S.N. Jonkman

S.N. Jonkman
Delft University of Technology | TU · Department of Hydraulic Engineering

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162
Publications
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5,936
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Publications

Publications (162)
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Most research on backward erosion piping (BEP) focuses on the critical conditions leading to failure. This paper studies the development of piping over time once the critical conditions are exceeded, which is useful to estimate time to failure. A commonly used small scale rectangular box setup is modified in order to monitor pore pressures and pipe...
Article
Full-text available
This paper establishes a computationally efficient model to predict flood gate vibrations due to wave impacts including fluid–structure interaction. In contrast to earlier models, composite fluid domains are included to represent the situation of a flood gate in a dewatering sluice with the presence of an overhang that causes the confined-wave impa...
Article
Full-text available
Het Shields-Darcy-pipingmodel is een welkome kritische blik op de rekenregels. Het Expertisenetwerk Waterveiligheid (ENW) heeft echter niet positief geadviseerd over toepassing bij dijkversterkingen. Er is evenwel nog meer experimenteel en modelmatig onderzoek nodig om bestaande en nieuwe modellen aan te scherpen.
Conference Paper
In past decades, the construction of a submerged floating tunnel (SFT) has been presented as an innovative solution for water crossings. One of the main challenges surrounding the design of this type of structure is the lack of data since no SFT has been constructed yet, except for a prototype in Qingdao Lake in China (Mazzolani, Faggiano, & Martir...
Article
Full-text available
Coastal cities combine intensive socioeconomic activities and investments with high exposure to flood hazards. Developing effective strategies to manage flood risk in coastal cities is often a costly and complicated process. In designing strategies, engineers rely on computationally demanding flood simulation models, but they can only compare a lim...
Article
Full-text available
Global change amplifies coastal flood risks and motivates a paradigm shift towards nature-based coastal defence, where engineered structures are supplemented with coastal wetlands such as saltmarshes. Although experiments and models indicate that such natural defences can attenuate storm waves, there is still limited field evidence on how much they...
Article
Full-text available
Failure of residential buildings during floods is an important cause of damage and loss of life. In the case of the Netherlands, the collapse of buildings is implicitly included in current damage and mortality curves since these are generated from historical data. However, the Netherlands has not experienced destructive flooding since 1953, so dama...
Article
Full-text available
While reliability methods have already been widely adopted in civil engineering, the efficiency and robustness of finite element-based reliability assessments of quay walls are still fairly low. In this paper, the reliability indices of structural and geotechnical failure modes of two real-life quay walls are determined by coupling probabilistic me...
Article
Full-text available
The interaction between storm surges and inland run-off has been gaining increasing attention recently, as they have the potential to result in compound floods. In Europe, several flood events of this type have been recorded in the past century in Belgium, France, Ireland, Italy and UK. First projections of compound flood hazard under climate chang...
Preprint
Full-text available
Abstract. Coastal cities combine intensive socio-economic activity and investments with high exposure to flood hazards. Developing effective strategies to manage flood risk in coastal cities is often a costly and complicated process. In the design of these strategies, engineers rely on computationally demanding flood simulation models and only comp...
Article
Full-text available
Understanding levee failures can be significantly improved by analysing historical failures, experiments and performance observations. Individual efforts have been undertaken to document flood defence failures but no systematically gathered large scale, open access dataset is currently available for thorough scientific research. Here, we introduce...
Article
Full-text available
General frameworks for reliability differentiation have evolved over time and are mainly developed for buildings. However, recommendations for the safety of existing quay walls are lacking. In this study, target reliability indices for assessing existing quay walls were derived by economic optimisation and by evaluating the requirements concerning...
Conference Paper
The study of wave impact physics and magnitudes are key for the design of vertical coastal hydraulic structures. This research addresses the study of standing wave impacts on vertical coastal hydraulic structures with a relatively short horizontal overhang, which is especially relevant for structures such as lock gates, sluice gates, dewatering slu...
