# Sofia D. Wechslerretired from Technion Israeli Institute of Technology

Sofia D. Wechsler

M.Sc. nuclear engineering; M.Sc. Real-time systems engineering; system analyst; M.A. high energy physics.

## About

27

Publications

159,961

Reads

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57

Citations

Citations since 2017

Introduction

Research field: foundations of QM.---------------------------------------------------
Specific topics:
1) In quantum entanglements do future measurements influence the results of past tests?
2) In the non-relativistic quantum mechanics, is the concept of 'particle' compatible with the quantum formalism? Alternatively, shall we speak only in terms of 'waves'?
3) Is the wave-function a reality?

Additional affiliations

September 1991 - January 1999

Education

October 1992 - September 1995

October 1988 - June 1991

## Publications

Publications (27)

Accepted for publication in JQIS, vol. 11, no. 1, March 2021
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The postulate of the collapse of the wave-function stands between the microscopic, quantum world, and the macroscopic world. Because of this intermediate position, the collapse process cannot be exam...

To the difference of several wide-spread interpretations of the quantum mechanics which try to avoid the collapse postulate, Ghirardi, Rimini and Weber took the collapse as a real phenomenon, and proposed a calculus by which the wave-function should undergo a sudden localization. Later on, Ghirardi, Pearle and Rimini proposed a modification of this...

This article is not a chapter from a book, but a section from a much longer article. I noticed that, while the mathematics is not a problem, people have difficulty (or, lack of patience) to follow the logic which deals with the continuous trajectories. This is why I decided to dedicate a separate article to the issue and explain it in detail. I'd b...

It is proved that particles possessing rest mass know the surrounding configuration even in regions forbidden for the particles. This fact is in full agreement with the conceptual ground and mathematical treatment with which R. Feynman built the path integral theory. Particles can be caught only in regions in which the wave-function permits, but th...

When a quantum system is described by a superposition of wave-packets, each wave-packet traveling on a separate path, a commonly asked question is why only one of the wave-packets is able to trigger a click in a detector. In the second half of the last century many scientists considered the possibility that not all these wave-packets are identical....

Accepted for publication by JQIS, vol 12,no 4, December 2022
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Is the wave-function a physical reality traveling through our apparatus? Is it a real wave, or it is only a mathematical tool for calculating probabilities of results of measurements? Different interpretations of the quantum mechanics (QM) assume d...

This is the published version of the article
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When a quantum system is described by a superposition of wave-packets, each wave-packet traveling on a separate path, a commonly asked question is why only one of the wave-packets is able to trigger a click in a det...

The concept of “realism” in quantum mechanics means that results of measurement are caused by physical variables, hidden or observable. Local hidden variables were proved unable to explain results of measurements on entangled particles tested far away from one another. Then, some physicists embraced the idea of nonlocal hidden variables. The presen...

What is the quantum system? Consider the wave-function of the electron—what we call “single particle wave-function”—and assume that it contains N wave-packets. If we pass all the wave-packets through an electric field, all are deflected, as if each one of them contains an electron. However, if we bring any two wave-packets to travel close to one an...

The superposition principle in the quantum mechanics says that if two solutions |a_1> and |a_2> satisfy the Schrödinger equation, then any
linear combination of them also satisfies the Schrödinger equation. However, an experiment is described in which this principle is at odds
with the electromagnetism, and also with the very concept of superposi...

What is a quantum object? A particle? A wave? Both of them?
The author's answer is the third one.
For dealing with this issue one has to define the concepts of particle and wave: a particle is considered a localized object. i.e. it has at a given time a well defined position; a wave is usually considered a distributed object which is present at a g...

The formalism of the de Broglie-Bohm (dBB) mechanics was constructed such as to avoid the collapse principle. However, dBB supplemented the quantum formalism with a hypothesis that seems incompatible with the uncertainty principle, a substructure particle traveling on a definite trajectory under the wave-function guidance, which means that the part...

The postulate of the collapse of the wave-function stands between the micro-scopic, quantum world, and the macroscopic world. Because of this interme-diate position, the collapse process cannot be examined with the formalism of the quantum mechanics (QM), neither with that of classical mechanics. This fact makes some physicists propose interpretati...

Different attempts to solve the measurement problem of the quantum mechanics (QM) by denying the collapse principle, and replacing it with changes in the quantum formalism, failed because the changes in the formalism lead to contradictions with QM predictions. To the difference, Ghirardi, Rimini and Weber took the collapse as a real phenomenon, and...

Journal of Quantum Information Science (JQIS) volume 10, number 4, December 2020
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Different attempts to solve the measurement problem of the quantum mechanics (QM) by denying the collapse principle, and replacing it with changes in the quantum formalism, failed beca...

