S.K. Gupta

S.K. Gupta
Physical Research Laboratory | PRL · Planetary Geosciences Division

Ph. D.

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69
Publications
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Publications

Publications (69)
Article
The Arabian Sea (AS), the Bay of Bengal (BOB) and continental recycling are three principal vapour sources identified for the rain events at Ahmedabad located in semi-arid western India. In the present study, the 48 h backward wind trajectories, at 6 h intervals, converging at an altitude of 1.5 km above the ground, for 120 daily rain events during...
Article
Isotopic compositions (δ18O and δD) and salinity (S) of 683 surface water samples from the Arabian Sea (AS) collected during 2008–2010, were measured to understand the factors controlling the spatio-temporal distribution of these parameters. From the distributions of δ18O and salinity (S), and the relationships between δ18O–δD and δ18O–S, the follo...
Article
Results of a survey of dissolved helium, fluoride and electrical conductivity in groundwater from across the main stem of the Narmada River, between Bharuch in the west and Amarkantak in the east, are reported. This survey was undertaken to identify active tectonic regions, based on locations of high helium concentrations, interpreted as indicative...
Article
Four unusually large ice-stones (megacryometeors) weighing several kilograms fell in western India during October-November 2010. Samples were retrieved from three fall events. To study the origin and formation of these megacryometeors, δ18O, δD, chemical composition and γ-activity were measured. The range of δ18O-δD is similar to the local meteoric...
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Surface water mixing in the Bay of Bengal (BOB) inferred from spatio-temporal distribution of δ18O and salinity based on synthesis of 194 new samples together with published data is reported. In general, both δ18O and salinity have low values in northern part of the BOB, progressively increasing towards SW. The lowest values are observed during Jul...
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Results of experiments carried out to study the kinetic fractionation during liquid condensation of water vapor in super-saturated environment are reported. The ground level ambient atmospheric water vapor was condensed on an ice-cooled (∼0 °C) metallic surface to obtain the liquid condensate. The ambient vapor was also sampled simultaneously by co...
Article
In recent years isotopic measurements of water constituents namely, oxygen and hydrogen (δ18O and δD) have been used with advantage to study the hydrological processes operating over different spatio-temporal scales in many regions of the world and significant new insights have been generated. In India, a big push towards understanding the hydrolog...
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14C is the only dating tracer to estimate groundwater ages ranging from several hundred years up to 40 ka. However, radiocarbon dating of dissolved inorganic carbon in groundwater implies some major complications due to open or closed system equilibration with soil CO2 and related isotope fractionation, as well as calcite dissolution during infiltr...
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The observed retreat of several Himalayan glaciers and snow packs is a cause of concern for the huge population in southern Asia that is dependent on the glacial-fed rivers emanating from Himalayas. There is considerable uncertainty about how cryospheric recession in the Himalayan region will respond to climate change, and how the water resource av...
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[1] Results of a 4 year (2005–2008) study of stable isotopic composition of daily rain and ground-level vapor (GLV) at a semiarid station in western India are reported. The GLV samples were collected by complete cryogenic trapping. The sampling was mostly limited to the rainy season (June, July, August, and September) and about a month before and a...
Article
Himalayan glaciers and snow packs are water sources for several glacial-fed rivers in southern Asia. Snow and glacier melt run-off contributes significantly to all North Indian Himalayan rivers particularly during summer, when demand for water increases for industry, agricultural and domestic usages. Due to lack of information on hydrological proce...
Article
Results of a 4 year (2005-2008) study of stable isotopic composition of daily rain and ground-level vapor (GLV) at a semiarid station in western India are reported. The GLV samples were collected by complete cryogenic trapping. The sampling was mostly limited to the rainy season (June, July, August, and September) and about a month before and after...
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As a semiarid region with mainly monsoon dominated precipitation, the Cambay Basin situated in Northern Gujarat, India, holds a groundwater aquifer system well suited for palaeoclimatic studies covering the past 30-100 kyr. Our project aims to estimate regional palaeotemperature via analyses of dissolved noble gases and stable isotopes, while using...