Article
Full-text available
Flood risk reduction can be provided by interventions such as raising land or constructing flood defences. This paper introduces an approach to optimize the selection of risk reduction strategies. It expands existing economic optimization approaches for flood defences, by introducing (largely) analytical formulations to include the effects of appro...
Article
A model is developed to predict bending vibrations of flood gates with fluid on both sides. The liquid flow is three-dimensional and the gate is represented as a thin plate. The fluid response is considered within the linear potential flow theory including the effect of compressibility and the generation of free surface waves. This way, the hydrody...
Article
Full-text available
We hebben in Nederland ongeveer 20.000 km waterkeringen en het is kostbaar en tijdrovend om deze regelmatig fysiek te inspecteren. Met radarsatellieten wordt deformatie op meer plekken, vaker, en nauwkeuriger gemeten. Hierdoor kan het gedrag van keringen continu worden gemonitord en kan afwijkend gedrag vroegtijdig worden gedetecteerd. Deze technie...
Article
Flood risks are increasing worldwide due to climate change and ongoing economic and demographic development in coastal areas. Salt marshes can function as vegetated foreshores that reduce wave loads on coastal structures such as dikes and dams, thereby mitigating current and future flood risk. This paper aims to quantify long-term (100 years) flood...
Article
A R T I C L E I N F O Keywords: Simulation Markov theory Marine project operations Offshore Workability Sequences Linked Chains Probability Synthetic Time series Downtime A B S T R A C T A marine project consists of series of operations, with each operation subject to a predefined operational limit and duration. If actual weather conditions exceed...
Article
Full-text available
Levees are critical in providing protection against catastrophic flood events, and thus require continuous monitoring. Current levee inspection methods rely on limited information obtained by visual inspection, resulting in infrequent, localized, mostly qualitative and subjective assessments. This hampers the timely detection of problematic locatio...
Article
Evaluating and predicting structural damage from multi-hazards is a complex task mainly due to the varying ways in which hazards affect structures. Also, different damage scales that employ different parameters and criteria are used for evaluating the hazards, making a connection between the damage assessment of two or more hazards difficult. Attem...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Coastal ecosystems, such as salt marshes, mangrove forests and reefs, can contribute to flood risk reduction by surge attenuation, wave energy dissipation and erosion reduction (Temmerman et al. 2013). Such ecosystems can work stand-alone, but here we consider hybrid engineering solutions, where ecosystems are utilized as vegetated foreshores along...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
General frameworks for reliability differentiation have evolved over time and are mainly developed for new buildings. However, recommendations for existing quay walls are lacking. In this study target reliability in-dices for assessing existing quay walls were derived by economic optimisation and by evaluating the Life Quality Index criterion (LQI)...
Article
Full-text available
In countries with steep rivers, such as Japan and the United States, bridges fail on an annual basis. Bridges on spread footings are especially susceptible to failure by hydrodynamic loading, often exacerbated by debris damming. Here, such failures are investigated via small scale model laboratory experiments and full scale numerical simulations. I...
Article
Full-text available
Levees are critical systems in safeguarding an area against catastrophic flooding events with potential fatalities and economic losses. Current monitoring methods of levees highly rely on expert judgment, resulting in infrequent and subjective assessments of their status. Satellite radar imaging, in particular using interferometry (InSAR) holds a l...
Article
Full-text available
Design codes and standards rely on generalised target reliability indices. It is unclear, however, whether these indices are applicable to the specific risk-profile of marine structures. In this study, target reliability indices for quay walls were derived from various risk acceptance criteria, such as economic optimisation, individual risk (IR), s...
Article
Full-text available
Large, complex coastal regions often require a combination of interventions to lower the risk of flooding to an acceptable level. In practice, a limited number of strategies are considered and interdependencies between interventions are often simplified. This paper presents the Multiple Lines of Defence Optimization System (MODOS)‐model. This quick...