The quantum object is in general considered as displaying both wave and particle nature. By particle is understood an item localized in a very small volume of the space, and which cannot be simultaneously in two disjoint regions of the space. By wave, to the contrary, is understood a distributed item, occupying in some cases two or more disjoint re...

In his article, A. Hobson addressed the so-called "wave-particle dualism", criticising severely the idea that the quantum system is a particle. He explained that the "particle" is is an illusory effect which appears at detection, because of the reduction (collapse) of the wave-function. However, about the wave-function collapse, Hobson expressed hi...

An Afshar-type experiment is presented, using two entangled photons, A and B, tested by the experimenters Alice and Bob, respectively. The photon A is tested later than the photon B. The problem posed is how many components (wave-packets) has the photon B. It is proved that their number depends on the type of test that Alice chooses to do on photon...

In his work "Defining what is Quantum: Not all what matters for physical phenomena is contained in space-time", A. Suarez presents his belief about the way in which the quantum systems produce results when tested with macroscopic apparatuses. His belief is that the results are assigned by God, the possessor of an 'omniscient mind'. God is supposed...

The contextuality property of measurements results of quantum systems is a strong research tool in the domain of foundations of quantum mechanics. For instance, this property provides evidence that, “unperformed experiments have no results” (A. Peres’ dictum), it provides arguments against so-called “elements of reality”, allows proving the quantum...

When the Bohmian mechanics became a serious hope to get rid of the enigmatic postulate of “collapse” of the wavefunction, Hardy’s paradox came and showed that the idea of continuous trajectories for particles – not only Bohmian trajectories, but any continuous trajectories – is in conflict with the relativity. In addition, Hardy’s rationale showed...

The Bohmian trajectories are the heart of a long debate started by the famous ESSW experiment and by the Ghose experiment which claimed that such trajectories are in conflict with the quantum mechanics predictions. Arguments pro and contra were brought, and the debate seems not to be concluded.
In this article, still another argument is brought aga...

Whether the quantum mechanics (QM) is nonlocal is an issue disputed for a long time. The violation of the
Bell-type inequalities was considered as proving this nonlocality. However, these inequalities are constructed on a
class of local hidden variables, which obey the calculus with positive probabilities. Such a calculus is rather
suitable for bil...

The basic Leggett inequalities, i.e. those inequalities in which the particular assumptions of Leggett's hidden-variable model (e.g. Malus law) were not yet introduced, are usually derived using hidden-variable distributions of probabilities (although in some cases completely general, positive probabilities would lead to the same result). This fact...

Colbeck and Renner [arXiv:0801.2218] analyzed a class of combined models for entanglements in which local and non-local hidden variables cooperate for producing the measurement results. They came to the conclusion that the measurement results are fully independent of the local components of the hidden variables. Their conclusion is based mainly on...

A recent article of Colbeck and Renner tackled the problem whether entanglements may be explained by combined models of local and non-local hidden variables. To the difference from previous works they considered models in which each pair of entangled particles behaves in the same way, and the particles in the pair are equivalent, i.e. each of them...

The hypothesis of empty/full waves considers that a click in a detector is triggered by a property carried by the wave-packet that impinges on that detector. Different authors call this property particle, but according to the terminology of this hypothesis, the term full wave is used in this text. The present article discusses the validity of the e...

## Questions

Questions (185)

## Projects

Projects (2)

NOTE! Please DON'T ADD REFERENCES WITHOUT ASKING MY O.K.
What is the nature of the wave-function? Is it a particle controlled by a wave? Is it only a wave?
If the wave-function contains a couple of wave-packets, the properties of the particle, mass, charge, etc. are carried by each wave-packet?
If so it were, the wave-packets of the electron wave-function should repel one another. However, the quantum mechanics (QM) doesn't confirm that.
The QM seems to be totally incompatible with the concept of particle.

The greatest problem of the quantum mechanics is to explain the reduction of the wave-function. Ghirardi, Rimini, Weber and Pearle tried to provide such an explanation, known under the name “spontaneous localization”. Their theory is particularly appealing as it implies the fact, theoretically proved, that the wave-function reduction essentially occurs in the presence of a macroscopic object. This theory is in full agreement with the fact that "unperformed experiments have no results" (A. Peres).
However, this theory is non-relativistic and efforts were done to extend it to a relativistic theory. Regrettably, these efforts were so far unsuccessful.
The purpose of the project is to examine whether this theory can, or cannot be extended to cope with the relativity, and if it cannot, WHAT IS THE IMPEDIMENT.