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The study reports the age evolution of groundwater as it flows from the recharge area through a regional alluvial aquifer system in North Gujarat–Cambay region in western India. Radiocarbon (14C), 4He and 4He / 222Rn dating methods have been employed. Sediments from a drill core in the Cambay Basin were also analysed for uranium (U) and thorium (Th...
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A large number of isotopic measurements on groundwaters have been made in different parts of the country in connection with several local investigations. These measurements were made over a period of more than three decades. These published data are compiled and reviewed in this article to identify the surface and atmospheric processes and boundary...
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This paper reports on the origin of high fluoride in a regional alluvial aquifer system under water stress in the North Gujarat-Cambay (NGC) region in western India. This region is severely affected by endemic fluorosis due to ingestion of groundwater containing excessive fluoride. With an objective to understand factors controlling high fluoride c...
Article
Results of oxygen and hydrogen isotopic investigations of shallow groundwater and river water samples from the Central Indian Peninsula are reported. The study was undertaken to isotopically characterise the near surface water sources and identify the influence of the two branches of the Indian Summer Monsoon (June–September) in this region. The we...
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Meeting the water demand of a growing population in India requires large-scale engineering modification of the natural hydrological cycle that is bound to have significant environmental consequences. Therefore, it is essential to have a detailed understanding of the natural hydrological cycle in terms of processes controlling seasonal and spatial d...
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The water balance of Lake Nainital in the Kumaun Himalaya, India was previously computed using water budgeting and other indirect methods. An important data set of stable oxygen and hydrogen isotopic composition of water sources of the lake region was also presented and used to verify the annual estimates of subsurface flow/water balance. In the pr...
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Water resources of India are examined in the context of the growing population and the national ambition to become and be seen as a developed nation. The motivation was provided by the continuing debate on the proposed project for interlinking of rivers by National Water Development Agency. The population of India is expected to stabilize around 16...
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Recently, regional maps of amount weighted monthly isotopic data of precipitation have become available from the GNIP/IAEA database (http://isohis.iaea.org). These maps are based on stations for which at least one complete year of isotopic and precipitation data were available. In this communication an attempt has been made to discern and describe...
Article
A survey of natural helium in soil-gas and groundwater was undertaken in the Cambay region of Gujarat, India. The Cambay basin, known for high heat flow, is a graben characterised by NNW–SSE trending major fault system and successive down faulting along sympathetic faults parallel to major trendline and orthogonal faults cutting across. Several wel...
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Temporal variations have been observed in both dissolved helium and TDS in the form of increase in basaltic and decrease in alluvial aquifers. The increase in basaltic aquifers has been explained by enhanced pumping of old groundwater with relatively higher concentration of dissolved helium and salt, whereas the decrease in alluvial aquifers has be...
Article
Oxygen and hydrogen isotopic investigation of groundwater and river water samples from the southern Indian peninsula was undertaken to characterise the isotopic nature of the near surface water sources and provide basic framework for future hydrological studies. It is assumed that the shallow groundwater retains the isotopic signature of the local...
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At Narveri, north of Khavada in the Great Rann of Kachchh, an outflow of groundwater continued even more than four months after the Bhuj earthquake of 26 January 2001, although at a considerably reduced rate compared to that immediately following the earthquake. Air or gas bubbling through the freshly oozing water has also been observed. We had col...
Article
During late Quaternary, global processes such as eustatic sea level change and climatic variations have influenced the evolution of a very large area lying in the semi-arid regions of north-west India. The effect of global processes has been superposed by the regional processes such as tectonism and erosion. A multidisciplinary study was undertaken...
Article
Results of a study to date fluvial and marine sediments from a 54m long core raised from Nal Sarovar, western India are reported. The core preserved a record of eustatic and tectonic history of past ∼125ka in this region. Three distinct lithological units (Horizon-1, -2, -3) were seen in the core. The lowermost (18 to >54m) smectite-dominated Horiz...
Article
The crystallinity of the clay mineral illite, which is a climatically sensitive parameter, was studied for palaeoclimatic inferences from a core raised from Nal Sarovar in western India. The changes of crystallinity of illite in the top 3m of the core showed that the climate was wetter than present from ~6.3-4.6 ka BP and was followed by a relative...