Article
Vegetated foreshores adjacent to engineered structures (so-called hybrid flood defenses), are considered to have high potential in reducing flood risk, even in the face of sea level rise and increasing storminess. However, foreshores such as salt marshes and mangrove forests are generally characterized by relatively strong temporal and spatial vari...
Article
The application of risk‐based approaches for the design of flood infrastructure has become increasingly common in flood management. This approach, based on risk reduction and reliability, is used to assess the performance of conventional interventions (e.g., flood defences and dams) and to support decisions regarding their implementation. However,...
Article
Full-text available
Shanghai, as a coastal city, is vulnerable to various types of flooding. The floodwalls along the Huangpu River provide protection against typhoon-induced flooding. However, there is limited insight into the actual safety level of the flood defences in Shanghai, and recent failures have highlighted their vulnerability. Therefore, the aims of this p...
Article
Full-text available
Adverse consequences of floods change in time and are influenced by both natural and socio-economic trends and interactions. In Europe, previous studies of historical flood losses corrected for demographic and economic growth ('normalized') have been limited in temporal and spatial extent, leading to an incomplete representation of trends in losses...
Article
Coastal flood maps covering the whole European continent have become available in recent years. However, their ability to complement or replace high‐resolution local flood maps was not investigated so far. In this paper we compare pan‐European estimates of extreme sea levels and coastal flood extents at given return periods with observations and hi...
Conference Paper
This paper describes a first case study of the application of a newly developed fluid-structure interaction model to the design of flood gates. The gates in the Afsluitdijk, that will be replaced in the coming years, are considered. Due to the presence of a concrete beam in front of the gates breaking wave can occur, leading to high impact pressure...
Article
Full-text available
The interaction between storm surges and inland runoff has been gaining increasing attention recently, as they have the potential to result in compound floods. In Europe, several flood events of this type have been recorded in the past century in Belgium, France, Ireland, Italy and United Kingdom. Here, we investigate the probability of joint occur...
Article
Full-text available
An analysis was made of the loss of life caused by Hurricane Harvey. Information was collected for 70 fatalities that occurred due to the event and were recovered within the first 2 weeks after landfall. Most fatalities occurred due to drowning (81 %), particularly in and around vehicles. Males (70 %) and people over 50 years old (56 %) were overre...
Article
Full-text available
The influence of social and economic change on the consequences of natural hazards has been a matter of much interest recently. However, there is a lack of comprehensive, high-resolution data on historical changes in land use, population, or assets available to study this topic. Here, we present the Historical Analysis of Natural Hazards in Europe...
Article
Full-text available
This article highlights recent developments in flood risk management in the Netherlands and presents approaches for reliability analysis and asset management for flood defences and hydraulic infrastructure. The functioning of this infrastructure is of great importance for the country as large parts of it are prone to flooding. Based on a nationwide...
Article
Full-text available
An analysis was made of the loss of life directly caused by hurricane Harvey. Information was collected for 70 fatalities that occurred directly due to the event. Most of the fatalities occurred in the greater Houston area, which was most severely affected by extreme rainfall and heavy flooding. The majority of fatalities in this area were recovere...
Article
Full-text available
The main aim of this paper is to describe and analyse the modelling of vertical column tests that undergo fluidisation by the application of a hydraulic gradient. A recent advancement of the material point method (MPM), allows studying both stationary and non-stationary fluid flow while interacting with the solid phase. The fluidisation initiation...
Article
Full-text available
Flood risk changes in time and is influenced by both natural and socio-economic trends and interactions. In Europe, previous studies of historical flood losses corrected for demographic and economic growth ("normalized") have been limited in temporal and spatial extent, leading to an incomplete representation in trends of losses over time. In this...
Article
One of the services provided by coastal ecosystems is wave attenuation by vegetation, and subsequent reduction of wave loads on flood defense structures. Therefore, stability of vegetation under wave forcing is an important factor to consider. This paper presents a model which determines the wave load that plant stems can withstand before they brea...
