences in three samples from Argentina (N = 28), Spain (N = 83) and El Salvador (N = 67), with slight differences across countries. The program was based on scientific research on sexism and gender-based power aimed at: a) increasing awareness of gender inequa...
Article
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The emergence of heterosexual intimate relationship experiences has been described as central to the development of ambivalent sexist attitudes during adolescence. The quality of these relationships might be largely determined by the perceived attractiveness and expectancies about potential partners also in ideological terms. In a questionnaire stu...
Article
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This study explored the predictive power of effortful control (EC) on empathy, academic performance, and social competence in adolescents. We obtained self-report measures of EC and dispositional empathy in 359 students (197 girls and 162 boys) aged between 12 and 14 years. Each student provided information about the prosocial behavior of the rest...
Article
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We examined the influence of interdependence goals on the accessibility of implicit gender stereotypical associations. Participants were asked to cooperate with or compete against a woman on a mathematical abilities task and subsequently the relative activation of positive and negative warmth and competence traits was measured using a primed catego...
Article
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In a set of two studies, we tested whether gender-stereotypical associations are automatically activated by Spanish women in a categorization task, and how this process is conditioned by the context in which the target is presented (kitchen vs. office). We hypothesized that gender stereotypes would be activated implicitly when the target (men vs. w...
Article
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We examined the influence of exposure to traditional gender roles on the activation of gender stereotypes in Spanish women. An associative procedure was used to expose participants to stereotypical vs. counterstereotypical gender roles, and a word categorization task with stereotypically feminine communal/warmth and stereotypically masculine agenti...
Article
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Several studies have shown the impact of legitimacy on dealing with group power disadvantage. In the present paper we focus on the impact of internal legitimacy (i.e., the ingroup’s appraisal of the fairness of its own powerless position) on the ingroup stereotype as a way of contesting the power disadvantage. Results show that especially in the in...
Article
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Extending evidence that nonverbal complementary behavior can occur in dyads to the intergroup domain, the authors predicted that women assume a relatively submissive (narrow) posture when confronted with a male instructor adopting a dominant (broad) posture, but only when he smiles (affiliation motive) and when gender is salient. Male affiliation (...
Article
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A questionnaire study addressed the intergenerational transmission of benevolent sexist beliefs (BS) from mothers to adolescent daughters and influences of BS on daughters’ traditional goals, academic goals (i.e., getting an academic degree), and academic performance. In addition, the role of mothers’ educational level and job status as predictors...
Article
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People's self-perception biases often lead them to see themselves as better than the average person (a phenomenon known as self-enhancement). This bias varies across cultures, and variations are typically explained using cultural variables, such as individualism versus collectivism. We propose that socioeconomic differences among societies--specifi...
Article
The present study tested the role of right-wing authoritarianism (RWA), terrorist threat, and sociopolitical 'climate' as predictors of support for governmental anti-terrorism policies and actions. Two dimensions of analysis were defined: the presence versus absence of al-Qaeda attacks, and adherence to surveillance versus anti-surveillance mainstr...
Chapter
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The present work describes a gender training program for future professionals in Psychology based on scientific research on sexism and power. The training course was held in a Salvadorean University and aimed at: a) increasing awareness of gender inequalities in everyday life; b) reducing ambivalent sexist beliefs; c) providing participants with us...
Article
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The present research examines how romantic relationship experience and age predict ambivalent sexism in adolescents. We measured sexist beliefs and romantic relationship experience in a large sample of Spanish adolescents (N = 1447), ranging from 12 to 19years of age. Consistent with prior research, age predicted less sexist beliefs. Controlling fo...
Article
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Esta obra colectiva presenta distintas perspectivas en torno al estado de la cuestión y orientaciones pedagógicas y prácticas en torno a la coeducación. Participan reconocidas/ os autoras y autores así como profesionales en ejercicio en los temas tratados. Las responsables de la coordinación del libro parten desde una apuesta por la "educación en i...
Article
In complex social interactions, such as co-operation or competition with another person on an ability test, people tend to activate stereotypes strategically in order to achieve their self-enhancement goals. If multiple ways of categorizing the target person are available, the selected stereotypical traits that serve their motives might also depend...
Article
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An experimental study was conducted with a sample of 43 Psychology students who volunteered for it. The main goal was to measure gender stereotypical dimensions activation using a priming paradigm as an indirect measure, and under highly restrictive experimental conditions that reduce the availability of cognitive resources to maximize the use of a...
Article
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Se realizó un estudio experimental, en el que participaron 43 estudiantes de Psicología voluntarios, con el fin de medir la activación de las dimensiones estereotípicas de género, mediante un paradigma de priming como medida indirecta de la estereotipia de género, y bajo condiciones experimentales que limitaban los recursos cognitivos disponibles,...