Article
A 54-m long core was raised from the bed of the Nal Sarovar, a large shallow lake located in the middle of the low-lying region linking the Gulfs of Kachchh and Khambhat, in western India. A three-layer sequence comprising: Zone-1 (top 3 m), predominantly silty-clay/clayey; Zone-2 (3-18 m), sandy; and Zone-3 (18-54 m), dominated by sticky silty-cla...
Article
The low lying Nal region in western India, linking the Gulf of Kachchh with the Gulf of Khambhat through the Little Rann and Nal Sarovar is barely 15 m above msl and lacks surface exposures. The evolutionary history of the Nal region using remote sensing data and sub-surface lithological correlation indicated that late Quaternary sedimentation in t...
Article
With a view to obtain palaeoclimatic data from a climatically sensitive region we have studied core samples from Nal Sarovar, a large shallow lake lying within the palaeodesert margin of Thar in western India. A combination of C/N ratios and δ13C on a radiocarbon-dated core section have been used as climatic proxies. A high-resolution record extend...
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Helium has several characteristics which make it attractive for use as a tracer in hydrological studies. These include its inert nature, relatively high solubility in water (~ 1 %), low molecular diffusion in water, ready availability in commercial quantities, nontoxic nature, and low background atmospheric concentration. The use of helium as a tra...
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The Late Quaternary glaciation of Tibet has received considerable attention in the last few decades due to its influence on the regional climate, especially the Asian summer monsoon. Recently, however, it has been argued that the Tibetan ice sheet also might have played an important role in initiating global-scale palaeoclimatic changes. Controvers...
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Recent analysis of a sediment core in the eastern Arabian Sea revealed a negative pulse of about 1% in the δ18O value of the planktonic Foraminifera around the last glacial maximum (LGM). This pulse has been attributed to (i) increased runoff into the Bay of Bengal from the east-flowing south Indian rivers due to enhancement of the northeast winter...
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Considerable debate persists among scientists interested in the nature of the ice cap on the Tibetan Plateau during the late Quaternary. We examine the implications, on this problem, of the high resolution data that has recently become available from the Dunde ice cap in north Tibet. The observed −2% change in the δ18O of the ice formed at the Dund...
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In this paper we use the mineral magnetic data (χ and χfd) to stratigraphically correlate different loess-palaeosol profiles in Kashmir Valley. The two available thermoluminescence (TL) chronologies on the Kashmir loess profiles have been reinterpreted to identify the soil of the Last Interglacial (ca. 125 000 yr BP). We show that the mineral magne...
Article
A comprehensive set of measurements of oxygen and hydrogen isotopic ratios in groundwaters as well as waters from rivers, lakes, hot springs etc. taken from a variety of locations in India has been carried out for the first time. Isotopically the most depleted samples occur in the high altitude precipitations in the Himalayas e.g. in the lakes of B...
Article
We show that in the case of semiconfined aquifers the ratio of steady-state drawdown to its gradient with respect to the logarithm of radial distance from the pumping well, i.e. sm/(δsm/δ log10 r), determines the transmissivity of the aquifer. A new method for evaluation of aquifer parameters utilizing this principle is proposed. As the method does...
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This paper describes a study for groundwater recharge estimation in the Sabarmati basin, western India, by means of the tritium tagging method. The estimation of areal average recharge for the basin from the point recharge estimates obtained at various field stations is discussed. A considerable variability of recharge estimates is observed at near...
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The distribution of environmental tritium, deuterium and oxygen-18 in the unsaturated zone and the underlying sandy phreatic aquifer was studied throughout 1981 in an area of high pine forests in the Rhine valley near Heidelberg. The observed vertical distribution of isotopes in the unsaturated zone can be satisfactorily explained by the combined u...
Article
In a highly dispersive groundwater flow system (D/ux>>1), application of piston flow model leads to considerable overestimation of flow velocity. In the case of semiconfined aquifers, the flow velocity is further overestimated due to addition of relatively young water through leakage from overlying shallow aquifers. In this paper we discuss how, ba...