Article
Full-text available
The influence of social and economic change on the consequences of natural hazards has been a matter of much interest recently. However, there is a lack of comprehensive, high-resolution data on historical changes in land use, population or Historical Analysis of Natural Hazards in Europe, which contains two parts: (1) HANZE-Exposure with maps for...
Article
Full-text available
This paper presents a methodology for tsunami risk assessment, which was applied to a case study in Kamakura, Japan. This methodology was developed in order to evaluate the effectiveness of a risk-reducing system against such hazards, also aiming to demonstrate that a risk assessment is possible for these episodic events. The tsunami risk assessmen...
Article
Full-text available
Liquefaction induced by earthquakes has shown to have potential devastating influence on seismic performance of anchored quay walls. Therefore, measures to mitigate liquefaction are commonly part of the design of quay walls in seismically active regions. Such mitigation measures are costly. Moreover, these measures are difficult to implement for ex...
Article
Flood hazard is currently being researched on continental and global scales, using models of increasing complexity. In this paper we investigate a different, simplified approach, which combines statistical and physical models in place of conventional rainfall-run-off models to carry out flood mapping for Europe. A Bayesian-network-based model built...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Core-enhanced sand dunes are hybrid coastal defence structures that combine the storm surge protection offered by traditional hard coastal structures with the aesthetically pleasing appearance and wave energy dissipation potential of coastal sand dunes. Essentially, these are hard coastal structures covered under a sacrificial sand dune. In this st...
Article
Full-text available
The vulnerability of buildings on coastal dikes due to overtopping wave impacts is difficult to assess. A method is developed in this paper to quantify the vulnerability of masonry buildings on a coastal dike exposed to wave overtopping. Using previous studies, the accidental loads due to the extreme wave impacts are characterized. Using the approa...
Article
The main aim of this paper is to describe and analyse the modelling of vertical column tests that undergo fluidisation by the application of a hydraulic gradient. A recent advancement of the material point method (MPM), allows studying both stationary and non-stationary fluid flow while interacting with the solid phase. The fluidisation initiation...
Article
The risk of flooding in coastal zones is expected to increase due to sea level rise and economic development. In larger bays, estuaries, and coastal waterways, storm surge barriers can be constructed to temporarily close off these systems during storm surges to provide coastal flood protection. Worldwide, 18 storm surge barriers have been construct...
Article
Full-text available
Flood hazard is being analysed with ever-more complex models on national, continental and global scales. In this paper we investigate an alternative, simplified approach, which combines statistical and physical models in order to carry out flood mapping for Europe. Estimates of extreme river discharges made using a Bayesian Network-based model from...
Article
This paper analyses the effect of vegetation on wave damping under severe storm conditions, based on a combination of field measurements and numerical modelling. The field measurements of wave attenuation by vegetation were performed on two salt marshes with two representative but contrasting coastal wetland vegetation types: cordgrass (Spartina an...
Article
Given the large investments in dike construction and reinforcements, optimization of these interventions could contribute to significant cost savings. In this paper a probabilistic method is developed for obtaining the geometry of a river dike cross-section that fulfils a specified target reliability at a minimal cost. The method takes into account...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Flood defense failures are rare events but when they do occur lead to significant amounts of damage. The defenses are usually designed for rather low-frequency hydraulic loading and as such typically at least high enough to prevent overflow. When they fail, flood defenses like levees built with modern design codes usually either fail due to wave ov...
Article
This article summarises research-in-progress for improved risk assessment and management (RAM) of critical infrastructures that interconnect across California's Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta. The need for improved RAM is patent in the Delta as elsewhere: a 'patch and pray' stalemate has developed which focuses on short-term reactive marginal mainten...
Article
Full-text available
Vegetated foreshores such as salt marshes, mangrove forests and reed fields can reduce wave loads on coastal dikes due to depth-induced wave breaking and wave attenuation by vegetation. Here we present field measurements of wave propagation over salt marshes during severe storm conditions, a modelling approach to describe the effect of vegetated fo...