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The helium concentrations have been measured in the groundwaters of the Sabarmati basin. Gujarat, and the Jaisalmer district, Rajasthan. The observed helium concentrations show localized anomalies. The magnitude of the excess helium is shown to be approximately inversely proportional to the square of the thickness of the sedimentary strata between...
Article
The rapid increase in the salinity of groundwater in the Mangrol-Chorwad area of coastal Saurashtra has been reported during the last decade. The geohydrological and chemical data of the principal aquifers in the region have been examined with a view to ascertaining the cause of the increasing salinity in the groundwater of the region. It has been...
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Tritium-tracing data of soil moisture movement for groundwater recharge estimation from four river basins in India were examined. Of the two commonly used empirical formulae, namely, Amritsar and Chaturvedi formulae, the former gives consistently higher estimate of groundwater recharge in all four regions.-from Selected Water Resources Abstracts
Article
Tritium tracing data of soil moisture movement for groundwater recharge estimation from four river basins in India have been examined. Of the two commonly used empirical formulae, viz Amritsar and Chaturvedi formulae, the former gives consistently higher estimate of groundwater recharge in all the four regions. The Chaturvedi formula gives reasonab...
Article
Observations of cosmic-ray tracks in silicate grains in chondrites and in stony-iron meteorites have long been recognized to be useful for the study of effective shielding depths in a preatmospheric body. In this paper we discuss ways of estimating the preatmospheric radius or mass of the original body from such observations. We consider various ca...
Article
We discuss in this paper the design of a wedge, an ionisation loss device, for generating charged particles of different kinetic energies from an initially monoenergetic beam. This device is particularly suitable for simulating the charged particle spectra as observed in the case of solar flare events. The wedge, a shaped absorber, is interposed be...
Article
Cosmic-ray track studies have been carried out in more than 250 fragments of Dhajala meteorite comprising greater than 70% of the recovered mass. In the case of larger fragments (namely, those with mass exceeding 250g) several faces of each fragment have been analysed for track densities. Track densities are low, and fall generally in the range (10...
Article
Un-recrystallized fossil corals occurring at 2–6 m above the present mean low-tide level on the Saurashtra coast (Western India) have been dated by 230Th/234U and 234U/236U radiometric methods. The measured ages of the corals, which are in agreement with radiocarbon ages, fall in three groups, 6,000, 30,000 and 120,000 years before present. This ob...
Article
Analytical studies are reported here for two cosmogenic effects due to low energy particles in extraterrestrial samples:(i) Formation of latent chemically etchable tracks in crystalline materials due to solid state damage as a result of ionisation losses suffered by multicharged cosmic ray nuclei, and (ii) Production of low threshold isotopes due t...
Article
Most of the raised beaches and dead coral reefs found along the Saurashtra coast are found to date 5,000-35,000 years B.P. These dates, when examined in conjunction with the data from many other regions of the world, suggest that the raised beaches and the inland coral reefs of the Saurashtra coast may be the manifestation of higher sea level durin...
Article
Full-text available
The helium concentrations have been measured in the groundwaters of the Sabarmati basin. Gujarat, and the Jaisalmer district. Rajasthan. The observed helium concentrations show localized anomalies. The magnitude of the excess helium is shown to be approximately inversely proportional to the square of the thickness of the sedimentary strata between...
Article
Full-text available
The magnitude of evaporation from land areas is set to increase significantly in some regions due to large scale engineered systems involving huge surface reservoirs and inter basin transfers of water and its use in irrigation. Given the limited atmospheric residence time (8-9 days), increased vapor loading can have corollary increase in precipitat...
Article
The paper describes a low cost injection recharge scheme for arid/semi-arid alluvial regions of India. The siphon recharge scheme can be used with some minor modifications, depending on the local hydrogeological conditions, for cheap storage of high purity fresh water in underground reservoirs, in regions where the static water-level in the aquifer...
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Five types of experiments were conducted to investigate dissolved helium gas as an injected water tracer, both in the subsurface water and open water: instrument development, sand column, soil columns, groundwater in basalt aquifer, and open water in tank and flume. Thirty-four Board of Water Supply pumping wells were sampled and 7 USGS wells were...